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  • 1. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 1 1 ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN David I. Soybel, M.D., F.A.C.S., Romano Delcore, M.D., F.A.C.S. The term acute abdominal pain generally refers to previously undi- pointing.6 For this reason, the use of standardized history and phys- agnosed pain that arises suddenly and is of less than 7 days’ (usual- ical forms, with or without the aid of diagnostic computer pro- ly less than 48 hours’) duration.1 It may be caused by a great variety grams, has been recommended.7-10 A large-scale study that includ- of intraperitoneal disorders, many of which call for surgical treat- ed 16,737 patients with acute abdominal pain demonstrated that ment, as well as by a range of extraperitoneal disorders,2 which typ- integration of computer-aided diagnosis into management yielded a ically do not call for surgical treatment [see Clinical Evaluation,Ten- 20% improvement in diagnostic accuracy.7 The study also docu- tative Differential Diagnosis, below]. Abdominal pain that persists mented statistically significant reductions in inappropriate admis- for 6 hours or longer is usually caused by disorders of surgical sig- sions, negative laparotomies, serious management errors (e.g., fail- nificance.3 The primary goals in the management of patients with ure to operate on patients who require surgery), and length of acute abdominal pain are (1) to establish a differential diagnosis hospital stay, as well as statistically significant increases in the num- and a plan for confirming the diagnosis through appropriate imag- ber of patients who were immediately discharged home without ad- ing studies, (2) to determine whether operative intervention is nec- verse effects and the promptness with which those requiring surgery essary, and (3) to prepare the patient for operation in a manner that underwent operation. Although many factors may have contributed minimizes perioperative morbidity and mortality. to the observed benefits of computer-aided decision-making, it is In many cases, these goals are easily accomplished. On occasion, clear that the use of structured and standardized means of collect- however, the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain can ing clinical and laboratory data was crucial. An example of such a be one of the most difficult challenges in clinical surgery. It is essen- structured data sheet is the pain chart developed by the World Or- tial to keep in mind that most (at least two thirds) of the patients ganization of Gastroenterology (OMGE) [see Figure 1]. Because who present with acute abdominal pain have disorders for which this pain chart is not exhaustive and does not cover all potential sit- surgical intervention is not required.2,4,5 In addition, most clinicians uations, individual surgeons may want to add to it; however, they depend on recognition of specific patterns and sequences of symp- would be well advised not to omit any of the symptoms and signs toms and signs to determine the need for further testing and to on the OMGE data sheet from their routine examination of pa- make decisions regarding the timing of operation; however, at least tients with acute abdominal pain.11 one third of patients with acute abdominal pain exhibit atypical fea- The patient’s own words often provide important clues to the tures that render pattern recognition unreliable.2,5 Finally, it is not correct diagnosis.The examiner should refrain from suggesting spe- clear that individual clinicians always or even usually agree on pre- cific symptoms, except as a last resort. Any questions that must be senting symptoms and physical signs. In one study of abdominal asked should be open-ended—for example, “What happens when pain in children, agreement between individual observers was you eat?” rather than “Does eating make the pain worse?” Leading reached 50% of the time for the physical sign of rebound tender- questions should be avoided. When a leading question must be ness; however, for five other signs (abdominal distention, abdominal asked, it should be posed first as a negative question (i.e., one that tenderness to percussion, abdominal tenderness to palpation, ab- calls for an answer in the negative) because a negative answer to a dominal guarding, and bowel sounds), interobserver agreement was question is more likely to be honest and accurate. For example, if not reached in more than one third of patients.These findings high- peritoneal inflammation is suspected, the question asked should be light the difficulties inherent in evaluation and management of “Does coughing make the pain better?” rather than “Does cough- acute abdominal pain. In addition, they emphasize the importance ing make the pain worse?” of integrating care among different providers to minimize loss of in- The mode of onset of abdominal pain may help the examiner de- formation and maximize continuity of care. termine the severity of the underlying disease. Pain that has a sud- den onset suggests an intra-abdominal catastrophe, such as a rup- tured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a perforated viscus, or a Clinical Evaluation ruptured ectopic pregnancy; a near loss of consciousness or stamina associated with sudden-onset pain should heighten the level of con- HISTORY cern for such a catastrophe. Rapidly progressive pain that becomes A careful and methodical intensely focused in a well-defined area within a period of a few clinical history should be minutes to an hour or two suggests a condition such as acute chole- obtained. Key features of cystitis or pancreatitis. Pain that has a gradual onset over several the history include the di- hours, usually beginning as slight or vague discomfort and slowly mensions of pain (i.e., mode of onset, duration, frequency, charac- progressing to steady and more localized pain, suggests a subacute ter, location, chronology, radiation, and intensity), as well as the process and is characteristic of processes that lead to peritoneal in- presence or absence of any aggravating or alleviating factors and as- flammation. Numerous disorders may be associated with this mode sociated symptoms. Often, such a history is more valuable than any of onset, including acute appendicitis, diverticulitis, pelvic inflam- single laboratory or x-ray finding and determines the course of sub- matory disease (PID), and intestinal obstruction. sequent evaluation and management. Pain can be either intermittent or continuous. Intermittent or Unfortunately, when the ability of clinicians to take an organized cramping pain (colic) is pain that occurs for a short period (a few and accurate history has been studied, the results have been disap- minutes), followed by longer periods (a few minutes to one-half
  • 2. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 2 Patient presents with acute abdominal pain Assessment of Obtain clinical history Acute Abdominal Pain Assess mode of onset, duration, frequency, character, location, chronology, radiation, and intensity of pain. Look for aggravating or alleviating factors and associated symptoms. Use structured data sheets if possible. Generate working diagnosis Perform basic investigative studies Proceed with subsequent management on the basis Laboratory: complete blood count, hematocrit, electrolytes, creatinine, of the working diagnosis. blood urea nitrogen, glucose, liver function tests, amylase, lipase, Reevaluate patient repeatedly. If patient does not urinalysis, pregnancy test, ECG (if patient is elderly or has respond to treatment as expected, reassess working atherosclerosis). diagnosis and return to differential diagnosis. Imaging: Perform US or CT as indicated by results of examination and basic laboratory studies. Patient has acute surgical abdomen Patient has subacute surgical abdomen Operate immediately. Treat surgically when diagnosis is confirmed. Conditions necessitating immediate laparotomy include ruptured abdominal aortic or visceral aneurysm, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous hepatic or splenic rupture, major blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemoperitoneum from various causes. Patient requires urgent laparotomy Patient should be hospitalized or laparoscopy and observed Severe hemodynamic instability is the essential indication. Conditions necessitating urgent Observe patient carefully, and laparotomy include perforated reevaluate condition periodically. hollow viscus, appendicitis, Meckel Consider additional investigative diverticulitis, strangulated hernia, studies (e.g., CT, US, diagnostic mesenteric ischemia, and ectopic peritoneal lavage, radionuclide pregnancy (unruptured). imaging, angiography, MRI, and Laparoscopy is recommended for GI endoscopy). acute appendicitis and perforated Diagnostic laparoscopy is ulcers (provided that surgeon has recommended if pain persists after sufficient experience and a period of observation. competence with the technique). Patient requires early laparotomy Patient is candidate for elective Diagnosis is uncertain, or laparoscopy laparotomy or laparoscopy or patient has suspected nonsurgical abdomen Early laparotomy or laparoscopy is Elective laparotomy or laparoscopy reserved for patients whose conditions is reserved for patients who are Reevaluate patient as are unlikely to become life threatening highly likely to respond to appropriate if operation is delayed for 24–48 conservative medical management (see facing page). hr (e.g., those with uncomplicated or whose conditions are highly intestinal obstruction, uncomplicated unlikely to become life threatening acute cholecystitis, uncomplicated during prolonged evaluation (e.g., acute diverticulitis, or nonstrangulated those with IBD, peptic ulcer disease, incarcerated hernia). pancreatitis, or endometriosis).
