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FS6  Critical Studies
FS6 – Critical Studies <ul><li>There are 3 sections to this topic  </li></ul><ul><li>The Film Text and Spectator –  Shocki...
It is important to note that this is a synoptic module – this means that you need to incorporate learning that has been do...
Assessment Tasks <ul><li>Shocking cinema  </li></ul><ul><li>One essay in response to one question  </li></ul><ul><li>20 ma...
Timings <ul><li>Make sure that you are aware of the times when you need to change onto the next section. </li></ul><ul><li...
Shocking Cinema  <ul><li>This study is concerned with how the shock of film generates a powerful effect on the spectator  ...
The Films we have covered  <ul><li>Shoot Em Up (2007) dir. Michael Davis </li></ul><ul><li>Monty Python’s Life of Brian (1...
Natural Born Killers  <ul><li>Shocking?  Points that could be raised </li></ul><ul><li>The violence involved and the rape ...
You need to be able to engage in debate about these films.  You should make sure that you know them well (or know a range ...
Films to use  <ul><li>4/5 films should be a good number, this will allow you to discuss a range of issues in enough depth ...
What films are you going to use  <ul><li>This is the part when we go around and discuss different films we could use and w...
Approaching Exam Questions <ul><li>From your experience, is it true to say that the shock effect of some films comes from ...
Approaching Exam Questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes I feel it is true and I shall show you why...
This film is shocking in both presentation and topic and why Natural Born Killers was made more shocking by the presentati...
What do you think?
Does the DVD extras make something less shocking? <ul><li>Taking a stance  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making of features can il...
What do you think?
We know that Team America is not real as it uses puppets but it is still shocking  The Blair Witch Project was more shocki...
Shocking Cinema  Shocks can be created for a variety of different reasons: subject matter; cinematic devices; reception; p...
Know This  <ul><li>Blazing saddles shocks an audience into realising its prejudices  </li></ul><ul><li>Monty Python’s Life...
Know this  <ul><li>Natural Born Killers switched between animation and the actual film to shock an audience presenting 2 s...
Regulation and Censorship <ul><li>This study looks at the limitations regulation and censorship has imposed on both film p...
Some of the issues raised by the changes in certification <ul><li>Why can children now cope with more?  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Some of the issues raised by the changes in technology <ul><li>How did the introduction of the VCR change the way films we...
The emphasis in this module is not on institutional histories ( Although some of this knowledge will help)  It is on criti...
Further Reading  <ul><li>The BBFC ( and special SBBFC site for students ) website is an invaluable resource, it has a lot ...
Approaching Exam Questions  <ul><li>Either by reference to contemporary cinema or an earlier period, discuss how regulatio...
Approaching Exam questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul>
I think that  I also think that
Know This! <ul><li>For what is essentially a PG certificate, teenagers are considered the audience </li></ul><ul><li>VRA w...
Know This  <ul><li>Some local councils overturned 12 spider man rating and making it a PG Norfolk </li></ul><ul><li>Illega...
Video Recordings Act (1984) <ul><li>The Introduction of the Video Recordings Act 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Big social problem...
The Video Recordings Act (1984) <ul><li>39 list of nasties 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>The law wasn’t addressing the problems ...
Genre and Authorship Studies  <ul><li>Here you will review your application of the auteur approach to films watched and st...
Obviously many of you have extensive knowledge about autuerism with an in depth knowledge of one auteur and all of us have...
The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Fargo  </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Lebowski </li></ul><ul><li>The Hudsucker Proxy  </li></ul>
Shane Meadows  <ul><li>Dead Mans Shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Room for Romeo Brass </li></ul><ul><li>24 7 </li></ul>
Steven Spielberg  <ul><li>Minority Report  </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws  </li></ul><ul><li>Jurrasic Park  </li></ul>
BUT!
Auteurs  Do they exist
What is an auteur? <ul><li>Andrew Sarris, an American, in 1962 wrote that auteurs should be: technically competent, will h...
When Auteurs Began <ul><li>The term Auteur originally came from Andre Bazin when he wrote about it in a French magazine ca...
Who knows – you decide  <ul><li>It is our job to consider directors, actors and producers for the title of auteur – whethe...
Some Auteurs?
Ridley Scott  <ul><li>Use of strong female characters  </li></ul><ul><li>Creating cinematic worlds  </li></ul><ul><li>Alie...
Ridley Scott  <ul><li>Use of strong female characters  </li></ul><ul><li>Creating cinematic worlds  </li></ul><ul><li>Alie...
Ridley Scott <ul><li>Cinematography in numerous films by John Mathieson  </li></ul><ul><li>Music in numerous films by Hans...
Tim Burton?  <ul><li>Loner characters – people who don’t fit into society  </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Oppressive Settings  </l...
Tim Burton  <ul><li>Music often by Danny Elfman  </li></ul><ul><li>Often uses the acting talents of Johnny Depp  </li></ul...
Joel and Ethan Coen? <ul><li>Collision of comedy and violent crime  </li></ul><ul><li>Unexceptional well meaning people ac...
Joel and Ethan Coen? <ul><li>Edit their own films </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography by Roger Deakins on … </li></ul><ul><li...
Mel Brooks <ul><li>Genre Spoofing  </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate bad taste </li></ul><ul><li>Slap stick innuendo  </li></ul...
Mel Brooks  <ul><li>Music wrote the music for a lot of his films  </li></ul><ul><li>Actors: uses gene wilder in numerous f...
David Cronenberg <ul><li>Exploration of the limits of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on technology and obsession...
David Cronenberg  <ul><li>Howard Shore has been used numerous times to compose the music for his films. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Quentin Tarantino  <ul><li>Everyday/mundane Dialogue  </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of popular music & memorable soundtrac...
Quentin Tarantino <ul><li>Films edited by Sally Menke </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography by Tarantino himself </li></ul><ul>...
Approaching Exam Questions  <ul><li>How far is either genre or authorship about identifying a structure or template and th...
Approaching Exam questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul>
I think that  I also think that
Know This!  <ul><li>Andrew Sarris, an American, in 1962 wrote that auteurs should be: technically competent, will have spe...
Know This  <ul><li>Some directors, Quentin Tarantino and Steven Spielberg are good examples, use the same editors for a ra...
Steven Spielberg <ul><li>Steven Spielberg – Auteur? </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you’re in a Spielberg movie you  know that yo...
Steven Spielberg <ul><li>ending rather than going for “a hit” </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws was the first film to make more that ...
Steven Spielberg <ul><li>He was going to do Jurassic Park in the stop motion method with Phill Tippell who is a “stop moti...
The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Films: No Country for Old Men, Intolerable Cruelty, Fargo, Barton Fink, The Man Who Wasn’t There...
The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Films often center around or include a botched crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Often creates at least o...
Lets have another look at some questions
Shocking Cinema  <ul><li>Is it true that a second or third viewing of a film can make it more or less shocking? </li></ul>
Regulation and Censorship  <ul><li>‘ Regulation and Censorship standards vary from one historical period to another and fr...
Genre and Authorship <ul><li>What have you found useful to your film studies in the application of EITHER a genre OR a aut...
