Materials for 3D Printing
D.L. Bourell
Temple Foundation Professor
The University of Texas at Austin
Inside 3D Printing – ...
Material Demands for 3D Printing
• Form Proper Feedstock
• Fabricator Processability
• Post-Processability as Needed
• Acc...
Categories of 3DP Processes (ASTM F2792)
binder jetting, n—an additive manufacturing process in which a liquid bonding
age...
Materials in General, over 3000 “Common” Types
Plastics (Polymers)
Weak
Deformable
Low Melting
Strong
Tough
High Melting
W...
Polymers in General
Thermoplastics
Melt
Reversibly
Cross Link
Irreversibly
Large Elastic
Deformation
Various Web Sources
T...
Thermoplastics
Amorphous
• Melts over a range of
temperature
• “Pasty”
• Good for Material
Extrusion (FDM)
• ABS, PLA, PES...
Materials for 3D Printing
“Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing”, D.L. Bourel...
Material for Additive Manufacturing
• Composites
• Binders
 Transient
 Permanent
• Support Structures
• Graded Structure...
Materials Grand Challenge in AM
• Quality
• Process Consistency, Repeatability
• Reliability
• Wide Diversity of Compositi...
Materials Grand Challenge in AM
• Quality
• Process Consistency, Repeatability
• Reliability
• Wide Diversity of Compositi...
Materials for Fused Deposition Modeling
(Amorphous Thermoplastics)
• ABS [Acryonitrile Butadiene Styrene] $7-115/lb
• Poly...
Materials for
Stereolithography and Material Jetting
(Proprietary Thermosets, ~$100/lb)
• Acrylics
• Acrylates
• Epoxies
•...
Materials for Laser Sintering
(Crystalline/Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics)
• Polyamide (Nylon) 11 and 12 ~$40/lb
Neat
Gla...
Metals for AM (BJ, DED, PBF, SL)
• Tool Steel ~$50/lb
• Stainless Steel ~$50/lb
• Aluminum Alloys ~$50/lb
• Co-Cr Alloys ~...
• Common 3DP materials are generally not patent
protected
• Material cost is high for consumers, but new
suppliers do not ...
• Materials will be demanded in a quantity to justify
volume production with concomitant reduction in
unit cost for the us...
Stress or Strength [Take a load without failing]
Ductility [Permanent elongation at failure]
Stiffness [Measure of springi...
Strength
Strength is an intrinsic term.
F
Bending is Not Tension!
F
L
Strength
Strength
• Yield Strength – Stress to start permanent
deformation
• Ultimate Strength – Stress needed to break
the sample ...
Strength
Metric Unit of stress is the “megapascal” MPa
<0.5 ksi A part “falls apart”
20 ksi Most Woods/Plastics
80 ksi Structural Steel/Aluminum
400 ksi High-Strength Steel
Stre...
Strength
2012 Edupack Material Selector Software
3000 Commercial Materials
Summary of AM Mechanical Behavior
Metals Polymers Non-Metallics
Modulus of
Elasticity
Porosity Driven
(Power Law)
Porosity...
Processing Effects on Porosity in SLM
Processed 17-4 Stainless Steel
A.B. Spierings, K. Wegener, G. Levy, “Designing Mater...
Examples of Porosity in EBM Ti-6Al-4V
Khalid Rafi, H., Karthik N.V., Thomas L. Starr, Brent E. Stucker, “Defect formation ...
Khalid Rafi, H., Karthik N.V., Thomas L. Starr, Brent E. Stucker, “Defect formation in EBM parts built in horizontal
orien...
Strength
J.P. Kruth, et al., “Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting”, SFF Symposium
...
SLM 316 Metals
316L Stainless Steel (Stress Relieved)
SLM Conventional
Yield Strength, ksi 92.8 45.0
Ult. Strength, ksi 11...
SLM of Ti-6Al-4V
Table for AM Ti-6Al-4V (unpublished results, Tom Starr, U. Louisville)
Modulus of Elasticity
C.E. Majewski and N. Hopkinson, “Effect of section thickness and build orientation on tensile proper...
