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Honors BIology - Ecology 1213
 

Honors BIology - Ecology 1213

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  • Figure 52.1 Why do gray whales migrate?
  • Figure 52.2 The scope of ecological research
  • Figure 52.4 Rachel Carson
  • Figure 52.5 Distribution and abundance of the red kangaroo in Australia, based on aerial surveys
  • Figure 52.20 A climograph for some major types of biomes in North America
  • Figure 53.4a Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4b Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.4c Patterns of dispersion within a population’s geographic range
  • Figure 53.3 Population dynamics
  • Figure 53.25 Age-structure pyramids for the human population of three countries (data as of 2005)
  • Figure 54.6 A West Indies manatee ( Trichechus manatus ) in Florida

Honors BIology - Ecology 1213 Honors BIology - Ecology 1213 Presentation Transcript

  • EcologyHonors Biology ~ Edgar
  • N-alkanes
  • Quesitons on ArticleWhat emergent property is discussed in the red harverster ants?How is this property chemically achieved?What is the role of the control, and the positive control in this experiment?What information is shown in the caption of the graph?Why is this a bar graph rather then a line graph?What is the conclusion of the study in this “brief communication”?
  • Overview: The Scope of Ecology• Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment• These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance• Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphereCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • Fig. 52-1
  • Dangers of Migration
  • Eschrichtius robustusWhat environmental factors determine geographical distribution?How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations?
  • Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology
  • Fig. 52-4
  • Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km2 0–0.1 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution
  • • Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of speciesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • Climate• Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind• The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate• Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level• Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen logCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • Fig. 52-20 Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest 30 Annual mean temperature (ºC) Temperate 15 broadleaf forest Northern coniferous 0 forest Arctic and alpine tundra –15 0 100 200 300 400 Annual mean precipitation (cm)
  • Populations
  • Fig. 53-4a (a) Clumped
  • Fig. 53-4b
  • Fig. 53-4c
  • Fig. 53-3 irths Deaths irths and immigration Deaths and emigration dd individuals to remove individuals population. from a population.mmigration Emigration
  • Survivorship Curves
  • Isle Royale
  • Fig. 53-25 Rapid growth Slow growth No growth United States Italy Male Age Male Female Age Male Female 85+ 85+ 80–84 80–84 75–79 75–79 70–74 70–74 65–69 65–69 60–64 60–64 55–59 55–59 50–54 50–54 45–49 45–49 40–44 40–44 35–39 35–39 30–34 30–3425–29 25–29 20–24 20–2415–19 15–19 10–14 10–14 5–9 5–9 0–4 0–4 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 2 8 8 6 4 2 0 4 6 8 Percent of population Percent of population Percent of population
  • Environmental Bioassay
  • Dose Response
  • Toxins in the EnvironmentImportant Terms•Acute versus chroniceffects•Bioaccumulation•Degradation•Biomagnification•LC50, TC50
  • Community Ecology
  • Trophic Structure
  • Coral Reefs
  • Cnidaria
  • Acropora milliporaOrange Bushy Coral
  • Parrotfishes Conversion of primary production to fish-based trophic pathways Provision of suitable settlement substrata for new corals Mediation of competition between corals and macroalgae
  • Diadema antillarium
  • Epinephelus striatus
  • Community InteractionsPredation & herbivorySymbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism)
  • Intertidal Community
  • Competition and niche differentiation in barnacles (Connell 1961)– Chthalamus more tolerant of dessication than Balanus– Balanus a more successful competitor – Chthalamus restricted to upper intertidal zone – realized niche < fundamental niche
  • – Testing the competitive exclusion principle • Two species of barnacles on intertidal rocks • Remove Balanus -- Chthamalus spread • Chthamalus distribution limited by Balanus High tide Chthamalus Chthamalus realized niche Balanus Balanus realized niche Ocean Low tide Figure 37.2A
  • Niches: fundamental and realized The fundamental niche is the n-dimensional hypervolume describing the full range of conditions that the species can use in the absence of competition • defined by an organism’s adaptations to persist in a given abiotic environment The realized niche is often smaller than the fundamental niche • restricted by factors eg, competition, predation, parasitism.
  • Modes of CompetitionIntraspecific: – Competition among members of the same species. – e.g. density dependent factorsInterspecific: – Competition among individuals of two or more different species • reduces fitness of both. • Interspecific competition can occur only if species have similar resource requirements – i.e. must have overlapping niches.
  • Predation
  • Fig. 54-6
  • Cuscuta pentagona Dodder predation
  • Batesian Mimicry
  • Mullerian Mimicry
  • Producers
  • Benthic non-motile consumers
  • Benthic motile consumers
  • KeystonePredator
  • Ecosystem Ecology Primary Productivity Nutrient Cycling
  • NPP=GPP-R
  • W are the Phytoplankton? ho Dia tom sDinofla ge lla te s phytoplankton Coccolitho
  • Gulf of Maine Data: W ilkinson and Jordan Basins Wilk. Basin Jordan Basin
  • The Redfield Ratio 106 Carbon : 16 Nitrogen : 1 Phosphorus Nucleic Acids CO2 Lipids Light Proteins Nutrients Carbohydrates (N, P, etc) Liebig’s Law:Growth of a “plant” is determined by availability of the single most limiting resource.Redfield
  • Duck?
  • Nutrient Cycle