Topic Research - SociologyDevelopment 90’s 2012 There has been an upsurge in progressive activism (basically Web 2.0) since the 90’s within democratize of the content, practices and structures in dominant media (basically we all now have equal freedom throughout media in comparison before)
Topic Research - Sociology Mass MediaSociologists believe that the Mass Media is one of themain factors that reinforce modern culture – and most significant at that. They find that we are bombarded with messages to either promote, reflect and create a culture that society should follow. Some call this ‘medicated media’
Topic Research - Sociology Web 2.0 Keen 2007Web 2.0 has been ushered in by rhetoric of ‘democratization’Keen defined this by stories and images of ‘the people’ reclaiming the internet andtaking control of its content’ a kind of ‘people’s internet’ or less positively, theemergence of the cult of the amateur.O’Reilly 2005He notes that operating software and applications move above the level of singledevices, which further Lash 2000 states technology moved from the desktop toWebTop Led to… • New collaborative • Participatory • Open culture Anyone can get involved -> potential to be seen and heard
Topic Research - Sociology Web 2.0 Balnaves, Donald and ShoeSmith 2009 “4 Distinct revolutions in the history of media”Mosoco 2004Cautions about the significance and effects of current media and publiccommunication – noting the warning of “digital sublime”,Woolgar 2002 even discusses the “cyberbole”, and the five-stage technology‘Hype Cycle’ described by Gartner Research 2008. Therefore not agreeing that …Battelle 2005 states Web 2.0 shapes public communication.However the development of Web 3.0 is well advanced and is predicted toaccelerate changes, as well as lead to a range of new functions and dysfunctions
Topic Research - Sociology Reform ActivismMedia reform and activism can be politically conservative orreactionary, in the sense of reinforcing patterns of hierarchy and exclusion. An example are campaigns by fundamentalists religious groups against gay-positive representations or policies(e.g Disney corporation was the target of a campaign against same-sex partner employee benefits) This concerns media activism that is democratic and progressive – in the sense of seeking a more equality sharing of political, economic, social, cultural and informational resources and status.
Topic Research - Sociology Mobilisation toCollective Action Charles and Tilly - 1978 Mobilisation to Collective Action 1978They note the emerging shape and form of social activism – changing therepertoire of collective action. This grasps democratic media activism. Thereforethey point our four predominant forms of action to democratize communication– which ultimately makes media equal and fair. #1 #2 #3 #4 influencing content advocating reform building hanging the and practices of of government independent, relationship mainstream media policy/regulation of democratic and between audiences media in order to participatory media. and media, chiefly e.g. finding openings change the structure by for oppositional and policies of e.g. skills training, empowering voices, media media themselves distribution services audiences to be monitoring, more critical of campaigns to change e.g. media reform hegemonic media specific aspects of coalitions representation e.g. media education and culture jamming.
