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Figure 11.5a Local signaling Target cell Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter Secreting Secretory diffuses across cell vesicle synapse. Local regulator diffuses through Target cell extracellular fluid. is stimulated. (a) Paracrine signaling (b) Synaptic signaling
Figure 11.10 Signaling molecule Receptor Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 Active protein Ph kinase os 1 ph or Inactive yla protein kinase ATP ADP P 2 tio Active protein n ca PP kinase s Pi 2 ca de Inactive protein kinase ATP 3 ADP P Active protein PP kinase Pi 3 Inactive protein ATP ADP P Active Cellular PP protein response Pi
Figure 11.10a Activated relay molecule Inactive protein kinase 1 Active protein Ph kinase os 1 ph or Inactive yla protein kinase ATP ADP P tio 2 Active n protein ca PP kinase sc Pi 2 ad e Inactive protein kinase ATP ADP P 3 Active protein PP kinase Pi 3 Inactive protein ATP ADP P Active protein PP Pi
Fight or Flight
Figure 11.16 Reception Binding of epinephrine to G protein-coupled receptor (1 molecule) Transduction Inactive G protein Active G protein (102 molecules) Inactive adenylyl cyclase Active adenylyl cyclase (102) ATP Cyclic AMP (104) Inactive protein kinase A Active protein kinase A (104) Inactive phosphorylase kinase Active phosphorylase kinase (10 5) Inactive glycogen phosphorylase Active glycogen phosphorylase (10 6) Response Glycogen Glucose 1-phosphate (108 molecules)
Insulin Receptor - TKR
Figure 11.12 First messenger (signaling molecule such as epinephrine) Adenylyl G protein cyclase G protein-coupled GTP receptor ATP Second cAMP messenger Protein kinase A Cellular responses
Figure 11.11 Adenylyl cyclase Phosphodiesterase Pyrophosphate H2O P Pi ATP cAMP AMP
Figure 11.11a Adenylyl cyclase Pyrophosphate P Pi ATP cAMP
Figure 11.11b Phosphodiesterase H2O H2 O cAMP AMP
Figure 11.13 EXTRACELLULAR Plasma FLUID membrane Ca2+ ATP pump Mitochondrion Nucleus CYTOSOL Ca2+ pump Endoplasmic Ca2+ reticulum ATP pump (ER) Key High [Ca2+ ] Low [Ca2+ ]
Figure 11.14-1 EXTRA- CELLULAR Signaling molecule FLUID (first messenger) G protein DAG GTP G protein-coupled PIP2 Phospholipase C receptor IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Endoplasmic Ca2+ reticulum (ER) CYTOSOL
Figure 11.14-2 EXTRA- CELLULAR Signaling molecule FLUID (first messenger) G protein DAG GTP G protein-coupled PIP2 Phospholipase C receptor IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Endoplasmic Ca2+ reticulum (ER) Ca2+ (second CYTOSOL messenger)
Figure 11.14-3 EXTRA- CELLULAR Signaling molecule FLUID (first messenger) G protein DAG GTP G protein-coupled PIP2 Phospholipase C receptor IP3 (second messenger) IP3-gated calcium channel Various Cellular Endoplasmic Ca2+ proteins reticulum (ER) responses activated Ca2+ (second CYTOSOL messenger)
Figure 11.15 Growth factor Reception Receptor Phosphorylation cascade Transduction CYTOPLASM Inactive Active transcription transcription factor factor Response P DNA Gene NUCLEUS mRNA
Insulin-like growth factor 1
Looking good. The pancreas of a mouse after it was transplanted with human beta cells (left) looks similar to that of an animal that produces insulin normally (right). CREDIT: Narushima et al., Nature BiotechnologyBrimming with bs. Newfound cells in thepancreas give rise to neurons (red) and insulin- The full picture.producing b cells (green). Human ES cells can eventually giveCREDIT: SEABERG ET AL., NATURE rise to cells that resemble pancreaticBIOTECHNOLOGY beta cells (labeled β).
Figure 11.2 α factor Receptor 1 Exchange of mating factors a α a factor Yeast cell, Yeast cell, mating type a mating type α 2 Mating a α 3 New a/α cell a/α
Figure 11.17 RESULTS Wild type (with shmoos) ∆Fus3 ∆formin CONCLUSION 1 Mating Mating Shmoo projection factor factor G protein-coupled forming activates receptor Formin receptor. P Fus3 Actin GTP P subunit GDP 2 G protein binds GTP Phosphory- and becomes activated. lation Formin Formin cascade P 4 Fus3 phos- phorylates formin, Microfilament Fus3 Fus3 activating it. P 5 Formin initiates growth of 3 Phosphorylation cascade microfilaments that form activates Fus3, which moves the shmoo projections. to plasma membrane.
Cell Membranes and Transport Honors Biology ~ Edgar
Concept Check• If a Paramecium were to swim from a hypotonic environment to an isotonic one, would the activity of its contractile vacuole increase or decrease? Why?
Concept Check• This diagram represents osmosis of water across a semipermeable membrane. The U-tube on the right shows the results of the osmosis. What could you do to level the solutions in the two sides of the right hand U-tube? a) Add more water to the left hand side. b) Add more water to the right hand side. c) Add more solute to the left hand side. d) Add more solute to the right hand side.
Answer•This diagram represents osmosis ofwater across a semipermeablemembrane. The U-tube on the rightshows the results of the osmosis.What could you do to level thesolutions in the two sides of the righthand U-tube? c) Add more solute to the left hand side.
Vegetables in Sucrose Solutions 30.00Percent Change in Mass (%) 20.00 10.00 Beet 0.00 Potato Carrot -10.00 -20.00 -30.00 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Sucrose Concentration (Molarity)