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  1. 1. FS6 Critical Studies
  2. 2. FS6 – Critical Studies <ul><li>There are 3 sections to this topic </li></ul><ul><li>The Film Text and Spectator – Shocking Cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Producers and Audiences: Issues and Debates – Regulation and Censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Messages and Values: Critical Approaches – Genre and Authorship Studies </li></ul>
  3. 3. It is important to note that this is a synoptic module – this means that you need to incorporate learning that has been done in previous modules (AS and A2)
  4. 4. Assessment Tasks <ul><li>Shocking cinema </li></ul><ul><li>One essay in response to one question </li></ul><ul><li>20 marks (45 minutes advised) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation and Censorship </li></ul><ul><li>One essay in response to one question </li></ul><ul><li>15 marks (35 minutes advised) </li></ul><ul><li>Genre and Authorship Studies </li></ul><ul><li>One essay in response to one question </li></ul><ul><li>20 marks (35 minutes advised) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Timings <ul><li>Make sure that you are aware of the times when you need to change onto the next section. </li></ul><ul><li>Give yourself around 5 minutes at the start of the question to plan what you are going to say. </li></ul><ul><li>You should know a lot about the different sections but make sure your comments are related to the section in hand </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shocking Cinema <ul><li>This study is concerned with how the shock of film generates a powerful effect on the spectator </li></ul><ul><li>There is no specific definition of shock apart from the spectator finding the images challenging or disturbing </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis here is on the interaction between the cinematic devices and the spectator </li></ul><ul><li>This section is not concerned with censorship </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Films we have covered <ul><li>Shoot Em Up (2007) dir. Michael Davis </li></ul><ul><li>Monty Python’s Life of Brian (1979) dir. Terry Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Watership Down (1978) dir. Martin Rosen </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Born Killers (1994) dir. Oliver Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously these films are very different but they do create shocks in different ways. If you have found other films shocking and know them well you can refer to them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Natural Born Killers <ul><li>Shocking? Points that could be raised </li></ul><ul><li>The violence involved and the rape </li></ul><ul><li>A woman carrying out the violence </li></ul><ul><li>The jumping between the live action and animation </li></ul><ul><li>The scenes with love and marriage of serial killers </li></ul><ul><li>The insinuation of the media as the primary evil </li></ul><ul><li>All of the characters are guilty of something </li></ul><ul><li>The use of references to American sitcoms </li></ul>
  9. 9. You need to be able to engage in debate about these films. You should make sure that you know them well (or know a range of films that you will be able to use as examples) and that you are able to apply this knowledge to a range of questions
  10. 10. Films to use <ul><li>4/5 films should be a good number, this will allow you to discuss a range of issues in enough depth </li></ul><ul><li>For each film you need to be able to discuss specific instances with references to film language and the themes/topics of the films </li></ul>
  11. 11. What films are you going to use <ul><li>This is the part when we go around and discuss different films we could use and why! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Approaching Exam Questions <ul><li>From your experience, is it true to say that the shock effect of some films comes from their subject matter whilst for other films the shock is created through the use of cinematic devices? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Approaching Exam Questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes I feel it is true and I shall show you why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While I feel it is true in some ways it is false in others – some films are shocking in both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel that if the cinematic devices are shocking then the subject through association becomes shocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel that the cinematic devices create the shock otherwise it is just a topic that is presented </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. This film is shocking in both presentation and topic and why Natural Born Killers was made more shocking by the presentation of the violence rather than the violence itself Reservoir Dogs was considered shocking but a lot of the violence was off screen The amount of deaths and injuries in Kill Bill Volume 1 could have made it shocking but the blood spurting out etc made it less shocking
  15. 15. What do you think?
  16. 16. Does the DVD extras make something less shocking? <ul><li>Taking a stance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making of features can illustrate how tricks are done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t feel that this is true – there are no ‘hidden tricks’ to some films </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Films are more shocking when they don’t have well known actors in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Films are more shocking when they are believable </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What do you think?
  18. 18. We know that Team America is not real as it uses puppets but it is still shocking The Blair Witch Project was more shocking as people thought that it was real Seeing Leonardo Dicaprio treading water on the Titanic extras ruined it for me Reception Theory – being in the cinema/caught in the moment and believing in what you see creates shocks Some films appeal/ play on emotions which shocks us
  19. 19. Shocking Cinema Shocks can be created for a variety of different reasons: subject matter; cinematic devices; reception; personal experiences If your full attention is given to a film then it would be easier to produce shocks in an audience Directions and film makers are constantly coming up with different/new ways to shock Extreme violence is not the only way to shock When directors make films outside of their field this can produce shocks as can actors Know This !