Modulus of Elasticity
S. Rüsenberg, L. Schmidt, and H.-J. Schmid, “Mechanical and Physical Properties – A Way to Assess Qu...
Strength and Ductility
R.S. Keicher, A.M. Christiansen and K.W. Wurth, “Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Co-Cr-Mo Alloy for Orth...
D.K. Leigh, Harvest Technologies, priv. comm., 2011.
LS Bulk*
Yield (MPa) 3280 8400
Tensile (MPa) 7250 8850
% Elongation 2...
Strength
1.5
1.55
1.6
1.65
1.7
1.75
1.8
1.85
1.9
-0.14 -0.12 -0.1 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0
Log(H)
Log( )
E. Yasa, et al.,...
Strength
M.K. Agarwala, D.L. Bourell, B. Wu, J.J. Beaman, “An Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Bronze-Ni
Composite...
Mechanical Properties of AM Parts
Ductility
Relative Ductility as a Function of Fractional
Porosity for Pure Iron. Various...
Ductility
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Elongation
Relative Porosity
LS Polyamide 12
C = ...
SLM Ti-6Al-4V Based on Post-Process
Anneals (Furnace Cooled)
Thöne, M., S. Leuders, A. Riemer, T. Tröster, H.A. Richard, “...
Ti Ductility
Ti-6Al-4V
SLM, As
Processed
Compared to
Annealed and
Solution Treated
and Aged Ti64.
B. Vandenbroucke and J.P...
Aging Effects on Mechanical Properties of SL Polymer
Karina Puebla, Karina Arcaute, Rolando Quintana, Ryan B. Wicker, “Eff...
ASTM Standards wrt
Materials/Properties
Issued Standards
F2924-12 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titani...
Summary of AM Mechanical Behavior
• Mechanical behavior is predictable based on the
traditional understanding of microstru...
Overall Summary
• 3DP is hereto stay, and the market is developing
explosively
• Materials for 3DP offers an opportunity f...
Mechanical Properties of RM Parts
Fatigue/Fracture
•Strongly Influenced by Residual Porosity
•Morphology Important - Pore ...
Fatigue
Reid, Fatigue of Fused Deposition Modeled (FDM) Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Stage Three individual
Proje...
Fatigue
P.A. Kobryn and S.L. Semiatin, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-Deposited Ti-6Al-4V”, SFF Symposium
Proceedings, Un...
Fracture Toughness
P.A. Kobryn and S.L. Semiatin, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-Deposited Ti-6Al-4V”, SFF Symposium
Proc...
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Inside3DPrinting_DavidBourell

  1. 1. Materials for 3D Printing D.L. Bourell Temple Foundation Professor The University of Texas at Austin Inside 3D Printing – San Jose September 17, 2013
  2. 2. Material Demands for 3D Printing • Form Proper Feedstock • Fabricator Processability • Post-Processability as Needed • Acceptable Service Properties
  3. 3. Categories of 3DP Processes (ASTM F2792) binder jetting, n—an additive manufacturing process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join powder materials. directed energy deposition, n—an additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting as they are being deposited. material extrusion, n—an additive manufacturing process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice. material jetting, n—an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited. powder bed fusion, n—an additive manufacturing process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder bed. sheet lamination, n—an additive manufacturing process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object. vat photopolymerization, n—an additive manufacturing process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light-activated polymerization.
  4. 4. Materials in General, over 3000 “Common” Types Plastics (Polymers) Weak Deformable Low Melting Strong Tough High Melting Wear Resistant Brittle Very High Melting Source: Edupack Software, Granta Designs, 2012 Metals Ceramics
  5. 5. Polymers in General Thermoplastics Melt Reversibly Cross Link Irreversibly Large Elastic Deformation Various Web Sources Thermosets Elastomers
  6. 6. Thermoplastics Amorphous • Melts over a range of temperature • “Pasty” • Good for Material Extrusion (FDM) • ABS, PLA, PES Various Web Sources • Melts at a single temperature • “Liquidy” • Good for LS • PA (nylon), PEEK Crystalline
  7. 7. Materials for 3D Printing “Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing”, D.L. Bourell, M.C. Leu, D.W. Rosen, eds, The University of Texas at Austin, 2009, 92 pages. SL LS, FDM SLM, EBM, DED
  8. 8. Material for Additive Manufacturing • Composites • Binders  Transient  Permanent • Support Structures • Graded Structures • Multi-Materials “Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing”, D.L. Bourell, M.C. Leu, D.W. Rosen, eds, The University of Texas at Austin, 2009, 92 pages.
