EcologyHonors Biology ~ Edgar
N-alkanes
Quesitons on ArticleWhat emergent property is discussed in the red harverster ants?How is this property chemically achieve...
Overview: The Scope of Ecology• Ecology is the scientific study of the  interactions between organisms and the  environmen...
Fig. 52-1
Dangers of Migration
Eschrichtius robustusWhat environmental factors determine geographical distribution?How do variations in their food supply...
Fig. 52-2              Organismal              ecology            Population            ecology                   Communit...
Fig. 52-4
Fig. 52-5            Kangaroos/km2                  0–0.1                  0.1–1                  1–5                  5–1...
• Ecologists consider multiple factors when  attempting to explain the distribution of speciesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Edu...
Climate• Four major abiotic components of climate are  temperature, water, sunlight, and wind• The long-term prevailing we...
Fig. 52-20                                                      Desert         Temperate grassland   Tropical forest      ...
Populations
Fig. 53-4a        (a) Clumped
Fig. 53-4b
Fig. 53-4c
Fig. 53-3 irths                   Deaths irths and immigration   Deaths and emigration dd individuals to       remove indi...
Survivorship Curves
Isle Royale
Fig. 53-25            Rapid growth                           Slow growth                      No growth                   ...
Environmental Bioassay
Dose Response
Toxins in the EnvironmentImportant Terms•Acute versus chroniceffects•Bioaccumulation•Degradation•Biomagnification•LC50, TC50
Community Ecology
Trophic Structure
Coral Reefs
Cnidaria
Acropora milliporaOrange Bushy Coral
Parrotfishes   Conversion of primary                 production to fish-based                 trophic pathways            ...
Diadema antillarium
Epinephelus striatus
Community InteractionsPredation & herbivorySymbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
Intertidal Community
Competition and niche   differentiation in barnacles          (Connell 1961)– Chthalamus more tolerant  of dessication tha...
– Testing the competitive exclusion principle         •    Two species of barnacles on intertidal rocks         •    Remov...
Niches: fundamental and         realized        The fundamental niche is the n-dimensional        hypervolume describing t...
Modes of CompetitionIntraspecific:   – Competition among members of the same species.          – e.g. density dependent fa...
Predation
Fig. 54-6
Cuscuta pentagona Dodder predation
Batesian Mimicry
Mullerian Mimicry
Producers
Benthic non-motile consumers
Benthic motile consumers
KeystonePredator
Ecosystem Ecology  Primary Productivity    Nutrient Cycling
NPP=GPP-R
W are the Phytoplankton? ho Dia tom sDinofla ge lla te s                            phytoplankton               Coccolitho
Gulf of Maine Data: W ilkinson      and Jordan Basins                        Wilk. Basin                        Jordan Basin
The Redfield Ratio           106 Carbon : 16 Nitrogen : 1 Phosphorus                                Nucleic Acids         ...
Duck?
Nutrient Cycle
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
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  • Figure 52.1 Why do gray whales migrate?
  • Figure 52.2 The scope of ecological research
  • Figure 52.4 Rachel Carson
  • Figure 52.5 Distribution and abundance of the red kangaroo in Australia, based on aerial surveys
  • Figure 52.20 A climograph for some major types of biomes in North America
  • Figure 53.4a Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4b Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4c Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.3 Population dynamics
  • Figure 53.25 Age-structure pyramids for the human population of three countries (data as of 2005)
  • Figure 54.6 A West Indies manatee ( Trichechus manatus ) in Florida
  • Honors BIology - Ecology 1213

    1. 1. EcologyHonors Biology ~ Edgar
    2. 2. N-alkanes
    3. 3. Quesitons on ArticleWhat emergent property is discussed in the red harverster ants?How is this property chemically achieved?What is the role of the control, and the positive control in this experiment?What information is shown in the caption of the graph?Why is this a bar graph rather then a line graph?What is the conclusion of the study in this “brief communication”?
    4. 4. Overview: The Scope of Ecology• Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment• These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance• Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphereCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    5. 5. Fig. 52-1
    6. 6. Dangers of Migration
    7. 7. Eschrichtius robustusWhat environmental factors determine geographical distribution?How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations?