  20. 20. Know This <ul><li>Blazing saddles shocks an audience into realising its prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Monty Python’s Life of Brian has people singing and dancing whilst being crucified </li></ul><ul><li>Dogma presents God as a woman and features a the 13th Apostle as black </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Encounter shocked audiences with an adulterous middle class woman </li></ul><ul><li>Rita Sue and Bob Too was a comment on the class system of the 1980’s yet to a 21st century audience it shows a paedophile living happily ever after </li></ul><ul><li>In cinema all the lights are off and you are surrounded by strangers </li></ul><ul><li>At home you are vulnerable as you have invited murderers, rapists, kidnappers etc (characters within the films) into your home </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Stone admitted that film could be dangerous and shocking </li></ul><ul><li>Media issues and debates being present in our society can result in an audience becoming more shocked </li></ul><ul><li>9/11 films will be shocking if we see how people have suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Films representing the London Bombings will be shocking if we: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See how people suffered and died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If people are screaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it highlights how easily it could happen again </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Know this <ul><li>Natural Born Killers switched between animation and the actual film to shock an audience presenting 2 sides to a character </li></ul><ul><li>Blazing Saddles broke the conventions of film by moving from Western to contemporary film – this being a source of our amusement </li></ul><ul><li>We are shocked through Narrative – the ending of the Wicker Man and Seven </li></ul><ul><li>Key characters can sometimes die in films unexpectedly – Man (Samuel L Jackson) being eaten by a shark in Deep Blue Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Stella screening present films in their topical environment to shock </li></ul>
  22. 22. Regulation and Censorship <ul><li>This study looks at the limitations regulation and censorship has imposed on both film producers and audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Two moments should be examined and understood for this unit </li></ul><ul><li>We are examining: (a) technological change due to the VCR, DVD and the internet and how it will affect the certification system and (b) the changes in BBFC certification in recent years PG – 12 – 12A </li></ul>
  23. 23. Some of the issues raised by the changes in certification <ul><li>Why can children now cope with more? </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly do we feel children can now cope with? </li></ul><ul><li>Has pressure been put on the censors to ease their standards? </li></ul><ul><li>How may certificates change in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not have a 12A on DVD/Video? </li></ul><ul><li>Reception Theory – wouldn’t it be easier for children to watch films in the day rather than in a dark cinema? </li></ul><ul><li>During a time when violent crime is on the increase should we be exposing our children to more violence? </li></ul><ul><li>What recent examples are there that suggest children and open to too much violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Are standards being relaxed for the higher ratings as well as the lower ones? </li></ul><ul><li>As the BBF C changed from C ensors to C lassifiers (in 1984 to reflect their work with videos) and they have become more of a guide – should we have government controlled system? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between a 12A and a 15 rating – how open for debate is it? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Some of the issues raised by the changes in technology <ul><li>How did the introduction of the VCR change the way films were classified? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of our parents prevented us from watching something due to its certificate? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the internet be regulated? </li></ul><ul><li>Has internet downloads and DVD piracy convinced the BBFC to let more people into the cinema? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need a company that is not paid for by the cinemas themselves to regulate what is watched by the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Should the fact that there are extras (behind the scenes, documentaries, profiles etc) on DVDs make them less threatening? </li></ul><ul><li>What made the BBFC start to rate films? </li></ul>
  25. 25. The emphasis in this module is not on institutional histories ( Although some of this knowledge will help) It is on critical debate – be prepared to apply what you know to a range of situations Practise exam questions coming soon!