Topic Research - Sociology Effects McChesney 1993 & Star 2000He found encouraging recent surge of work on alternative mediaas a site of potentially counter-hegemonic cultural and politicalpractice . Therefore media is developing back to its manipulatedand influential stateCurran 2003 & Downing 2001Whereas this study has been relatively few effects on resistance,hereby modern societies arent as democratic as it seems. The debate on society being democratic or hegemonic is therefore very hard to define and state
Topic Research - Sociology ClassDominance TheoryClass dominant theory argues that media reflects andprojects the view of a minority elite, which controls it.• Those who control, produce media• Limits competition of big businesses – especially new media• Few people have change to manipulate what people hear and see• Can avoid stories
Topic Research - Sociology Culturist TheoryThe culturist Theory sees audiences as playing anactive rather than passive role in mass media – howthey interact and produce.• Emphasise amount of options• Interpretations, developing knowledge and experienceClaim few elite in large corporations exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes and audience play more powerful role
Topic Research - SociologyPrimary I asked…Research Do you think society is being indirectly controlled or is democracy increased in media?My respondents generally think…• Society hegemonic-ally controlled – i.e indirectly being told how to act• Media is a big controlling factor emphasising ideology to society• Democracy is a smokescreen to keep us all dumb from how they are indirectly controlling us
Topic Research - SociologyDemocratic or Hegemonic Democratic Hegemonic Web 2.0 and 3.0 has allowed the The elite still take control over the audience to have greater media as they are the ones who own participation the industries
Topic Research – Social MediaNetworkingUse of Twitter’s hash tag is used to unite peopleopinions from all around the world, - Enforcing democracy -this is also used throughout media includingTV and Magazines E.G documentary ‘one born every minute’ This allows the audience to participate with the programmes – significantly those who ‘shout-out’ the tweets between intervals to share with viewers, which would have not been done before Web 2.0 However tweets are chosen – presenting a small sensation of hegemony in Networking
Topic Research – Social MediaNetworkingFollowed Facebook is largely democratic as everyone has the equal freedom to create pages and groups on something they like, they think or they doHowever, other users could be manipulated by these domineeringgroups and feel pressure to like what they do, ultimately they feel they have to conform the ‘Facebook ideals’
Topic Research – Social MediaSocial News Thankfully to Web 2.0 we can all interact and post our own stories on social news sites! However Hegemony and Democracy exists within Although Slashdot emphasises their qualities of allowing their audience participation generate their whole site • Users can post their own stories • However, the stories they get from page are decided by a more powerful figure
Topic Research – Social MediaSocial News Where as Digg is largely a democratic website – fully in control by the audience Digg has a voting system put on every user generated story where any user is allowed to vote ‘Digg’ or ‘Bury’ • The story with most votes get from page • The story with too many burys is deleted from the website
Topic Research – Social Media Blogs Blogs have practically no rules, you can post what ever you want based on your interestsThis promotes audience freedom, further an equal and fair system i.e – on Tumblr, nothing is censored Celebrity / Idol blog Culture blog Fashion blog
Topic Research – Social MediaBlogs However these systems are tailored to your likes and dislikes – E.G if you type in ‘Fashion blogs’ in Google, only a certain type will come up that you like They rest is not shown to you This almost forms your likes, as the ones your not shown could be something you would like but you cant see it do you don’t have the opportunity. This may come up for me But this would come up to someone else
Topic Research – Social MediaOnline Dating Since the internet started online dating has been slowly developing. To now, people can tick boxes and find a partner who is similar to them while being on a website that caters there need whether it be • Age • Sexuality • Culture • Religion • Fetishes Though this system that picks our your match could not bepresenting you will all compatibilities – taking control to who you will speak to and who you won’t – you are not in-control and as widespread as you think you are to find love online. However, it depends as a user how much you trust the sites.
Topic Research – Social Media Wiki’sBut who does actually edit the information – Those with the resources andknowledgeThese faceless ‘professionals’ are the ones who dominate industries andmanipulate people below or in less authority than them.Therefore how does anyone know this information is nothegemonic?People always take it how it is – because they think someone moreknowledgeable is always right, to which the audience conforms
Topic Research – Social Media Video sites are again all audience E.G… Video Sites participatory which 48 hours of footage is uploaded every hour! An example of audience participation is - Nam cat - people start posting cats watching the This enforced the things what video people like get popular and allow other to post their own video’s of it – connecting people across the world because of Web 2.0the creativity that inspires others intechnological culture making many so many different versionsentire remix community, something we all became a part of. to posting a cat watching a cat watch the video.