  9. 9. Materials Grand Challenge in AM • Quality • Process Consistency, Repeatability • Reliability • Wide Diversity of Compositions • Superior Structure and Properties • Low (Feedstock and Processing) Cost
  10. 10. Materials Grand Challenge in AM • Quality • Process Consistency, Repeatability • Reliability • Wide Diversity of Compositions • Superior Structure and Properties • Low (Feedstock and Processing) Cost
  11. 11. Materials for Fused Deposition Modeling (Amorphous Thermoplastics) • ABS [Acryonitrile Butadiene Styrene] $7-115/lb • Polycarbonate $113/lb • PC/ABS Blend • PLA [Polylactic Acid] $7-25/lb • Polyetherimide (PEI) [Stratasys ULTEM] $220/lb • Nylon Co-Polymer (new in 2012) Source: 2012 Wohlers Report
  12. 12. Materials for Stereolithography and Material Jetting (Proprietary Thermosets, ~$100/lb) • Acrylics • Acrylates • Epoxies • “ABS-like” (Material Jetting) Source: 2012 Wohlers Report
  13. 13. Materials for Laser Sintering (Crystalline/Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics) • Polyamide (Nylon) 11 and 12 ~$40/lb Neat Glass Filled Carbon Filled Metal (Al) Filled • Polystyrene (Lost Wax Patterns) • Polypropylene • Polyester (“Flex”) • Polyetheretherkeytone (PEEK) • Thermoplastic Polyurethane (new in 2012) • Nylon 6 (new in 2012) Source: 2012 Wohlers Report
  14. 14. Metals for AM (BJ, DED, PBF, SL) • Tool Steel ~$50/lb • Stainless Steel ~$50/lb • Aluminum Alloys ~$50/lb • Co-Cr Alloys ~$55-250/lb • Nickel Alloys ~$95-125/lb • CP Titanium ~$150-400/lb • Ti-6Al-4V ~$150-400/lb • Gold • Silver Source: 2012 Wohlers Report Most Popular: SLM EBM BJ (ExOne) DED (LENS, POM, etc.) LOM (UAM)
  15. 15. • Common 3DP materials are generally not patent protected • Material cost is high for consumers, but new suppliers do not seem to be entering the marketplace • Perhaps the price will come down as material usage volume increases due to adoption • My impression is that there is little consumer loyalty to a specific brand of material Materials Perspectives
  16. 16. • Materials will be demanded in a quantity to justify volume production with concomitant reduction in unit cost for the user. Material cost will drop. • Lower cost will increase usage, engendering greater demand,… • Several “mini-suppliers” or niche product companies have appeared in the last 5-10 years and seem to be surviving. Materials Forecast
  17. 17. Stress or Strength [Take a load without failing] Ductility [Permanent elongation at failure] Stiffness [Measure of springiness] Fracture Toughness [Ultra-strong or ultra-brittle] Fatigue [Elastic cyclic loading] Mechanical Properties
  18. 18. Strength Strength is an intrinsic term. F
  19. 19. Bending is Not Tension! F L
  20. 20. Strength
  21. 21. Strength • Yield Strength – Stress to start permanent deformation • Ultimate Strength – Stress needed to break the sample into two pieces
  22. 22. Strength Metric Unit of stress is the “megapascal” MPa
  23. 23. <0.5 ksi A part “falls apart” 20 ksi Most Woods/Plastics 80 ksi Structural Steel/Aluminum 400 ksi High-Strength Steel Strength
  24. 24. Strength 2012 Edupack Material Selector Software 3000 Commercial Materials
  25. 25. Summary of AM Mechanical Behavior Metals Polymers Non-Metallics Modulus of Elasticity Porosity Driven (Power Law) Porosity Driven (Power Law) Porosity Driven Strength/Ductility Porosity Driven Isotropic (High ) Porosity Driven Anisotropic (Ductility) Porosity Driven Weibull Works Fatigue e<0.5UTS or no e - Fracture Toughness Less or equal to bulk - 1 th
  26. 26. Processing Effects on Porosity in SLM Processed 17-4 Stainless Steel A.B. Spierings, K. Wegener, G. Levy, “Designing Material Properties Locally with Additive Manufacturing Technology SLM”, Proc. SFF Symposium (2012), pp. 447-455. Power = 190 W Vscan = 1.30 m/s Tlayer = 50 m Power = 190 W Vscan = 0.80 m/s Tlayer = 30 m
  27. 27. Examples of Porosity in EBM Ti-6Al-4V Khalid Rafi, H., Karthik N.V., Thomas L. Starr, Brent E. Stucker, “Defect formation in EBM parts built in horizontal orientation”, Proc. SFF Symposium (2012), pp. 456-467.