  • 3. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 3 Generate tentative differential diagnosis Remember that the majority of patients will turn out to have nonsurgical diagnoses. Take into account effects of age and gender on diagnostic possibilities. Perform physical examination Evaluate general appearance and ability to answer questions; estimate degree of obvious pain; note position in bed; identify area of maximal pain; look for extra-abdominal causes of pain and signs of systemic illness. Perform systematic abdominal examination: (1) inspection, (2) auscultation, (3) percussion, (4) palpation. Perform rectal, genital, and pelvic examinations. Patient has abdominal pain of uncertain origin Patient has nonsurgical condition or chronic relapsing condition that does not necessitate Observe patient to determine whether operation operative intervention is indicated. Nonsurgical conditions causing acute abdominal pain include both extraperitoneal [see Table 2] and intraperitoneal disorders. Patient should be hospitalized Patient can be evaluated in and observed outpatient setting Patient should be hospitalized and observed Provide narcotic analgesia as Provide narcotic analgesia as appropriate. appropriate. Observe patient carefully, and reevaluate Observe patient carefully, and condition periodically. reevaluate condition periodically. Consider additional investigative Consider additional investigative studies. studies. CT and US may be especially useful. Diagnosis is uncertain Diagnosis is or patient has nonsurgical suspected surgical abdomen Refer patient for medical management. Reevaluate patient Patient has suspected surgical Diagnosis is uncertain, or patient as appropriate abdomen has suspected nonsurgical (see above, left, and abdomen facing page). Reevaluate patient as appropriate (see facing page). Reevaluate patient as appropriate (see above, right, and facing page).
  • 4. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 4 ABDOMINAL PAIN CHART NAME REG. NUMBER MALE FEMALE AGE FORM FILLED BY MODE OF ARRIVAL DATE TIME Site of Pain Aggravating Factors Progression of Pain movement better At Onset coughing same PAIN respiration worse food Duration At Present other none Type intermittent Relieving Factors steady lying still colicky vomiting Radiation antacids Severity food moderate other severe none Nausea Bowels Previous Similar Pain yes no normal yes no constipation Vomiting Previous Abdominal Surgery diarrhea yes no yes no blood HISTORY Anorexia mucus Drugs for Abdominal Pain yes no yes no Micturition Indigestion normal Female-LMP yes no frequency pregnant dysuria vaginal discharge Jaundice dark dizzy/faint yes no hematuria Temp. Pulse Location of Tenderness Initial Diagnosis & Plan BP Mood Rebound normal yes no upset Results Guarding anxious amylase yes no blood count (WBC) Color Rigidity urine normal yes no x-ray pale flushed Mass yes no EXAMINATION jaundiced cyanotic Murphy’s Sign Present other Intestinal Movement yes no normal Bowel Sounds poor/nil normal Diagnosis & Plan after Investigation peristalsis absent Scars increased yes no Rectal-Vaginal Tenderness Distention left yes no right (time ) general mass Discharge Diagnosis none History and examination of other systems on separate case notes. Figure 1 Shown on facing page is a data sheet modified from the abdominal pain chart developed by the OMGE.10
  • 5. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 5 hour) of complete remission during which there is no pain at all. In- tensity of the pain and the patient’s reaction to it because there ap- termittent pain is characteristic of obstruction of a hollow viscus pear to be significant individual differences with respect to tolerance and results from vigorous peristalsis in the wall of the viscus proxi- of and reaction to pain. Pain that is intense enough to awaken the mal to the site of obstruction.This pain is perceived as deep in the patient from sleep usually indicates a significant underlying organic abdomen and is poorly localized.The patient is restless, may writhe cause. Past episodes of pain and factors that aggravate or relieve the about incessantly in an effort to find a comfortable position, and of- pain often provide useful diagnostic clues. For example, pain caused ten presses on the abdominal wall in an attempt to alleviate the by peritonitis tends to be exacerbated by motion, deep breathing, pain. Whereas the intermittent pain associated with intestinal ob- coughing, or sneezing, and patients with peritonitis tend to lie qui- struction (typically described as gripping and mounting) is usually etly in bed and avoid any movement.The typical pain of acute pan- severe but bearable, the pain associated with obstruction of small creatitis is exacerbated by lying down and relieved by sitting up. conduits (e.g., the biliary tract, the ureters, and the uterine tubes) Pain that is relieved by eating or taking antacids suggests duodenal often becomes unbearable. Obstruction of the gallbladder or the ulcer disease, whereas diffuse abdominal pain that appears 30 min- bile ducts gives rise to a type of pain often referred to as biliary col- utes to 1 hour after meals suggests intestinal angina. ic; however, this term is a misnomer, in that biliary pain is usually Associated gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, constant because of the lack of a strong muscular coat in the biliary anorexia, diarrhea, and constipation) often accompany abdominal tree and the absence of regular peristalsis. pain; however, these symptoms are nonspecific and therefore may Continuous or constant pain is pain that is present for hours or not be of great value in the differential diagnosis.Vomiting in partic- days without any period of complete relief; it is more common than ular is common: when sufficiently stimulated by pain impulses trav- intermittent pain. Continuous pain is usually indicative of a process eling via secondary visceral afferent fibers, the medullary vomiting that will lead, or has already led, to peritoneal inflammation or is- centers activate efferent fibers and cause reflex vomiting. Once again, chemia. It may be of steady intensity throughout, or it may be asso- the chronology of events is important, in that pain often precedes ciated with intermittent pain. For example, the typical colicky pain vomiting in patients with conditions necessitating operation, where- associated with simple intestinal obstruction changes when strangu- as the opposite is usually the case in patients with medical (i.e., non- lation occurs, becoming continuous pain that persists between surgical) conditions.5,12 This is particularly true for adult patients episodes or waves of cramping pain. with acute appendicitis, in whom pain almost always precedes vom- Certain types of pain are generally held to be typical of certain iting by several hours. In children, vomiting is commonly observed pathologic states. For example, the pain of a perforated ulcer is often closer to the onset of the pain, though it is rarely the initial symptom. described as burning, that of a dissecting aneurysm as tearing, and Similarly, constipation may result from a reflex paralytic ileus that of bowel obstruction as gripping. One may imagine that the first when sufficiently stimulated visceral afferent fibers activate effer- type of pain is explained by the efflux of acid, the second by the sud- ent sympathetic fibers (splanchnic nerves) to reduce intestinal den expansion of the retroperitoneum, and the third by the churning peristalsis. Diarrhea is characteristic of gastroenteritis but may of hyperperistalsis. Colorful as these images may be, in most cases, also accompany incomplete intestinal or colonic obstruction. the pain begins in a nondescript way. It is only by carefully following More significant is a history of obstipation, because if it can be the patient’s description of the evolution and time course of the pain definitely established that a patient with acute abdominal pain has that such images may be formed with confidence. not passed gas or stool for 24 to 48 hours, it is certain that some For several reasons—atypical pain patterns, dual innervation by degree of intestinal obstruction is present. Other associated symp- visceral and somatic afferents, normal variations in organ position, toms that should be noted include jaundice, melena, hema- and widely diverse underlying pathologic states—the location of ab- tochezia, hematemesis, and hematuria.These symptoms are much dominal pain is only a rough guide to diagnosis. It is nevertheless more specific than the ones just discussed and can be extremely true that in most disorders, the pain tends to occur in characteristic valuable in the differential diagnosis. Most conditions that cause locations, such as the right upper quadrant (cholecystitis), the right acute abdominal pain of surgical significance are associated with lower quadrant (appendicitis), the epigastrium (pancreatitis), or the some degree of fever if they are allowed to continue long enough. left lower quadrant (sigmoid diverticulitis) [see Figure 2]. It is impor- Fever suggests an inflammatory process; however, it is usually low tant to determine the location of the pain at onset because this may grade and often absent altogether, particularly in elderly and im- differ from the location at the time of presentation (so-called shifting munocompromised patients.The combination of a high fever with pain). In fact, the chronological sequence of events in the patient’s chills and rigors indicates bacteremia, and concomitant changes history is often more important for diagnosis than the location of the in mental status (e.g., agitation, disorientation, and lethargy) sug- pain alone. For example, the classic pain of appendicitis begins in the gest impending septic shock. periumbilical region and settles in the right lower quadrant. A similar A history of trauma (even if the patient considers the traumatic shift in location can occur when escaping gastroduodenal contents event trivial) should be actively sought in all