Honors -Ecology introduction 1011


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  • Figure 52.1 Why do gray whales migrate?
  • Figure 52.2 The scope of ecological research
  • Figure 52.3 Studying how a forest responds to altered precipitation
  • Figure 52.4 Rachel Carson
  • Figure 52.5 Distribution and abundance of the red kangaroo in Australia, based on aerial surveys
  • Figure 52.8 Does feeding by sea urchins limit seaweed distribution?
  • Figure 52.9 Alpine tree
  • Figure 52.20 A climograph for some major types of biomes in North America
  • Figure 52.21 Terrestrial biomes
  • Honors -Ecology introduction 1011

    1. 1. Overview: The Scope of Ecology <ul><li>Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere </li></ul>
    2. 2. Fig. 52-1
    3. 3. Eschrichtius robustus <ul><li>What environmental factors determine geographical distribution? </li></ul><ul><li>How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology
    5. 5. <ul><li>Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>A community is a group of populations of different species in an area </li></ul><ul><li>Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>An ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>A landscape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>The biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fig. 52-3 Trough Pipe “ Dry” “ Wet” “ Ambient”
    12. 12. Fig. 52-4
    13. 13. Concept 52.2: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species <ul><li>Ecologists have long recognized global and regional patterns of distribution of organisms within the biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Biogeography is a good starting point for understanding what limits geographic distribution of species </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologists recognize two kinds of factors that determine distribution: biotic , or living factors, and abiotic , or nonliving factors </li></ul>
    14. 14. Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km 2 0–0.1 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution
    15. 15. <ul><li>Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species </li></ul>
    16. 16. Dispersal and Distribution <ul><li>Dispersal is movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal contributes to global distribution of organisms </li></ul>
    17. 17. Natural Range Expansions <ul><li>Natural range expansions show the influence of dispersal on distribution </li></ul>
    18. 18. Biotic Factors <ul><li>Biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with other species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Fig. 52-8 RESULTS Sea urchin 100 80 60 40 20 0 Limpet Seaweed cover (%) Both limpets and urchins removed Only urchins removed Only limpets removed Control (both urchins and limpets present) August 1982 August 1983 February 1983 February 1984
    20. 20. Abiotic Factors <ul><li>Abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocks and soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most abiotic factors vary in space and time </li></ul>
    21. 21. Fig. 52-9
    22. 22. Temperature <ul><li>Environmental temperature is an important factor in distribution of organisms because of its effects on biological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells may freeze and rupture below 0 ° C, while most proteins denature above 45 ° C </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals and birds expend energy to regulate their internal temperature </li></ul>
    23. 23. Water <ul><li>Water availability in habitats is another important factor in species distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Desert organisms exhibit adaptations for water conservation </li></ul>
    24. 24. Salinity <ul><li>Salt concentration affects water balance of organisms through osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Few terrestrial organisms are adapted to high-salinity habitats </li></ul>
    25. 25. Sunlight <ul><li>Light intensity and quality affect photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Water absorbs light, thus in aquatic environments most photosynthesis occurs near the surface </li></ul><ul><li>In deserts, high light levels increase temperature and can stress plants and animals </li></ul>
    26. 26. Rocks and Soil <ul><li>Many characteristics of soil limit distribution of plants and thus the animals that feed upon them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral composition </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Climate <ul><li>Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind </li></ul><ul><li>The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate </li></ul><ul><li>Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level </li></ul><ul><li>Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log </li></ul>
    28. 28. Fig. 52-20 Tropical forest Temperate grassland Desert Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annual mean temperature (ºC) Annual mean precipitation (cm) 30 15 0 0 – 15 100 200 300 400
    29. 29. <ul><li>Temperate Broadleaf Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Winters are cool, while summers are hot and humid; significant precipitation falls year round as rain and snow </li></ul><ul><li>A mature temperate broadleaf forest has vertical layers dominated by deciduous trees in the Northern Hemisphere and evergreen eucalyptus in Australia </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Mammals, birds, and insects make use of all vertical layers in the forest </li></ul><ul><li>In the Northern Hemisphere, many mammals hibernate in the winter </li></ul>
    31. 31. Fig. 52-21g Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina