Honors Biology ~ Ecology 1314

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  • Figure 52.1 Why do gray whales migrate?
  • Figure 52.2 The scope of ecological research
  • Figure 52.4 Rachel Carson
  • Figure 52.5 Distribution and abundance of the red kangaroo in Australia, based on aerial surveys
  • Figure 52.20 A climograph for some major types of biomes in North America
  • Figure 53.4a Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4b Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4c Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.3 Population dynamics
  • Figure 53.25 Age-structure pyramids for the human population of three countries (data as of 2005)
  • Figure 54.6 A West Indies manatee ( Trichechus manatus ) in Florida
  • Honors Biology ~ Ecology 1314

    1. 1. Ecology Honors Biology ~ Edgar
    2. 2. N-alkanes
    3. 3. Quesitons on Article What emergent property is discussed in the red harverster ants? How is this property chemically achieved? What is the role of the control, and the positive control in this experiment? What information is shown in the caption of the graph? Why is this a bar graph rather then a line graph? What is the conclusion of the study in this “brief communication”?
    4. 4. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Scope of Ecology • Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment • These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance • Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere
    5. 5. Fig. 52-1
    6. 6. Dangers of Migration
    7. 7. Eschrichtius robustus What environmental factors determine geographical distribution? How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations?
    8. 8. Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology
    9. 9. Fig. 52-4
    10. 10. Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km2 0–0.1 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution
    11. 11. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings • Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species
    12. 12. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Climate • Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind • The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate • Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level • Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log
    13. 13. Fig. 52-20 Tropical forestTemperate grasslandDesert Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annualmeantemperature(ºC) Annual mean precipitation (cm) 30 15 0 0 –15 100 200 300 400
    14. 14. Populations
    15. 15. Fig. 53-4a (a) Clumped
    16. 16. Fig. 53-4b (b) Uniform
    17. 17. Fig. 53-4c (c) Random
    18. 18. Fig. 53-3 irths irths and immigration dd individuals to population. mmigration Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population. Deaths Emigration
    19. 19. Survivorship Curves
    20. 20. Isle Royale
    21. 21. Fig. 53-25 Rapid growth Afghanistan Male Female Age AgeMale Female Slow growth United States Male Female No growth Italy 85+ 80–84 75–79 70–74 60–64 65–69 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 20–24 15–19 0–4 5–9 10–14 85+ 80–84 75–79 70–74 60–64 65–69 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 20–24 15–19 0–4 5–9 10–14 10 108 866 4 422 0 Percent of population Percent of population Percent of population 66 4 422 08 8 66 4 422 08 8
    22. 22. Community Ecology
    23. 23. Trophic Structure
    24. 24. Coral Reefs
    25. 25. Cnidaria
    26. 26. Acropora millipora Orange Bushy Coral
    27. 27. Parrotfishes Conversion of primary production to fish-based trophic pathways Provision of suitable settlement substrata for new corals Mediation of competition between corals and macroalgae
    28. 28. Diadema antillarium
    29. 29. Epinephelus striatus
    30. 30. Community Interactions Predation & herbivory, Competition Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
    31. 31. Intertidal Community
    32. 32. – Chthalamus more tolerant of dessication than Balanus – Balanus a more successful competitor – Chthalamus restricted to upper intertidal zone – realized niche < fundamental niche Competition and niche differentiation in barnacles (Connell 1961)
    33. 33. – Testing the competitive exclusion principle • Two species of barnacles on intertidal rocks • Remove Balanus -- Chthamalus spread • Chthamalus distribution limited by Balanus Chthamalus Balanus High tide Chthamalus realized niche Balanus realized niche Low tide Ocean Figure 37.2A
    34. 34. Niches: fundamental and realized The realized niche is often smaller than the fundamental niche • restricted by factors eg, competition, predation, parasitism. The fundamental niche is the n-dimensional hypervolume describing the full range of conditions that the species can use in the absence of competition • defined by an organism’s adaptations to persist in a given abiotic environment
    35. 35. Modes of Competition Intraspecific: – Competition among members of the same species. – e.g. density dependent factors Interspecific: – Competition among individuals of two or more different species • reduces fitness of both. • Interspecific competition can occur only if species have similar resource requirements – i.e. must have overlapping niches.
    36. 36. Predation
    37. 37. Fig. 54-6
    38. 38. Cuscuta pentagona Dodder predation
    39. 39. Batesian Mimicry
    40. 40. Mullerian Mimicry
    41. 41. Helminthic Therapy
    42. 42. Keystone Predator
    43. 43. Ecosystem Ecology Primary Productivity Nutrient Cycling
    44. 44. NPP=GPP-R
    45. 45. phytoplankton Who are the Phytoplankton? Coccolithophore Diatoms Dinoflagellates
    46. 46. Gulf of Maine Data: Wilkinson and Jordan Basins Wilk. Basin Jordan Basin
    47. 47. Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates CO2 Light Nutrients (N, P, etc) The Redfield Ratio 106106 Carbon : 1616 Nitrogen : 11 Phosphorus Liebig’s Law:Liebig’s Law: Growth of a “plant” is determined by availability of the single most limiting resource. Redfield
    48. 48. Duck?
    49. 49. Nutrient Cycle
    50. 50. The Whale Pump
    51. 51. Figure 1. A conceptual model of the whale pump. Roman J, McCarthy JJ (2010) The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13255. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013255 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255
    52. 52. Copepods
    53. 53. Figure 2. Shipboard incubation time-course experiments on Humpback whale samples collected on Stellwagen Bank, Gulf of Maine.
    54. 54. Figure 3. The flux of nitrogen in the Gulf of Maine (a) at present and (b) before commercial hunting.

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