  28. 28. Khalid Rafi, H., Karthik N.V., Thomas L. Starr, Brent E. Stucker, “Defect formation in EBM parts built in horizontal orientation”, Proc. SFF Symposium (2012), pp. 456-467. Examples of Porosity in EBM Ti-6Al-4V
  29. 29. Strength J.P. Kruth, et al., “Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2004, pp. 44-58. 316L Stainless Steel SLM, As Processed 27.5 ksi 70-100 ksi
  30. 30. SLM 316 Metals 316L Stainless Steel (Stress Relieved) SLM Conventional Yield Strength, ksi 92.8 45.0 Ult. Strength, ksi 110 89.9 Elongation, % 30 30 15-5 PH Stainless Steel (H900) SLM Conventional Yield Strength, ksi 160 170 Ult. Strength, ksi 213 190 Elongation, % 15 10 unpublished results, Tom Starr, U. Louisville
  31. 31. SLM of Ti-6Al-4V Table for AM Ti-6Al-4V (unpublished results, Tom Starr, U. Louisville)
  32. 32. Modulus of Elasticity C.E. Majewski and N. Hopkinson, “Effect of section thickness and build orientation on tensile properties and material characteristics of Laser Sintered nylon-12 parts”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2010, pp. 422-34. Nylon 12 200 400 600 0 Stiffness(ksi)
  33. 33. Modulus of Elasticity S. Rüsenberg, L. Schmidt, and H.-J. Schmid, “Mechanical and Physical Properties – A Way to Assess Quality of Laser Sintered Parts”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2011, pp. 239-51. Virgin PA2200 (Nylon 12) DIN EN ISO 527-1 Test Method 200 400 0 Stiffness(ksi)
  34. 34. Strength and Ductility R.S. Keicher, A.M. Christiansen and K.W. Wurth, “Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Co-Cr-Mo Alloy for Orthopaedic Implant Applications”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2009, pp. 428-36. 66Co-28Cr-6Mo EBM, HIP, Homogenized (ksi) (ksi)
  35. 35. D.K. Leigh, Harvest Technologies, priv. comm., 2011. LS Bulk* Yield (MPa) 3280 8400 Tensile (MPa) 7250 8850 % Elongation 27 350 *CES Edupack Matl Selector, Version 7.0.0, Granta Ltd., 2011 Mechanical Behavior of LS Nylon
  36. 36. Strength 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 -0.14 -0.12 -0.1 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 Log(H) Log( ) E. Yasa, et al., “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Maraging Steel 300 after Selective Laser Melting”, SFF Symp., 2010, pp. 383-396 SLM Maraging Steel 18Ni300 Various Layer Thicknesses R.M. German, “Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials Processing”, MPIF, Princeton NJ, 2005, p. 385.
  37. 37. Strength M.K. Agarwala, D.L. Bourell, B. Wu, J.J. Beaman, “An Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Bronze-Ni Composites Produced by Selective Laser Sintering”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, H.L. Marcus, J.J. Beaman, J.W. Barlow, D.L. Bourell and R.H. Crawford, eds., Austin TX, 193-203 (1993). Room-Temperature Tensile Strength of Pre-Mixed SLS (90Cu-10Sn) Bronze and Commercially Pure Nickel Powder as a Function of Relative Density = 1- . (a) As SLS Processed, (b) SLS Processed and Sintered at 900-1100 C for 1 to 10 hr.