  26. 26. Further Reading <ul><li>The BBFC ( and special SBBFC site for students ) website is an invaluable resource, it has a lot of information on it with regards to Regulation and Censorship and it has a lot of links to other sites </li></ul><ul><li>The Guardian website has links to a special censorship report ( links to this from the BBFC also) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Approaching Exam Questions <ul><li>Either by reference to contemporary cinema or an earlier period, discuss how regulation and censorship have been challenged by social cultural or technological change </li></ul>
  28. 28. Approaching Exam questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul>
  29. 29. I think that I also think that
  30. 30. Know This! <ul><li>For what is essentially a PG certificate, teenagers are considered the audience </li></ul><ul><li>VRA was created in 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>The Video Nasties term came about when unregulated films were in circulation </li></ul><ul><li>The BBFC applies certifications to films </li></ul><ul><li>The BBFC certifications act as a guideline but local councils can reclassify films – they rarely do but have been known to – Spiderman </li></ul><ul><li>Very few films are cut and even fewer (3 last year) are banned </li></ul><ul><li>Films are pushed/squeezed into categories high and lower ones </li></ul><ul><li>The 12 certificate began with Batman in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>12A certificate introduced in 2002 and the first film was Bourne Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Spiderman was reclassified as a 12A due to parental desire and a desire for higher box office receipts </li></ul>
  31. 31. Know This <ul><li>Some local councils overturned 12 spider man rating and making it a PG Norfolk </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal downloading and piracy are rife in society </li></ul><ul><li>With 30% more people this year signing up to broadband it can only increase the rate of piracy </li></ul><ul><li>It is now possible to download films from Sky television </li></ul><ul><li>The 12A certificate means that anyone under 12 can go into a cinema accompanied by a parent </li></ul><ul><li>Spiderman in 2000 was almost given a 15 certificate due to its violence </li></ul><ul><li>Moral panics can be created by societies tragedies – manhunt / Jamie Bulger and these can lead to tighter control </li></ul><ul><li>A desire for greater box office receipts could lead to a more relaxed system </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately the responsibility for children seeing films rests on parents </li></ul><ul><li>Films with an adult content have been aggressively marketed at children </li></ul><ul><li>A desire for high box receipts means that films need to appeal to adults and children – Shrek – Harry Potter – Lord of the Rings – The Simpsons – King Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Raimi directed The Evil Dead (on the video nasties list) and Spider man </li></ul><ul><li>Words like ‘fuck’ can be present in 12A films but it has to be infrequent </li></ul><ul><li>Titanic and James Bond films have been known to attract a young audience </li></ul>
  32. 32. Video Recordings Act (1984) <ul><li>The Introduction of the Video Recordings Act 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Big social problems within society. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of people started opening video shops after being made redundant. </li></ul><ul><li>£50 membership of video shops at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain had more video recorders than anywhere else in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>People stopped going to the cinema as much. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors of videos were in a lot of competition. </li></ul><ul><li>People were looking for things they hadn’t seen before. </li></ul><ul><li>Videos were not subject to the same laws as theatrical releases. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Chippendale Review (Sunday Times) coined the phrase ‘video nasty’. </li></ul><ul><li>Evil Dead was the biggest hit of its time. </li></ul><ul><li>Big distributors afraid of comparisons and being side by side with ‘normal’ films. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Whitehouse: 30,000 members nationally. Established 1963. National Viewers and Listeners Association. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Video Recordings Act (1984) <ul><li>39 list of nasties 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>The law wasn’t addressing the problems of the Video Nasties. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Battle for the quality of our culture”. Mary Whitehouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Mail: ‘Ban the Sadist Videos’; ‘Raping our Children’s Minds’. </li></ul><ul><li>Could have been a deflection from other political issues: crime, unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pornographic shops distance themselves from the video nasties. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal profession began using term ‘Video Nasties’ as a defense for committing crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Kruger. Obscene Publications Branch Division ‘intent to, deprave and corrupt’. </li></ul><ul><li>Films began being seized. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors began getting arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>David Hamilton Grant 18 months- Nightmares in a Damaged Brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Graham Bright M.P. said that he would introduce a bill against Video Nasties </li></ul><ul><li>It had been stated that 4 out of 10 under 6 year-olds had seen a V.N. </li></ul><ul><li>B.B.F.C. assigned to judge videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Many independent video shop owners went out of business. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Genre and Authorship Studies <ul><li>Here you will review your application of the auteur approach to films watched and studied </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the benefits and limitations of the study in reading films </li></ul><ul><li>Response to the meanings constructed in the application of an auteur study will be critically explored </li></ul>
  35. 35. Obviously many of you have extensive knowledge about autuerism with an in depth knowledge of one auteur and all of us have knowledge of three, this knowledge will be tested in debate discussion and timed essays
  36. 36. The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Fargo </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Lebowski </li></ul><ul><li>The Hudsucker Proxy </li></ul>
  37. 37. Shane Meadows <ul><li>Dead Mans Shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Room for Romeo Brass </li></ul><ul><li>24 7 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Steven Spielberg <ul><li>Minority Report </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Jurrasic Park </li></ul>
  39. 39. BUT!