cases of unexplained from a perforated ulcer pool in the right lower quadrant. acute abdominal pain; such a history may not be readily volun- It is also important to take into account radiation or referral of teered (as is often the case with trauma resulting from domestic vio- the pain, which tends to occur in characteristic patterns [see Figure lence).The history may be particularly relevant in a patient taking 3]. For example, biliary pain is referred to the right subscapular anticoagulants and presenting with acute onset of abdominal pain area, and the boring pain of pancreatitis typically radiates straight accompanied by tenderness but no clear signs of inflammation. through to the back. Obstruction of the small intestine and the Hematoma within the rectus muscle sheath can easily be mistaken proximal colon is referred to the umbilicus, and obstruction distal for appendicitis or other lower abdominal illnesses; hematoma else- to the splenic flexure is often referred to the suprapubic area. Spasm where can produce symptoms of obstruction or acute bleeding into in the ureter often radiates to the suprapubic area and into the the peritoneum and the retroperitoneum. In female patients, it is es- groin.The more severe the pain is, the more likely it is to be associ- sential to obtain a detailed gynecologic history that includes the ated with referral to other areas. timing of symptoms within the menstrual cycle, the date of the last The intensity or severity of the pain is related to the magnitude of menses, previous and current use of contraception, any abnormal the underlying insult. It is important to distinguish between the in- vaginal bleeding or discharge, an obstetric history, and any risk fac-
  • 6. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 6 a b EPIGASTRIC REGION Peptic Ulcer Gastritis Pancreatitis Duodenitis Gastroenteritis Early Appendicitis Mesenteric Adenitis UMBILICAL REGION Mesenteric Thrombosis Early Appendicitis Intestinal Obstruction Gastroenteritis Inflammatory Bowel Pancreatitis Disease Hernia Mesenteric Adenitis Mesenteric Thrombosis Intestinal Obstruction DIFFUSE Inflammatory Bowel Disease Peritonitis Aneurysm Early Appendicitis Pancreatitis HYPOGASTRIC REGION Leukemia Cystitis Sickle Cell Crisis Diverticulitis Gastroenteritis Appendicitis Mesenteric Adenitis Prostatism Mesenteric Thrombosis Salpingitis Intestinal Obstruction Hernia Inflammatory Bowel Ovarian Cyst/Torsion Disease Endometriosis Aneurysm Ectopic Pregnancy Metabolic Causes Nephrolithiasis Toxic Causes Intestinal Obstruction Inflammatory Bowel Disease Abdominal Wall Hematoma c RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT LEFT UPPER QUADRANT Cholecystitis Gastritis Choledocholithiasis Pancreatitis Hepatitis Splenic Enlargement Hepatic Abscess Splenic Rupture Hepatomegaly from Splenic Infarction Congestive Heart Failure Splenic Aneurysm Peptic Ulcer Pyelonephritis Pancreatitis Nephrolithiasis Retrocecal Appendicitis Herpes Zoster Pyelonephritis Myocardial Ischemia Nephrolithiasis Pneumonia Herpes Zoster Empyema Myocardial Ischemia Diverticulitis Pericarditis Intestinal Obstruction Pneumonia Inflammatory Bowel Disease Empyema Gastritis LEFT LOWER QUADRANT Duodenitis Diverticulitis Intestinal Obstruction Intestinal Obstruction Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease Appendicitis RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT Leaking Aneurysm Appendicitis Abdominal Wall Hematoma Intestinal Obstruction Ectopic Pregnancy Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mittelschmerz Mesenteric Adenitis Ovarian Cyst/Torsion Diverticulitis Salpingitis Cholecystitis Endometriosis Perforated Ulcer Ureteral Calculi Leaking Aneurysm Pyelonephritis Abdominal Wall Hematoma Nephrolithiasis Ectopic Pregnancy Seminal Vesiculitis Ovarian Cyst/Torsion Psoas Abscess Salpingitis Hernia Mittelschmerz Endometriosis Ureteral Calculi Figure 2 In most disorders that give rise to acute abdominal pain, the pain tends to occur Pyelonephritis in specific locations. (a) Diffuse pain suggests a certain set of diagnostic possibilities. (b) Nephrolithiasis Differing groups of disorders give rise to abdominal pain in the epigastric, umbilical, and Seminal Vesiculitis hypogastric regions. (c) Disorders that give rise to acute abdominal pain may be grouped Psoas Abscess Hernia according to the quadrant of the abdomen in which pain tends to occur.
  • 7. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 7 Esophagus Perforated Duodenal Ulcer (Diaphragmatic Irritation) Stomach Liver and Biliary Colic Gallbladder Pylorus Colon Acute Pancreatitis and Renal Colic Left and Right Kidneys Uterine and Rectal Pain Ureter Figure 3 Pain of abdominal origin tends to be referred in characteristic patterns.80 The more severe the pain is, the more likely it is to be referred. Shown are anterior (left) and posterior (right) areas of referred pain. tors for ectopic pregnancy (e.g., PID, use of an intrauterine device, North American emergency rooms, it is important to consider or previous ectopic or tubal surgery). endemic diseases, including tuberculosis,14,15 parasitic diseases,16- A complete history of previous medical conditions must be ob- 18 bezoars from unusual dietary habits,19,20 and unusual malig- tained because associated diseases of the cardiac, pulmonary, and nancies.21,22 renal systems may give rise to acute abdominal symptoms and may The value of detailed epidemiologic knowledge notwithstanding, also significantly affect the morbidity and mortality associated with it is worthwhile to keep in mind the truism that common things are surgical intervention. Weight changes, past illnesses, recent travel, common. Regarding which things are common, the most extensive environmental exposure to toxins or infectious agents, and medica- information currently available comes from the ongoing survey be- tions used should also be investigated. A history of previous abdom- gun in 1977 by the Research Committee of the OMGE. As of the inal operations should be obtained but should not be relied on too last progress report on this survey, which was published in 1988,23 heavily in the absence of operative reports. A careful family history more than 200 physicians at 26 centers in 17 countries had accu- is important for detection of hereditary disorders that may cause mulated data on 10,320 patients with acute abdominal pain [see acute abdominal pain. A detailed social history should also be ob- Table 3].The most common diagnosis in these patients was nonspe- tained that includes any history of tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug cific abdominal pain (NSAP)—that is, the retrospective diagnosis of use, as well as a sexual history. exclusion in which no cause for the pain can be identified.24,25 Non- specific abdominal pain accounted for 34% of all patients seen; the TENTATIVE DIFFERENTIAL four most common diagnoses accounted for more than 75%.The DIAGNOSIS most common surgical diagnosis in the OMGE survey was acute Once the history has appendicitis, followed by acute cholecystitis, small bowel obstruc- been obtained, the examin- tion, and gynecologic disorders. Relatively few patients had perfo- er should generate a tenta- rated peptic ulcer, a finding that confirms the current downward tive differential diagnosis trend in the incidence of this condition. Cancer was found to be a and carry out the physical significant cause of acute abdominal pain.There was little variation examination in search of in the geographic distribution of surgical causes of acute abdominal specific signs or findings that either rule out or confirm the diag- pain (i.e., conditions necessitating operation) among developed nostic possibilities. Given the diversity of conditions that can countries. In patients who required operation, the most common cause acute abdominal pain [see Tables 1 and 2], there is no substi- causes were acute appendicitis (42.6%), acute cholecystitis (14.7%), tute for general awareness of the most common causes of acute small bowel obstruction (6.2%), perforated peptic ulcer (3.7%), abdominal pain and the influence of age, gender, and geography and acute pancreatitis (4.5%).23 The OMGE survey’s finding that on the likelihood of any of these potential causes. Although acute NSAP was the most common diagnosis in patients with acute ab- abdominal pain is the most common surgical emergency and dominal pain has been confirmed by several srudies12,13,25; the find- most non–trauma-related surgical admissions (and 1% of all hos- ing that acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, and intestinal obstruction pital admissions) are accounted for by patients complaining of were the three most common diagnoses in patients with acute ab- abdominal pain, little information is available regarding the clini- dominal pain who require operation has also been amply confirmed cal spectrum of disease in these patients.13 Nevertheless, detailed [see Table 3].1,12,13 epidemiologic information can be an invaluable asset in the diag- The data described so far provide a comprehensive picture of nosis and treatment of acute abdominal pain. Now that patients the most likely diagnoses for patients with acute abdominal pain in from different parts of the world are increasingly being seen in many centers around the world; however, this picture does not take
