Figure 1.8 Contrasting eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in size and complexity
Figure 1.9 Inherited DNA directs development of an organism
Figure 1.5 Nutrient cycling and energy flow in an ecosystem
Figure 1.3 Some properties of life
Figure 1.4 Levels of biological organization
Campbell, Neil A., Jane B. Reece, Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, Biology: Concepts & Connections , 5th ed., Figure 13.5A Camouflage as an example of evolutionary adaptation; a leaf mantid in Costa Rica. The leaf insect has a body shape, coloration, and swaying movement that enable it to avoid predation as it feeds on plant leaves.
Figure 17.10B Cockleburs fruits may be carried by animal fur. Cockleburs produce a spiny fruit that attaches to animal fur, dispersing the seeds in their environment.
Figure 1.20 Natural selection
Figure 13.2 Artificial selection: different vegetables produced by selecting variations in different parts of the plant. A student took a good look at this figure and exclaimed, “All the vegetables I hate are the same species!”
Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead express a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures because of want or need. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors certain traits that exist within a population. Adaptations evolve in populations. Organisms do not actively or willingly evolve. 2. Students often think of evolution as a process that improves. As the text notes, an adaptation in one context might be a handicap in another context. Reptiles are not “better” animals than fish. Neither could survive long in the other’s environment. Instead, the adaptations found in reptiles allow them to survive in a terrestrial environment, as those of fish allow them to survive in an aquatic one. Teaching Tips 1. Students may be asked to consider this question: Can individuals evolve? Sometimes such simple questions require complex answers. Might Lamarck have answered this question differently from Darwin? Module 13.2 addresses this question.
Figure 13.3B Evolution of pesticide resistance in an insect.
Figure 13.5A Homologous structures: vertebrate forelimbs. Point out that homologous structures may have similar or different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry.
Figure 13.5B Homologous structures in vertebrate embryos. Hopefully, you have lost your tail. In the fish, the pharyngeal pouches form adult gill pouches. Yours have developed into structures of your ear and throat.
Figure 13.6 Evolutionary tree for tetrapods and their closest living relatives, the lungfishes. The purple hatch marks indicate the origin of three important homologies. Point out: All tetrapods (land vertebrates) share a basic limb structure that arose when the first amphibians moved onto land. 2. Feathers arose in the small carnivorous dinosaurs that gave rise to birds. Today, feathers are found only in birds (which are the last living dinosaurs).
Figure 13.14A Extreme sexual dimorphism (peacock at right, peahen at left). How do colorful/flashy males benefit? Flashy males benefit from increased reproductive success. How do choosy females benefit? Females may be choosing males that advertise their genetic quality by loud calls or bright colors.
Continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents Fig. 1-9
Fig. 1-20 Population with varied inherited traits. Elimination of individuals with certain traits. Reproduction of survivors. Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. 4 3 2 1
Chromosome with allele conferring resistance to pesticide Additional applications will be less effective, and the frequency of resistant insects in the population will grow Survivors Pesticide application
Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Human Cat Whale Bat
Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail Chick embryo Human embryo
Tetrapod limbs Amnion Lungfishes Feathers Amphibians Mammals Lizards and snakes 2 Hawks and other birds Ostriches Crocodiles 1 3 4 5 6 Amniotes Tetrapods Birds