  40. 40. Auteurs Do they exist
  41. 41. What is an auteur? <ul><li>Andrew Sarris, an American, in 1962 wrote that auteurs should be: technically competent, will have specific signatures (stylistic, thematic or ideological) and their personality and/or tendencies, consciously or unconsciously, will become evident </li></ul>
  42. 42. When Auteurs Began <ul><li>The term Auteur originally came from Andre Bazin when he wrote about it in a French magazine called ‘Cahiers Du Cinema’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cahiers Du Cinema literally translated means cinema notes </li></ul><ul><li>In 1954 François Truffant wrote an article entitled ‘Une Tendency du Cinema’ criticising French cinema and called for auteurs </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Hitchcock was recognised as by the Cahiers Du Cinema as an auteur </li></ul>
  43. 43. Who knows – you decide <ul><li>It is our job to consider directors, actors and producers for the title of auteur – whether they deserve the title </li></ul><ul><li>whether it was helpful to call them one – does it make us enjoy the film more </li></ul><ul><li>Does it help us understand the film more </li></ul><ul><li>Does is help us in our studies and/or recreation </li></ul>
  44. 44. Some Auteurs?
  45. 45. Ridley Scott <ul><li>Use of strong female characters </li></ul><ul><li>Creating cinematic worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Alien, Thelma and Louise & GI Jane </li></ul><ul><li>Blade Runner, Alien and Gladiator </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ridley Scott <ul><li>Use of strong female characters </li></ul><ul><li>Creating cinematic worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Alien, Thelma and Louise & GI Jane </li></ul><ul><li>Blade Runner, Alien and Gladiator </li></ul>
  47. 47. Ridley Scott <ul><li>Cinematography in numerous films by John Mathieson </li></ul><ul><li>Music in numerous films by Hans Zimmer </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous films edited by Pietro Scalia </li></ul>
  48. 48. Tim Burton? <ul><li>Loner characters – people who don’t fit into society </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Oppressive Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers Orchestral Music </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Scissor hands, Big Fish, Sleepy Hollow </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepy Hollow, Nightmare Before Christmas </li></ul>
  49. 49. Tim Burton <ul><li>Music often by Danny Elfman </li></ul><ul><li>Often uses the acting talents of Johnny Depp </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous films edited by Lebenzon </li></ul>
  50. 50. Joel and Ethan Coen? <ul><li>Collision of comedy and violent crime </li></ul><ul><li>Unexceptional well meaning people acting honourably </li></ul><ul><li>Colourful dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Fargo </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Lebowski </li></ul><ul><li>Fargo </li></ul><ul><li>O Brother Where art thou, Intolerable Cruelty </li></ul>
  51. 51. Joel and Ethan Coen? <ul><li>Edit their own films </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography by Roger Deakins on … </li></ul><ul><li>Music by Carter Burwell on … </li></ul>
  52. 52. Mel Brooks <ul><li>Genre Spoofing </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate bad taste </li></ul><ul><li>Slap stick innuendo </li></ul><ul><li>Young Frankenstein, Blazing Saddles, Space Balls, Robin Hood – Men in Tights </li></ul><ul><li>Blazing Saddles, The Producers </li></ul><ul><li>See above </li></ul>
  53. 53. Mel Brooks <ul><li>Music wrote the music for a lot of his films </li></ul><ul><li>Actors: uses gene wilder in numerous films </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the screenplays for the films that he has made </li></ul>
  54. 54. David Cronenberg <ul><li>Exploration of the limits of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on technology and obsession </li></ul><ul><li>Implausible narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Existenz </li></ul><ul><li>Crash </li></ul><ul><li>The Fly </li></ul>
  55. 55. David Cronenberg <ul><li>Howard Shore has been used numerous times to compose the music for his films. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Suschitzky has been used as a cinematographer on numerous of his films </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Sanders has edited numerous of his films </li></ul>