  • 8. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 8 Table 1 Intraperitoneal Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain81 Inflammatory Pancreatic abscess Torsion or degeneration of fibroid Peritoneal Hepatic abscess Ectopic pregnancy Chemical and nonbacterial peritonitis Splenic abscess Hemoperitoneum Perforated peptic ulcer/biliary tree, Mesenteric Ruptured hepatic neoplasm pancreatitis, ruptured ovarian cyst, Lymphadenitis (bacterial, viral) mittelschmerz Spontaneous splenic rupture Epiploic appendagitis Bacterial peritonitis Ruptured mesentery Pelvic Primary peritonitis Ruptured uterus Pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis) Pneumococcal, streptococcal, Ruptured graafian follicle tuberculous Tubo-ovarian abscess Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Endometritis Ruptured aortic or visceral aneurysm Perforated hollow viscus Mechanical (obstruction, acute distention) Ischemic Esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small Hollow visceral intestine, bile duct, gallbladder, colon, Mesenteric thrombosis urinary bladder Intestinal obstruction Hepatic infarction (toxemia, purpura) Hollow visceral Adhesions, hernias, neoplasms, volvulus Splenic infarction Appendicitis Intussusception, gallstone ileus, foreign Omental ischemia bodies Cholecystitis Strangulated hernia Bezoars, parasites Peptic ulcer Biliary obstruction Neoplastic Gastroenteritis Calculi, neoplasms, choledochal cyst, Primary or metastatic intraperitoneal Gastritis hemobilia neoplasms Duodenitis Solid visceral Traumatic Inflammatory bowel disease Acute splenomegaly Blunt trauma Meckel diverticulitis Acute hepatomegaly (congestive heart Penetrating trauma Colitis (bacterial, amebic) failure, Budd-Chiari syndrome) Iatrogenic trauma Diverticulitis Mesenteric Domestic violence Solid visceral Omental torsion Pancreatitis Pelvic Miscellaneous Hepatitis Ovarian cyst Endometriosis PHYSICAL EXAMINATION into account the effect of age on the relative likelihood of the vari- ous potential diagnoses. It is well known that the disease spectrum In the physical examina- of acute abdominal pain is different in different age groups, espe- tion of a patient, as in the cially in the very old4,26,27 and the very young.28-30 In the OMGE taking of the history, there is survey, well over 90% of cases of acute abdominal pain in children no substitute for organiza- were diagnosed as acute appendicitis (32%) or NSAP (62%).28 tion and patience; the Similar age-related differences in the spectrum of disease have amount of information that been confirmed by other studies,16 as have various gender-related can be obtained is directly differences. proportional to the gentleness and thoroughness of the examiner. This variation in the disease spectrum is readily apparent when The physical examination begins with a brief but thorough evalua- the 10,320 patients from the OMGE survey are segregated by age tion of the patient’s general appearance and ability to answer ques- [see Table 4]. In patients 50 years of age or older,27 cholecystitis was tions.The degree of obvious pain should be estimated.The patient’s more common than either NSAP or acute appendicitis; small position in bed should be noted. A patient who lies motionless with bowel obstruction, diverticular disease, and pancreatitis were all flexed hips and knees is more likely to have generalized peritonitis. A approximately five times more common than in patients younger restless patient who writhes about in bed is more likely to have col- than 50 years. Hernias were also a much more common problem icky pain. in older patients. In the entire group of patients, only one of every The area of maximal pain should be identified before the physi- 10 instances of intestinal obstruction was attributable to a hernia, cal examination is begun.The examiner can easily do this by simply whereas in patients 50 years of age or older, one of every three in- asking the patient to cough and then to point with two fingers to the stances was caused by an undiagnosed hernia. Cancer was 40 area where pain seems to be focused. This allows the examiner to times more likely to be the cause of acute abdominal pain in pa- avoid the area in the early stages of the examination and to confirm tients 50 years of age or older; vascular diseases (including my- it at a later stage without causing the patient unnecessary discom- ocardial infarction, mesenteric ischemia, and ruptured AAA) were fort in the meantime. 25 times more common in patients 50 years of age or older and The physical examination should be directed, in the sense that it 100 times more common in patients older than 70 years.What is should address critical findings that would confirm or exclude the more, outcome was clearly related to age: mortality was signifi- likeliest disorders in the differential diagnosis. In this context, how- cantly higher in patients older than 70 years (5%) than in those ever, it should be complete. Some processes that can cause abdom- younger than 50 years (< 1%). Whereas the peak incidence of inal pain occur within the chest (e.g., pneumonia, ischemic heart acute abdominal pain occurred in patients in their teens and disease or arrhythmia, esophageal muscular disorders); thus, aus- 20s,28 the great majority of deaths occurred in patients older than cultation of the lungs and the heart is integral to the examination. 70 years.27 Pelvic examination should be performed in women, and examina-
  • 9. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 9 tion of the rectum and the groin should be performed in all patients. proach is crucial: an examiner who methodically follows a set pat- It should not be assumed that advanced imaging technology (e.g., tern of abdominal examination every time will be rewarded more CT, MRI, or ultrasonography [US]) will provide the diagnosis most frequently than one who improvises haphazardly with each patient. quickly or with the highest level of confidence.The sensitivity and The first step in the abdominal examination is careful inspection specificity (not to mention the cost-effectiveness) of any laboratory of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls, the flanks, the per- or imaging study are grounded in the intelligent gathering and cate- ineum, and the genitalia for previous surgical scars (possible adhe- gorization of signs and symptoms.31,32 sions), hernias (incarceration or strangulation), distention (intestinal Before attention is directed to the patient’s abdomen, signs of obstruction), obvious masses (distended gallbladder, abscesses, or systemic illness should be sought. Systemic signs of shock (e.g., di- tumors), ecchymosis or abrasions (trauma), striae (pregnancy or as- aphoresis, pallor, hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia with or- cites), an everted umbilicus (increased intra-abdominal pressure), thostasis, and frank hypotension) usually accompany a rapidly pro- visible pulsations (aneurysm), visible peristalsis (obstruction), limi- gressive or advanced intra-abdominal condition and, in the absence tation of movement of the abdominal wall with ventilatory move- of extra-abdominal causes, are indications for immediate laparoto- ments (peritonitis), or engorged veins (portal hypertension). my.The absence of any alteration in vital signs, however, does not The next recommended step in the abdominal examination is necessarily exclude a serious intra-abdominal process. auscultation. Although it is important to note the presence (or ab- Examination of the abdomen begins with the patient resting in a sence) of bowel sounds and their quality, auscultation is probably comfortable supine position. A right-handed examiner should stand the least rewarding aspect of the physical examination. Severe intra- on the patient’s right side, and the patient’s abdomen should be lev- abdominal conditions, even intra-abdominal catastrophes, may oc- el with the elbow at rest. In some cases, to make sure that the exam- cur in patients with normal bowel sounds, and patients with silent ination is unhurried and the patient’s anxiety is allayed, the examin- abdomens may have no significant intra-abdominal pathology at all. er may find it useful to sit at the bedside.The examination should In general, however, the absence of bowel sounds indicates a para- include inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation of all ar- lytic ileus; hyperactive or hypoactive bowel sounds often are varia- eas of the abdomen, the flanks, and the groin (including all hernia tions of normal activity; and high-pitched bowel sounds with orifices) in addition to rectal and genital examinations (and, in fe- splashes, tinkles (echoing as in a large cavern), or rushes (pro- male patients, a full gynecologic examination). A systematic ap- longed, loud gurgles) indicate mechanical bowel obstruction. Table 2 Extraperitoneal Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain Genitourinary Endocrine Hematologic Pyelonephritis Diabetic ketoacidosis Sickle cell crisis Perinephric abscess Hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia) Acute leukemia Renal infarct Acute adrenal insufficiency (Addisonian Acute hemolytic states Nephrolithiasis crisis) Coagulopathies Ureteral obstruction (lithiasis, tumor) Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism Pernicious anemia Acute cystitis Musculoskeletal Other dyscrasias Prostatitis Rectus sheath hematoma Vascular Seminal vesiculitis Arthritis /diskitis of thoracolumbar spine Vasculitis Epididymitis Neurogenic Periarteritis Orchitis Testicular torsion Herpes zoster Toxins Dysmenorrhea Tabes dorsalis Bacterial toxins (tetanus, staphylococcus) Threatened abortion Nerve root compression Insect venom (black widow spider) Spinal cord tumors Animal venom Pulmonary Osteomyelitis of the spine Heavy metals (lead, arsenic, mercury) Pneumonia Abdominal epilepsy Poisonous mushrooms Empyema Abdominal migraine Drugs Pulmonary embolus Multiple sclerosis Withdrawal from narcotics Pulmonary infarction Pneumothorax Inflammatory Retroperitoneal Schönlein-Henoch purpura Retroperitoneal hemorrhage (spontaneous Cardiac adrenal hemorrhage) Systemic lupus erythematosus Myocardial ischemia Psoas abscess Polyarteritis nodosa Myocardial infarction Dermatomyositis Psychogenic Acute rheumatic fever Scleroderma Hypochondriasis Acute pericarditis Infectious Somatization disorders Metabolic Bacterial Factitious Acute intermittent porphyria Parasitic (malaria) Munchausen syndrome Familial Mediterranean fever Viral (measles, mumps, infectious Malingering Hypolipoproteinemia mononucleosis) Hemochromatosis Rickettsial (Rocky Mountain spotted Hereditary angioneurotic edema fever)