Topic Research – Social Media TED Kevin Allocca Talks Why video’s go viralA part of this video highlights the reason for some video’s popularity is because of the ‘Tastemakers’ who publish it to the world.This means on domineering figure influences others to like a video, that otherwise someone else who is not, it would not have gone viral – presenting some type of Jimmy Kimmel tweeted on the video hegemony
Topic Research – Social MediaPrimary I asked…Research Do you think social media is fair or manipulated by the faceless business behind?My respondents generally think…• Being on twitter and Facebook is not beneficial as it leads to bullying and manipulative way to be• Allows us to express opinions, enforces democracy• Some sites have a face behind it, so therefore by knowing who would be manipulating you, allows audience to think and be comfortable with the owner and therefore the website
Topic Research – Social MediaDemocratic or Hegemonic Democratic Hegemonic Web 2.0 has dramatically increased Those who own sites generate your our freedom to comment and post results whatever we want
Topic Research - News Bias The elite control the news, they show what the want History to show and what they don’tHave you ever noticed pieces of history don’t quite add up? Or that it seemsas though parts have been deleted or hidden from us?Well the elite have authority to do this.There are plenty if things the News hide from us. Its not hardsince most of us blindly follow.• you are told what certain people want you to hear• ever wondered who the groups and names of their people (monsters) behind wars are?• ever wondered why globalisation exists?• ever wondered if history is exactly the way it is or is it only the authors perspective?• do you really think global warming is entirely created by man? No, because News is completely hegemonic, the audience have no say in what we know and what we don’t
Topic Research - News Corrupt Elite Theoretically the corrupt elite can only be brought down if there is anawakening of the people, if people just stop accepting things the way they are, they can actually progress and advance. If there is enough information, technology, freedom to move forwards and invest in rights for humanity, animals, plants and the world, in good food, health, education and shelter for everyone. But why doesnt society do this? The news supress audience knowledge with ‘smokescreen’ information
Topic Research - News Current Debate The current debate across the UK is whether the News tell us everything we should know? Some think that the news bombards society with a big story e.g ‘Bin Ladens Death’ to cover up a story on the elite, government – and something their doing An example is Hitler who banned smoking in Germany because it caused cancer. However the government kept it a secret & flooded Germany with free cigarettes to increase the death rate. Which was Therefore making it extremely hard for society to become anti-establishment and kept a complete secret to Americans!react to what they show, as there is very little evidence of this – but their dominance and manipulation to the public is greatly evident
Topic Research - News DominanceLocal TV news is the most popular thataudiences watch and listen toHowever, it only cover 12% of international news• Because its cheap• Easy to access• international news is highly corruptive to show because of audience distrust with governments – trying to hide something? However audiences have no control to see this news as they don’t have the resources, therefore we are inevitably manipulated by the news. Most people believe what they are told – if its on TV News its almost officially the truth
Topic Research - NewsTED Alisa MillerTalks The news about news The video stated shocking facts such as.. • Death of Anna Nicole Smith covered news on all countries and had 10x more coverage than the IPCC report • News networks have decreased by 50% of foreign bureaus because covering people like Britney Is cheaper • Global news is recycled and does not put their context across in a away the audience could understand it- leading to a decrease in knowledge around the world • All down to dominance as 52% follow global news, but they don’t even know that much about it • And this is all out of our hands -> they are hegemonic
Topic Research - NewsPrimary I asked…Research - Do you think the news is showing us all that we have the right to see? Or are they hiding stories?My respondents generally think…• Doesnt cover complete stories• Depends on the opinions of the controller• Depends on ownership• Mainstream news is no longer trustworthy• They show the cheaper stories so we arent shown the more important stories• If we want the truth, we need to do our own research and become more democratic
Topic Research - NewsDemocratic or Hegemonic Democratic Hegemonic In the future the News could become The news is hegemonic controlled by democratic if people have the the elite, they have the power. resources and come together to They manipulate audiences to become anti-establishment believe what they tell us
Record of Resources used…Wikipedia Examples of wikisArticles online To see which type of news is more dominantNewspaper articles Too see a general stories the news post compared with othersYouTube videos StatisticsTextbooks Sociologist researchPeriodicals -Books -Vimeo videos -TED videos Social media and News searchSlide Share Sociologist researchBlogs Blogs researchSocial Media Networking research on twitter and online datingPhone interview, expert -In-person interview public -In-person interview expert -Yahoo! Primary research