    8. 8. Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology
    9. 9. Fig. 52-4
    10. 10. Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km2 0–0.1 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution
    11. 11. • Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of speciesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    12. 12. Climate• Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind• The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate• Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level• Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen logCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    13. 13. Fig. 52-20 Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest 30 Annual mean temperature (ºC) Temperate 15 broadleaf forest Northern coniferous 0 forest Arctic and alpine tundra –15 0 100 200 300 400 Annual mean precipitation (cm)
    14. 14. Populations
    15. 15. Fig. 53-4a (a) Clumped
    16. 16. Fig. 53-4b
    17. 17. Fig. 53-4c
    18. 18. Fig. 53-3 irths Deaths irths and immigration Deaths and emigration dd individuals to remove individuals population. from a population.mmigration Emigration
    19. 19. Survivorship Curves
    20. 20. Isle Royale
    21. 21. Fig. 53-25 Rapid growth Slow growth No growth United States Italy Male Age Male Female Age Male Female 85+ 85+ 80–84 80–84 75–79 75–79 70–74 70–74 65–69 65–69 60–64 60–64 55–59 55–59 50–54 50–54 45–49 45–49 40–44 40–44 35–39 35–39 30–34 30–3425–29 25–29 20–24 20–2415–19 15–19 10–14 10–14 5–9 5–9 0–4 0–4 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 2 8 8 6 4 2 0 4 6 8 Percent of population Percent of population Percent of population
    22. 22. Environmental Bioassay
    23. 23. Dose Response
    24. 24. Toxins in the EnvironmentImportant Terms•Acute versus chroniceffects•Bioaccumulation•Degradation•Biomagnification•LC50, TC50
    25. 25. Community Ecology
    26. 26. Trophic Structure
    27. 27. Coral Reefs
    28. 28. Cnidaria
    29. 29. Acropora milliporaOrange Bushy Coral
    30. 30. Parrotfishes Conversion of primary production to fish-based trophic pathways Provision of suitable settlement substrata for new corals Mediation of competition between corals and macroalgae
    31. 31. Diadema antillarium
    32. 32. Epinephelus striatus
    33. 33. Community InteractionsPredation & herbivorySymbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
    34. 34. Intertidal Community
    35. 35. Competition and niche differentiation in barnacles (Connell 1961)– Chthalamus more tolerant of dessication than Balanus– Balanus a more successful competitor – Chthalamus restricted to upper intertidal zone – realized niche < fundamental niche
    36. 36. – Testing the competitive exclusion principle • Two species of barnacles on intertidal rocks • Remove Balanus -- Chthamalus spread • Chthamalus distribution limited by Balanus High tide Chthamalus Chthamalus realized niche Balanus Balanus realized niche Ocean Low tide Figure 37.2A
    37. 37. Niches: fundamental and realized The fundamental niche is the n-dimensional hypervolume describing the full range of conditions that the species can use in the absence of competition • defined by an organism’s adaptations to persist in a given abiotic environment The realized niche is often smaller than the fundamental niche • restricted by factors eg, competition, predation, parasitism.
    38. 38. Modes of CompetitionIntraspecific: – Competition among members of the same species. – e.g. density dependent factorsInterspecific: – Competition among individuals of two or more different species • reduces fitness of both. • Interspecific competition can occur only if species have similar resource requirements – i.e. must have overlapping niches.
    39. 39. Predation
    40. 40. Fig. 54-6
    41. 41. Cuscuta pentagona Dodder predation
    42. 42. Batesian Mimicry
    43. 43. Mullerian Mimicry
    44. 44. Producers
    45. 45. Benthic non-motile consumers
    46. 46. Benthic motile consumers
    47. 47. KeystonePredator
    48. 48. Ecosystem Ecology Primary Productivity Nutrient Cycling
    49. 49. NPP=GPP-R
    50. 50. W are the Phytoplankton? ho Dia tom sDinofla ge lla te s phytoplankton Coccolitho
    51. 51. Gulf of Maine Data: W ilkinson and Jordan Basins Wilk. Basin Jordan Basin
    52. 52. The Redfield Ratio 106 Carbon : 16 Nitrogen : 1 Phosphorus Nucleic Acids CO2 Lipids Light Proteins Nutrients Carbohydrates (N, P, etc) Liebig’s Law:Growth of a “plant” is determined by availability of the single most limiting resource.Redfield
    53. 53. Duck?
    54. 54. Nutrient Cycle

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