  • 10. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 10 Table 3 Frequency of Specific Diagnoses in Patients with Acute Abdominal Pain Frequency in Individual Studies (% of Patients) Diagnosis OMGE23 Wilson82 Irvin13 Brewer 12 de Dombal 1 Hawthorn 83 (N = 10,320) (N = 1,196) (N = 1,190) (N = 1,000) (N = 552) (N = 496) Nonspecific abdominal pain 34.0 45.6 34.9 41.3 50.5 36.0 Acute appendicitis 28.1 15.6 16.8 4.3 26.3 14.9 Acute cholecystitis 9.7 5.8 5.1 2.5 7.6 5.9 Small bowel obstruction 4.1 2.6 14.8 2.5 3.6 8.6 Acute gynecologic disease 4.0 4.0 1.1 8.5 — — Acute pancreatitis 2.9 1.3 2.4 — 2.9 2.1 Urologic disorders 2.9 4.7 5.9 11.4 — 12.8 Perforated peptic ulcer 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.0 3.1 — Cancer 1.5 — 3.0 — — — Diverticular disease 1.5 1.1 3.9 — 2.0 3.0 Dyspepsia 1.4 7.6 1.4 1.4 — — Gastroenteritis — — 0.3 6.9 — 5.1 Inflammatory bowel disease — — 0.8 — — 2.1 Mesenteric adenitis — 3.6 — — — 1.5 Gastritis — 2.1 — 1.4 — — Constipation — 2.4 — 2.3 — — Amebic hepatic abscess 1.2 — 1.9 — — — Miscellaneous 6.3 1.3 5.2 15.5 4.0 8.0 The third step is percussion to search for any areas of dullness, flu- (i.e., taut and rigid) throughout the respiratory cycle (so-called id collections, sections of gas-filled bowel, or pockets of free air under boardlike abdomen).True involuntary guarding is indicative of lo- the abdominal wall.Tympany may be present in patients with bowel calized or generalized peritonitis. It must be remembered that mus- obstruction or hollow viscus perforation. Percussion can be useful as a way of estimating organ size and of determining the presence of as- cites (signaled by a fluid wave or shifting dullness). Gentle percussion Table 4 Frequency of Specific Diagnoses in over the four quadrants of the abdomen can also be used to elicit a Younger and Older Patients with Acute Abdominal sign of peritoneal irritation, and patients tolerate this maneuver rea- Pain in the OMGE Study23,27 sonably well. Pain associated with mild levels of percussion is a good indicator of peritonitis if the maneuver is performed in the same way Frequency (% of Patients) each time. In general, however, maneuvers associated with palpation Diagnosis are best for determining whether peritonitis is present. Age < 50 Yr Age ≥ 50 Yr The last step, palpation, is the most informative aspect of the (N = 6,317) (N = 2,406) physical examination. Palpation of the abdomen must be done very Nonspecific abdominal pain 39.5 15.7 gently to avoid causing additional pain early in the examination. It should begin as far as possible from the area of maximal pain and Appendicitis 32.0 15.2 then should gradually advance toward this area, which should be the Cholecystitis 6.3 20.9 last to be palpated. The examiner should place the entire hand on the patient’s abdomen with the fingers together and extended, ap- Obstruction 2.5 12.3 plying pressure with the pulps (not the tips) of the fingers by flexing Pancreatitis 1.6 7.3 the wrists and the metacarpophalangeal joints. It is essential to de- termine whether true involuntary muscle guarding (muscle spasm) Diverticular disease < 0.1 5.5 is present.This determination is made by means of gentle palpation Cancer < 0.1 4.1 over the abdominal wall while the patient takes a long, deep breath. If guarding is voluntary, the underlying muscle immediately relaxes Hernia < 0.1 3.1 under the gentle pressure of the palpating hand. If, however, the pa- Vascular disease < 0.1 2.3 tient has true involuntary guarding, the muscle remains in spasm
  • 11. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 11 Table 5 Common Abdominal Signs and Findings Noted on Physical Examination6 Sign or Finding Description Associated Clinical Condition(s) Aaron sign Referred pain or feeling of distress in epigastrium or precordial re- Acute appendicitis gion on continued firm pressure over the McBurney point Ballance sign Presence of dull percussion note in both flanks, constant on left side Ruptured spleen but shifting with change of position on right side Bassler sign Sharp pain elicited by pinching appendix between thumb of examin- Chronic appendicitis er and iliacus muscle Beevor sign Upward movement of umbilicus Paralysis of lower portions of rectus abdominis muscles Blumberg sign Transient abdominal wall rebound tenderness Peritoneal inflammation Carnett sign Disappearance of abdominal tenderness when anterior abdominal Abdominal pain of intra-abdominal origin muscles are contracted Chandelier sign Intense lower abdominal and pelvic pain on manipulation of cervix Pelvic inflammatory disease Charcot sign Intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain, jaundice, and Choledocholithiasis fever Chaussier sign Severe epigastric pain in gravid female Prodrome of eclampsia Claybrook sign Transmission of breath and heart sounds through abdominal wall Ruptured abdominal viscus Courvoisier sign Palpable, nontender gallbladder in presence of clinical jaundice Periampullary neoplasm Cruveilhier sign Varicose veins radiating from umbilicus (caput medusae) Portal hypertension Cullen sign Periumbilical darkening of skin from blood Hemoperitoneum (especially in ruptured ectopic pregnancy) Cutaneous Increased abdominal wall sensation to light touch Parietal peritoneal inflammation secondary to inflammatory hyperesthesia intra-abdominal pathology Dance sign Slight retraction in area of right iliac fossa Intussusception Danforth sign Shoulder pain on inspiration Hemoperitoneum (especially in ruptured ectopic pregnancy) Direct abdominal wall — Localized inflammation of abdominal wall, peritoneum, or an tenderness intra-abdominal viscus Fothergill sign Abdominal wall mass that does not cross midline and remains palpa- Rectus muscle hematoma ble when rectus muscle is tense (continued) cle rigidity is relative: for example, muscle guarding may be less pro- the patient in the left lateral decubitus position and extending the nounced or absent in debilitated and elderly patients who have poor right leg. In settings where appendicitis is suspected, pain on exten- abdominal musculature. In addition, the evaluation of muscle sion of the right leg indicates that the psoas is irritated and thus that guarding is dependent on the patient’s cooperation. the inflamed appendix is in a retrocecal position.The obturator sign Palpation is also useful for determining the extent and severity of is elicited by raising the flexed right leg and rotating the thigh inter- the patient’s tenderness. Diffuse tenderness indicates generalized nally. In settings where appendicitis is suspected, pain on rotation of peritoneal inflammation. Mild diffuse tenderness without guarding the right thigh indicates that the obturator is irritated and thus that usually indicates gastroenteritis or some other inflammatory intesti- the inflamed appendix is in a pelvic position. The Kehr sign is nal process without peritoneal inflammation. Localized tenderness elicited when the patient is placed in the Trendelenburg position. suggests an early stage of disease with limited peritoneal inflamma- Pain in the shoulder indicates irritation of the diaphragm by a nox- tion. Rebound tenderness is elicited by applying gentle but deep ious fluid (e.g., gastric contents from a perforated ulcer, pus from a pressure to the region of interest and then letting go abruptly. As a ruptured appendix, or free blood from a fallopian tube pregnancy). means of distraction, the examiner may use the stethoscope to ap- Another useful maneuver is the Carnett test, in which the patient ply the pressure.The main difficulties associated with palpation are elevates his or her head off the bed, thus tensing the abdominal that the deep pressure may increase anxiety and that the surprise of muscles. When the pain is caused by abdominal wall conditions the sudden withdrawal may elicit pain where peritoneal irritation is (e.g., rectal sheath hematoma), tenderness to palpation persists, but not the cause. when the pain is caused by intraperitoneal conditions, tenderness to Careful palpation can elicit several specific signs [see Table 5], palpation decreases or disappears (the Carnett sign). such as the Rovsing sign (pain in the right lower quadrant when the Rectal, genital, and (in women) pelvic examinations are essential left lower quadrant is palpated deeply), which is associated with to the evaluation of all patients with acute abdominal pain.The rec- acute appendicitis, and the Murphy sign (arrest of inspiration when tal examination should include evaluation of sphincter tone, tender- the right upper quadrant is deeply palpated), which is associated ness (localized versus diffuse), and prostate size and tenderness, as with acute cholecystitis.These signs are indicative of localized peri- well as a search for the presence of hemorrhoids, masses, fecal im- toneal inflammation. Similarly, specific maneuvers can elicit signs paction, foreign bodies, and gross or occult blood.The genital ex- of localized peritoneal irritation.The psoas sign is elicited by placing amination should search for adenopathy, masses, discoloration,