  56. 56. Quentin Tarantino <ul><li>Everyday/mundane Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of popular music & memorable soundtrack </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical / genre characters saying atypical lines </li></ul><ul><li>PF – Jules talks to Vincent about foot massages & Discussion about Madonna’s ‘Like a Virgin’ </li></ul><ul><li>RD – Stuck in the middle with you KB Bang Bang </li></ul><ul><li>PF – Boxers talking about pot bellies RD Gangsters talking about ‘Like a Virgin’ </li></ul>
  57. 57. Quentin Tarantino <ul><li>Films edited by Sally Menke </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography by Tarantino himself </li></ul><ul><li>Tarantino uses music from popular culture rather than having music composed specifically for the films </li></ul>
  58. 58. Approaching Exam Questions <ul><li>How far is either genre or authorship about identifying a structure or template and then testing whether particular films fit it </li></ul>
  59. 59. Approaching Exam questions 2 <ul><li>Taking a stance: </li></ul>
  60. 60. I think that I also think that
  61. 61. Know This! <ul><li>Andrew Sarris, an American, in 1962 wrote that auteurs should be: technically competent, will have specific signatures (stylistic, thematic or ideological) and their personality and/or tendencies, consciously or unconsciously, will become evident </li></ul><ul><li>The term Auteur originally came from Andre Bazin when eh wrote about it in a French magazine called ‘Cahiers Du Cinema’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cahiers Du Cinema literally translated means cinema notes </li></ul><ul><li>In 1954 François Truffant wrote an article entitled ‘Une Tendency du Cinema’ criticising French cinema and called for auteurs </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Hitchcock was recognised as by the Cahiers Du Cinema as an auteur </li></ul><ul><li>If you are saying a film is the work of one person are you taking away the achievements of others </li></ul>
  62. 62. Know This <ul><li>Some directors, Quentin Tarantino and Steven Spielberg are good examples, use the same editors for a range of films – is this because these directors know what they want or because they like their style </li></ul><ul><li>Some directors use the same characters over and over which could lead to a signature – Tim Burton and Johnny Depp – Kevin Smith and himself and Jason Mewes </li></ul><ul><li>Actors can be considered to be auteurs </li></ul><ul><li>Production companies can be considered to be auteurs </li></ul><ul><li>Some directors intentionally move away from their particular style of film – Kevin Smith – Jersey Girl; Robert Rodrieguez – Spy Kids </li></ul><ul><li>An audience may become bored by watching the same style/type of film over and over again </li></ul><ul><li>If an auteur produces numerous films in a trilogy or Saga does this account for his status </li></ul><ul><li>Similar characteristics does not always mean that several films are the same </li></ul>
  63. 63. Steven Spielberg <ul><li>Steven Spielberg – Auteur? </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you’re in a Spielberg movie you know that you are probably in one of the most memorable films of all time” – Ben Kingsley </li></ul><ul><li>“ He understands cinema and personal emotion” – Harrison Ford </li></ul><ul><li>“ He is being given the respect to do the things that he wants to do” – Laura Dearne </li></ul><ul><li>“ I feel I am all over my movies” – Steven Spielberg </li></ul><ul><li>Spielberg has directed or produced 7out of 20 of the top grossing films of all time </li></ul><ul><li>“ Other people come under the umbrella of his although they are working their own passions” – Morgan Freeman </li></ul><ul><li>Spielberg got his break after directing Amblin. </li></ul><ul><li>Duel directed by Spielberg in 1971 had a 14 day shooting schedule </li></ul><ul><li>While filming Sugarland Express Spielberg wanted to change the ending had “had his backbone placed back into him” by the producers, forcing him to keep his ‘unhappy’ </li></ul>