  38. 38. Mechanical Properties of AM Parts Ductility Relative Ductility as a Function of Fractional Porosity for Pure Iron. Various Particle Sizes and Purity. [From Haynes, Powder Met., 1977, 20, 17-20] 2/12 2/3 1 1 )0( )0( CDuctility Ductility
  39. 39. Ductility 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Elongation Relative Porosity LS Polyamide 12 C = 4000 D.K. Leigh, D.L. Bourell, J.J. Beaman, “Basis for Decreased Mechanical Properties of Polyamide in Selective Laser Sintering” Proc. SFF Symposium, Austin TX, 2011. R. Haynes, “A Study of the Effect of Porosity Content on the Ductility of Sintered Metals”, Powder Metallurgy 20 (1977) pp. 17-20.
  40. 40. SLM Ti-6Al-4V Based on Post-Process Anneals (Furnace Cooled) Thöne, M., S. Leuders, A. Riemer, T. Tröster, H.A. Richard, “Influence of heat-treatment on Selective Laser Melting products – e.g. Ti6Al4V”, Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, (2012), pp. 492-498.
  41. 41. Ti Ductility Ti-6Al-4V SLM, As Processed Compared to Annealed and Solution Treated and Aged Ti64. B. Vandenbroucke and J.P. Kruth, “Selective Laser Melting of Biocompatible Metals for Rapid Manufacturing of Medical Parts”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2006, pp. 148-159.
  42. 42. Aging Effects on Mechanical Properties of SL Polymer Karina Puebla, Karina Arcaute, Rolando Quintana, Ryan B. Wicker, “Effects of environmental conditions, aging, and build orientations on the mechanical properties of ASTM type I specimens manufactured via stereolithography”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 18#5 (2012), pp. 374–388.
  43. 43. ASTM Standards wrt Materials/Properties Issued Standards F2924-12 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion Standards Under Development WK27752 New Specification for Powder Bed Fusion of Plastic Materials WK33776 New Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N07718) with Powder Bed Fusion WK33833 New Specification for Additive Manufacturing Cobalt-28 Chromium-6 Molybdenum with Powder Bed Fusion WK37654 New Practice for Machine Operation for Directed Energy Deposition of Metals WK37658 New Specification for Additive Manufacturing Nickel Alloy (UNS N06625) with Powder Bed Fusion WK37683 New Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Extra Low Interstitials with Powder Bed Fusion
  44. 44. Summary of AM Mechanical Behavior • Mechanical behavior is predictable based on the traditional understanding of microstructure and processing. • Porosity has a strong influence on the mechanical behavior. • Anisotropy is not an issue if parts are built with low porosity and good layer interface. • Polymers produced using best practice have isotropic strength and anisotropic ductility.
  45. 45. Overall Summary • 3DP is hereto stay, and the market is developing explosively • Materials for 3DP offers an opportunity for business venture • Market timing is a factor for entry into 3DP materials • 3DP fabricators will continue to proliferate driven by expiration of founding patents over the next 1-5 years • There is not much brand loyalty of materials among users of 3DP materials
  46. 46. Mechanical Properties of RM Parts Fatigue/Fracture •Strongly Influenced by Residual Porosity •Morphology Important - Pore Volume Fraction, Size, Spacing, Especially on the Surface •Pores Generally Increase Threshold Stress Intensity for Crack Initiation •Pores Generally Decrease the Resistance to Crack Propagation •Fatigue Limits in Low-Porosity Materials are Generally 0.35(UTS) Compared to 0.5(UTS) for Fully Dense Materials
  47. 47. Fatigue Reid, Fatigue of Fused Deposition Modeled (FDM) Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Stage Three individual Project MEC 3098, Newcastle University School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering 2011. Fatigue of FDM Processed ABS polymer
  48. 48. Fatigue P.A. Kobryn and S.L. Semiatin, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-Deposited Ti-6Al-4V”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2001, pp. 179-186. LENS Processed Ti-6Al-4V, Stress Relieved or HIPped
  49. 49. Fracture Toughness P.A. Kobryn and S.L. Semiatin, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-Deposited Ti-6Al-4V”, SFF Symposium Proceedings, Univ. Texas at Austin, 2001, pp. 179-186. LENS Processed Ti-6Al-4V, Stress Relieved or HIPped
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