  • 12. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 12 Table 5—(continued) Sign or Finding Description Associated Clinical Condition(s) Grey Turner sign Local areas of discoloration around umbilicus and flanks Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis Iliopsoas sign Elevation and extension of leg against pressure of examiner’s hand Appendicitis (retrocecal) or an inflammatory mass in contact causes pain with psoas Left shoulder pain when patient is supine or in the Trendelenburg po- Kehr sign sition (pain may occur spontaneously or after application of pres- Hemoperitoneum (especially ruptured spleen) sure to left subcostal region) Kustner sign Palpable mass anterior to uterus Dermoid cyst of ovary Mannkopf sign Acceleration of pulse when a painful point is pressed on by examiner Absent in factitious abdominal pain McClintock sign Heart rate > 100 beats/min 1 hr post partum Postpartum hemorrhage Murphy sign Palpation of right upper abdominal quadrant during deep inspiration Acute cholecystitis results in right upper quadrant abdominal pain Obturator sign Flexion of right thigh at right angles to trunk and external rotation of Appendicitis (pelvic appendix); pelvic abscess; an inflammato- same leg in supine position result in hypogastric pain ry mass in contact with muscle Alteration in intensity of transmitted sound in intra-abdominal cavity Puddle sign secondary to percussion when patient is positioned on all fours and Free peritoneal fluid stethoscope is gradually moved toward flank opposite percussion Ransohoff sign Yellow pigmentation in umbilical region Ruptured common bile duct Rovsing sign Pain referred to the McBurney point on application of pressure to de- Acute appendicitis scending colon Subcutaneous crepitance Palpable crepitus in abdominal wall Subcutaneous emphysema or gas gangrene Increased abdominal muscle tone on exceedingly gentle palpation Early appendicitis; nephrolithiasis; ureterolithiasis; ovarian Summer sign of right or left iliac fossa torsion Ten Horn sign Pain caused by gentle traction on right spermatic cord Acute appendicitis Right-sided tympany and left-sided dullness in supine position as a Toma sign result of peritoneal inflammation and subsequent mesenteric con- Inflammatory ascites traction of intestine to right side of abdominal cavity edema, and crepitus. The pelvic examination in women should toneum or the intestinal lumen), preexisting anemia, or bleeding. check for vaginal discharge or bleeding, cervical discharge or bleed- An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is indicative of an in- ing, cervical mobility and tenderness, uterine tenderness, uterine flammatory process and is a particularly helpful finding if associated size, and adnexal tenderness or masses. Although a carefully per- with a marked left shift; however, the presence or absence of leuko- formed pelvic examination can be invaluable in differentiating non- cytosis should never be the single deciding factor as to whether the surgical conditions (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease and tubo- patient should undergo an operation. A low WBC count may be a ovarian abscess) from conditions necessitating prompt operation feature of viral infections, gastroenteritis, or NSAP. Other tests, such (e.g., acute appendicitis), the possibility that a surgical condition is as C-reactive protein assay, may be useful for increasing confidence present should not be prematurely dismissed solely on the basis of a in the diagnosis of an acute inflammatory condition. An important finding of tenderness on pelvic or rectal examination. consideration in the use of any such test is that derangements devel- op over time, becoming more likely as the illness progresses; thus, serial examinations might be more useful than a single test result Investigative Studies obtained at an arbitrary point. Indeed, for the diagnosis of acute ap- Laboratory tests and pendicitis, serial observations of the leukocyte count and the C-re- imaging studies rarely, if active protein level have been shown to possess greater predictive ever, establish a definitive value than single observations.33 diagnosis by themselves; Serum electrolyte, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine however, if used in the cor- concentrations are useful in determining the nature and extent of rect clinical setting, they can fluid losses. Blood glucose and other blood chemistries may also be confirm or exclude specific helpful. Liver function tests (serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, diagnoses suggested by the history and the physical examination. and transaminase levels) are mandatory when abdominal pain is suspected of being hepatobiliary in origin. Similarly, amylase and li- LABORATORY TESTS pase determinations are mandatory when pancreatitis is suspected, In all patients except those in extremis, a complete blood count, though it must be remembered that amylase levels may be low or blood chemistries, and a urinalysis are routinely obtained before a normal in patients with pancreatitis and may be markedly elevated decision to operate.The hematocrit is important in that it allows the in patients with other conditions (e.g., intestinal obstruction, surgeon to detect significant changes in plasma volume (e.g., dehy- mesenteric thrombosis, and perforated ulcer). dration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or fluid loss into the peri- Urinalysis may reveal red blood cells (RBCs) (suggestive of renal
  • 13. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 13 or ureteral calculi),WBCs (suggestive of urinary tract infection or formed, and a working or presumed diagnosis is generated. Once a inflammatory processes adjacent to the ureters, such as retrocecal working diagnosis has been established, subsequent management appendicitis), increased specific gravity (suggestive of dehydration), depends on the accepted treatment for the particular condition be- glucose, ketones (suggestive of diabetes), or bilirubin (suggestive of lieved to be present. In general, the course of management follows hepatitis). A pregnancy test should be considered in any woman of four basic pathways [see Management: Surgical versus Nonsurgical childbearing age who is experiencing acute abdominal pain. Treatment, below], depending on whether the patient (1) has an Electrocardiography is mandatory in elderly patients and in pa- acute surgical condition that necessitates immediate laparotomy, tients with a history of cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmia, or ischemic (2) is believed to have an underlying surgical condition that does heart disease. Abdominal pain may be a manifestation of myocar- not necessitate immediate laparotomy but does call for urgent or dial disease, and the physiologic stress of acute abdominal pain can early operation, (3) has an uncertain diagnosis that does not neces- increase myocardial oxygen demands and induce ischemia in pa- sitate immediate or urgent laparotomy and that may prove to be tients with coronary artery disease. nonsurgical, or (4) is believed to have an underlying nonsurgical condition. IMAGING It must be emphasized that the patient must be constantly reeval- Until relatively recently, initial radiologic evaluation of the patient uated (preferably by the same examiner) even after the working di- with acute abdominal pain included plain films of the abdomen in agnosis has been established. If the patient does not respond to treat- the supine and standing positions and chest radiographs.34 Current- ment as expected, the working diagnosis must be reconsidered, and ly, CT scanning (when available) is generally considered more likely the possibility that another condition exists must be immediately en- to be helpful in most situations.35,36 Still, there remain some situa- tertained and investigated by returning to the differential diagnosis. tions in which plain films may be a more useful and safe form of in- vestigation—as, for example, when a strangulating obstruction is thought to be the most likely diagnosis and plain films are used for Management: Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment rapid confirmation. If the diagnosis of strangulating obstruction is in ACUTE SURGICAL AB- doubt, however, CT scanning—particularly with the newer genera- DOMEN tions of scanning instruments—is useful for making a definitive di- agnosis and for identifying clinically unsuspected strangulation.37-39 A thorough but expedi- When performed in the correct clinical setting, imaging studies tious approach to patients may confirm diagnoses such as pneumonia (signaled by pulmonary with acute abdominal pain infiltrates); intestinal obstruction (air-fluid levels and dilated loops of is essential because in some bowel); intestinal perforation (pneumoperitoneum); biliary, renal, or patients, action must be ureteral calculi (abnormal calcifications); appendicitis (fecalith); in- taken immediately and carcerated hernia (bowel protruding beyond the confines of the peri- there is not enough time for an exhaustive evaluation. As outlined toneal cavity); mesenteric infarction (air in the portal vein); chronic (see above), such an approach should include a brief initial assess- pancreatitis (pancreatic calcifications); acute pancreatitis (the so- ment, a complete clinical history, a thorough physical examination, called colon cutoff sign); visceral aneurysms (calcified rim); retroperi- and targeted laboratory and imaging studies.These steps can usual- toneal hematoma or abscess (obliteration of the psoas shadow); and ly be completed in less than 1 hour and should be insisted on in the ischemic colitis (so-called thumbprinting on the colonic wall). evaluation of most patients. In most cases, it is wise to resist the Although in most settings, CT is the preferred modality for pri- temptation to rush to the operating room with an incompletely eval- mary evaluation of acute abdominal pain, there are certain settings uated, unprepared, and unstable patient. Sometimes, the anxiety of in which US should be considered.When gallstones are considered the patient or the impatience of the health care providers requesting a likely diagnosis, US is more apt to be diagnostic than CT is, given the surgeon’s consultation creates an unwarranted feeling of ur- that about 85% of gallstones are not detectable by x-rays. In disor- gency. Often, however, the anxiety or impatience is on the part of ders of the female genitourinary tract, US is also quite sensitive and the surgeon and, if indulged, may be a cause of subsequent regret. specific for diagnoses such as ovarian cyst, fallopian tube pregnan- There are very few abdominal crises that mandate immediate cy, and intrauterine pregnancy. Although there are reassuring re- operation, and even with these conditions, it is still necessary to ports that the risks of radiation from CT scanning can be managed spend a few minutes on assessing the seriousness of the problem in children and pregnant women with abdominal pain,40,41 there re- and establishing a probable diagnosis. Among the most common of main theoretical concerns regarding the teratogenicity of the radia- the abdominal catastrophes that necessitate immediate operation tion dose.42 Accordingly, it would seems prudent to consider US are ruptured AAAs or visceral aneurysms, ruptured ectopic preg- the preferred initial imaging test for such patients. In these circum- nancies, and spontaneous hepatic or splenic ruptures.The relative stances, CT is employed only if the diagnosis remains unresolved rarity of such conditions notwithstanding, it must always be re- and if the potential delay in diagnosis (from not obtaining a CT membered that patients with acute abdominal pain may have a pro- scan) is likely to cause harm. gressive underlying intra-abdominal disorder causing the acute pain and that unnecessary delays in diagnosis and treatment can ad- versely affect outcome, often with catastrophic consequences. Working or Presumed Diagnosis SUBACUTE SURGICAL AB- DOMEN The tentative differential diagnosis developed on the When immediate opera- basis of the clinical history is tion is not called for, the refined on the basis of the physician must decide physical examination and whether urgent laparotomy the investigative studies per- or nonurgent but early op-