  64. 64. Steven Spielberg <ul><li>ending rather than going for “a hit” </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws was the first film to make more that 100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Spielberg chose Jaws as it reminded him of duel </li></ul><ul><li>He was forced into the position of having to amp up the suspension when the mechanical shark didn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>After having such a huge hit with Jaws, people started to listen to Spielberg allowing him to make Close Encounters of the Third Kind </li></ul><ul><li>He collaborated with Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale to make a comedy for 1941 and it bombed at the box office and was a critical nightmare </li></ul><ul><li>During the release of Star Wars George Lucas and Spielberg were on holiday together and Lucas gave him the idea to direct Raiders of the Lost Arc which Lucas produced </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of the discussion Spielberg was thinking of making a Bond film </li></ul><ul><li>Lucas and Spielberg then collaborated on the two following Raiders films </li></ul><ul><li>E.T was inspired by the divorce of his parents </li></ul><ul><li>E.T was written by other people and then the children in the films added to the dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>The music of Jaws and numerous other films for Spielberg was created by John Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by David Lean whom asked him to direct Empire of the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>The films Always and Hook followed which were not well received by critics or the box office </li></ul><ul><li>Jurassic Park which was filmed from a novel brought a new meaning to special effects </li></ul>
  65. 65. Steven Spielberg <ul><li>He was going to do Jurassic Park in the stop motion method with Phill Tippell who is a “stop motion genius” </li></ul><ul><li>After effects has been used on Terminator 2 and The Abyss the company Industrial Light and Magic contacted Spielberg and said that Jurassic Park could be done with CGI </li></ul><ul><li>Jurassic Park then became a different movie because of the animation influence </li></ul><ul><li>Schindler’s List was also a film then began as Schindler’s Ark in novel terms </li></ul><ul><li>Spielberg didn’t storyboard the films and was like an abstract painter on set – Liam Neeson </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Kingsley based his character on Steven Spielberg when filming Schindler’s List. </li></ul><ul><li>Saving Private Ryan has been dubbed as, “the most realistic war movie ever made”. </li></ul><ul><li>Saving Private Ryan was a tribute to his dad </li></ul><ul><li>Amistad was made for his children </li></ul><ul><li>Schindler’s List gave him the confidence to do Saving Private Ryan. </li></ul><ul><li>Spielberg has used the following people numerous times: </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Karn – Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Janusz Kaminski – Cinematographer </li></ul><ul><li>John Williams – Music Composer </li></ul>
  66. 66. The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Films: No Country for Old Men, Intolerable Cruelty, Fargo, Barton Fink, The Man Who Wasn’t There, The Hudsucker Proxy, O Brother Where art Thou, The Big Lebowski, Millers Crossing, Raising Arizona, Blood Simple </li></ul>
  67. 67. The Coen Brothers <ul><li>Films often center around or include a botched crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Often creates at least one lengthy sequence in most of his films where only music plays as a major event unfolds </li></ul><ul><li>Often has a certain phrase that is repeated throughout the movie or a specific scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Films usually contain at least one fast-talking character. </li></ul><ul><li>His movies often have a victim of a crime who is completely unsympathetic (Fargo, Lebowski, Raising Arizona) </li></ul><ul><li>Men often explicitly suffer bizarre and bloody deaths or indignities in their films, but women are typically harmed off-screen (Fargo, The Big Lebowski, No Country for Old Men, Barton Fink). </li></ul>
  68. 68. Lets have another look at some questions
  69. 69. Shocking Cinema <ul><li>Is it true that a second or third viewing of a film can make it more or less shocking? </li></ul>
  70. 70. Regulation and Censorship <ul><li>‘ Regulation and Censorship standards vary from one historical period to another and from one country to another.’ How far do your case studies support Either of Both parts of this statement? </li></ul>
  71. 71. Genre and Authorship <ul><li>What have you found useful to your film studies in the application of EITHER a genre OR a auteur critical approach? </li></ul>
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