  • 14. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 14 eration is necessary. Urgent laparotomy implies operation within 4 treated laparoscopically, with a clear expectation of less postopera- hours of the patient’s arrival; thus, there is usually sufficient time for tive pain, a shorter hospital stay, and an earlier return to work and adequate resuscitation, with proper rehydration and restoration of regular activities.These advantages, though significant, do not indi- vital organ function, before the procedure. Indications for urgent la- cate that a laparoscopic approach is to be preferred in all or most parotomy may be encountered during the physical examination, clinical settings or that it is necessarily more cost-effective than an may be revealed by the basic laboratory and radiologic studies, or open approach.47 Laparoscopic appendectomy requires a high level may not become apparent until other investigative studies are per- of organization with respect to operating room resources, and this formed. Involuntary guarding or rigidity during the physical exami- level of organization may be difficult to achieve in institutions where nation, particularly if spreading, is a strong indication for urgent la- the procedure is not performed regularly (particularly in the middle parotomy. Other indications include increasing severe localized of the night). In addition, it is not clear whether patients with ap- tenderness, progressive tense distention, physical signs of sepsis pendicitis that is complicated by a well-established abscess or bowel (e.g., high fever, tachycardia, hypotension, and mental-status obstruction benefit from laparoscopic approaches. changes), and physical signs of ischemia (e.g., fever and tachycar- Anatomic considerations also enter into the decision whether to dia). Basic laboratory and radiologic indications for urgent laparo- perform the procedure laparoscopically. For instance, it can be very tomy include pneumoperitoneum, massive or progressive intestinal difficult to separate a perforated retrocecal appendix from adherent distention, signs of sepsis (e.g., marked or rising leukocytosis, in- colon in a safe manner. In many cases, it is prudent not to persist in creasing glucose intolerance, and acidosis), and signs of continued attempting to extract the appendix without a standard open inci- hemorrhage (e.g., a falling hematocrit). Additional findings that sion, excellent exposure, and controlled technique.The importance constitute indications for urgent laparotomy include free extravasa- of anatomic considerations underscores the usefulness of preopera- tion of radiologic contrast material, mesenteric occlusion on an- tive CT in identifying pathologic anatomy, associated abnormalities, giography, endoscopically uncontrollable bleeding, and positive re- and potential pitfalls for either open or laparoscopic approaches. sults from peritoneal lavage (i.e., the presence of blood, pus, bile, The advantages of laparoscopy in the management of other ab- urine, or GI contents). Acute appendicitis, perforated hollow vis- dominal emergencies are less clear-cut. It is important that the sur- cera, and strangulated hernias are examples of common conditions geon determine not only whether the particular clinical scenario is that necessitate urgent laparotomy. amenable to a laparoscopic approach but also whether the experi- If early operation is contemplated, it may still be prudent to ob- ence of the entire team and that of the institution as a whole are suf- tain additional studies to obtain information related to the site of ficient for what may be an advanced procedure performed in an the lesion or to associated anatomic pitfalls. In deciding whether to acute situation.With this caveat in mind, various investigators have order such studies, it is important to consider not only whether the demonstrated that laparoscopy can be employed safely and with additional information obtained will increase confidence in the di- good clinical results in selected patients with perforated peptic ul- agnosis but also whether the extra time, expense, and discomfort in- cers.50-54 Two prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing volved will be justified by the quality and usefulness of the informa- open repair of perforated peptic ulcers with laparoscopic repair tion.43 During a short, defined period of resuscitation, it may be found that the latter was safe and reliable and was associated with possible to employ CT scanning to identify the location of the in- shorter operating times, less postoperative pain, fewer chest compli- flamed appendix in difficult (i.e., retrocecal or pelvic) locations. cations, shorter postoperative hospital stays, and earlier return to Knowing the location of the appendix and its morphology can be normal daily activities than the former.52,54 helpful in directing the incision in an open operation or determining ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN the most expeditious exposure in a laparoscopic procedure. CT REQUIRING OBSERVATION scanning may also be used to identify an atypical site of a visceral perforation (e.g., the proximal stomach, the distal or posterior wall It is widely recognized of the duodenum, or the transverse colon), thereby guiding place- that of all patients admitted ment of the incision and obviating needless dissection of tissue for acute abdominal pain, planes. In the setting of distal bowel obstruction, an expeditious only a minority require im- Gastrografin (Bracco Diagnostics, Princeton, New Jersey) enema or mediate or urgent opera- CT scan may alert the surgeon to the possibility of an otherwise un- tion.2,12 It is therefore both detectable malignancy (e.g., cecal carcinoma causing distal bowel cost-effective and prudent to adopt a system of evaluation that al- obstruction). In cases where ischemic bowel is suspected, the site of lows for thought and investigation before definitive treatment in all vascular blockage can be localized by using a CT-angiogram imag- patients with acute abdominal pain except those identified early on ing protocol. In each of these examples, the information gained may as needing immediate or urgent laparotomy. The traditional wis- permit the surgeon to plan the operation, to optimize time spent dom has been that spending time on observation opens the door for under anesthesia, and to minimize postoperative discomfort after complications (e.g., perforating appendicitis, intestinal perforation laparotomy. associated with bowel obstruction, or strangulation of an incarcerat- The use of preoperative imaging has become increasingly impor- ed hernia). However, clinical trials evaluating active in-hospital ob- tant as an operative planning tool, particularly when laparoscopic servation of patients with acute abdominal pain of uncertain origin approaches are contemplated for management of acute abdominal have demonstrated that such observation is safe, is not accompa- emergencies. In the 1990s and the first few years of the 21st centu- nied by an increased incidence of complications, and results in few- ry, a number of trials were performed to determine whether la- er negative laparotomies.55 Many institutions now employ CT scan- paroscopy or open operation should be the approach of choice ning liberally in patients with uncertain diagnoses; this practice when the primary clinical diagnosis is acute appendicitis.This topic should greatly minimize the incidence of diagnostic failures or has been reviewed extensively in the literature44-46 and in a 2004 up- delays in patients with acute conditions necessitating surgical date of a Cochrane meta-analysis.47 In some environments, the an- intervention.32 swer to this question remains unclear.48,49 In many settings, howev- The initial resuscitation and assessment are followed by appropri- er, the current consensus is that uncomplicated appendicitis can be ate imaging studies and serial observation. Specific monitoring mea-
  • 15. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 15 sures are chosen (e.g., examination of the abdomen, measurement A final point is that over the course of a 24- to 48-hour observa- of urine output, a WBC count, and repeat CT scans), and end tion period, the patient’s condition may neither deteriorate nor im- points of therapy should be identified. Active observation allows the prove, and supplemental investigation may be considered. Diagnos- surgeon to identify most of the patients whose acute abdominal pain tic laparoscopy has been recommended in cases where surgical is caused by NSAP or by various specific nonsurgical conditions. It disease is suspected but its probability is not high enough to war- must be emphasized that active observation involves more than sim- rant open laparotomy.60,61 It is particularly valuable in young ply admitting the patient to the hospital and passively watching for women of childbearing age, in whom gynecologic disorders fre- obvious problems: it implies an active process of thoughtful, dis- quently mimic acute appendicitis.62-64 A 1998 report showed that criminating, and meticulous reevaluation (preferably by the same diagnostic laparoscopy had the same diagnostic yield as open la- examiner) at intervals ranging from minutes to a few hours, com- parotomy in 55 patients with acute abdomen; 34 (62%) of these plemented by appropriately timed additional investigative studies. patients were safely managed with laparoscopy alone, with no in- A major point of contention in the management of patients with crease in morbidity and with a shorter average hospital stay.63 Diag- acute abdominal pain is the use of narcotic analgesics during the nostic laparoscopy has also been shown to be useful for assessing observation period.The main argument for withholding pain med- acute abdominal pain in acutely ill patients in the intensive care ication is that it may obscure the evolution of specific findings that unit.60,65 would lead to the decision to operate.The main argument for giv- In patients with AIDS,66,67 there are a number of unusual diag- ing narcotic analgesics is that in a controlled setting where patients noses that may be related to or coincident with an episode of ab- are being observed by experienced clinicians, outcomes are not dominal pain. The differential diagnosis includes lymphoma, Ka- compromised and patients are more comfortable.56 It has also been posi sarcoma, tuberculosis and variants thereof, and opportunistic suggested that providing early pain relief may allow the more criti- bacterial, fungal, and viral (especially cytomegaloviral) infections. cal clinical signs to be more clearly identified57 and that severe pain Laparoscopy has been used for the purposes of diagnosis, biopsy, persisting despite adequate doses of narcotics suggests a serious and treatment in patients with an established AIDS diagnosis who condition for which operative intervention is likely to be necessary. manifest acute abdominal pain syndrome.66,67 The complication In my view, the decision whether to provide or withhold narcotic rate and mortality associated with surgery are related to the under- analgesia must be individualized.58 The current consensus is that lying illness, and outcomes have improved steadily over the years.68 for most patients undergoing evaluation and observation for acute It is important to note that patients who are infected with HIV but abdominal pain, it is safe to provide medication in doses that would have no clinical manifestations of AIDS are evaluated and managed “take the edge off” the pain without rendering the patient unable to in the same fashion as patients without HIV infection when they cooperate during the observation period. It may be especially desir- present with acute abdominal pain.The differential diagnosis and able to provide medication in a manner that allows the patient to be the outcomes are essentially no different, unless there are reasons to comfortable while lying in the CT scanner. In these cases, the goal think that the new onset of pain in an HIV-infected patient is a of pain relief is to make it easier to obtain accurate information that manifestation of AIDS.58,68 will facilitate and expedite the diagnosis and the development of a treatment plan. Given the high diagnostic yield and accuracy of the Subacute or Chronic Relapsing Abdominal Pain: Role of Outpa- new generation of CT scanners, it is generally safe to provide pain tient Evaluation and Management medication while obtaining the diagnosis. For every patient who requires hospitalization for acute abdomi- On occasion, however, reflex administration of pain medication nal pain, there are at least two or three others who have self-limiting solely with the aim of relieving pain may be undesirable or even conditions for which neither operation nor hospitalization is neces- harmful. For example, in situations where advanced imaging is un- sary. Much or all of the evaluation of such patients, as well as any available, physical examination may be so crucial to decision mak- treatment that may be needed, can now be completed in the outpa- ing that any risk of obscuring important physical findings is deemed tient department.To treat acute abdominal pain cost-effectively and unacceptable, and therefore, pain medication should be withheld. efficiently, the surgeon must be able not only to identify patients In addition, narcotic analgesia should be used cautiously in patients who need immediate or urgent laparotomy or laparoscopy but also with acute intestinal obstruction when strangulation is a concern.59 to reliably identify those whose condition does not present a serious These patients present with abdominal pain that is out of propor- risk and who therefore can be managed without hospitalization. tion to the physical findings, a syndrome whose differential diagno- The reliability and intelligence of the patient, the proximity and sis includes acute intestinal ischemia, pancreatitis, ruptured aortic availability of medical facilities, and the availability of responsible aneurysm, ureteral colic, and various medical causes (e.g., sickle adults to observe and assist the patient at home are factors that cell crisis and porphyria). A period of resuscitation and evaluation, should be carefully considered before the decision is made to evalu- in conjunction with advanced imaging studies (e.g., CT) may then ate or treat individuals with acute abdominal pain as outpatients. yield a tentative diagnosis of intestinal obstruction caused by adhe- SUSPECTED NONSURGICAL sions (e.g., if the patient has a history of abdominal surgery and no ABDOMEN evidence of herniation or obturation) without evidence of bowel is- chemia. In this setting, the decision whether to admit the patient for There are numerous dis- observation rather than immediate operation depends on the extent orders that cause acute ab- to which the surgeon is confident that the obstruction is not a dominal pain but do not call “closed loop.”59 However, within a relatively short period (perhaps for surgical intervention. 4 to 24 hours), the surgeon must determine whether any indica- These nonsurgical condi- tions for operation will arise, and the main parameters for observa- tions are often extremely tion include the WBC count, the urine output, and the develop- difficult to differentiate from surgical conditions that present with al- ment of peritoneal findings. In such cases, it may well be prudent to most indistinguishable characteristics.2 For example, the acute ab- withhold pain medication until there is a high level of confidence dominal pain of lead poisoning or acute porphyria is difficult to dif- that the timing of surgery will not be delayed. ferentiate from the intermittent pain of intestinal obstruction, in that
  • 16. © 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice 5 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ABDOMEN 1 Acute Abdominal Pain — 16 marked hyperperistalsis is the hallmark of both. As another example, fies pelvic adhesions, adhesiolysis might be expected to alleviate ab- the pain of acute hypolipoproteinemia may be accompanied by pan- dominal pain in many cases. However, it is unclear whether adhesi- creatitis, which, if not recognized, can lead to unnecessary laparoto- olysis is therapeutically beneficial when there is no firm evidence my. Similarly, acute and prostrating abdominal pain accompanied by that the adhesions are contributing to the pain syndrome. In one rigidity of the abdominal wall and a low hematocrit may lead to un- prospective, randomized trial,73 100 patients with laparoscopically necessary urgent laparotomy in patients with sickle cell anemia identified adhesions were randomly allocated to either a group that crises.To further complicate the clinical picture, cholelithiasis is also underwent adhesiolysis or one that did not. Both groups reported often found in patients with sickle cell anemia. substantial pain relief and a significantly improved quality of life, but In addition to numerous extraperitoneal disorders [see Table 2], there were no differences in outcome between them, which suggest- nonsurgical causes of acute abdominal pain include a wide variety ed that the benefit of laparoscopy could not be attributed to adhesi- of intraperitoneal disorders, such as acute gastroenteritis (from en- olysis. Longer-term studies also failed to support the hypothesis that teric bacterial, viral, parasitic, or fungal infection), acute gastritis, pelvic adhesions are responsible for chronic pelvic pain.74 However, acute duodenitis, hepatitis, mesenteric adenitis, salpingitis, Fitz- in a study conducted concurrently with the aforementioned ran- Hugh–Curtis syndrome, mittelschmerz, ovarian cyst, endometritis, domized trial, 224 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopically endometriosis, threatened abortion, spontaneous bacterial peritoni- assisted adhesiolysis, and 74% of the 224 obtained short-term re- tis, and tuberculous peritonitis. As noted (see above), acute abdom- lief.75 Factors that contributed to a successful outcome were gen- inal pain in immunosuppressed patients or patients with AIDS is der, age, and adhesions severe enough to have led to inadvertent en- now encountered with increasing frequency and can be caused by a terotomy and a consequent need for open exploration. It may, number of unusual conditions (e.g., cytomegalovirus enterocolitis, therefore, be possible to identify specific subgroups that would ben- opportunistic infections, lymphoma, and Kaposi sarcoma), as well efit from the addition of adhesiolysis to exploratory laparoscopy. as by the more usual ones. A similar issue arises with respect to pathologic conditions of the Although such disorders typically are not treated by operative appendix—namely, whether appendectomy should be performed means, operation is sometimes required when the diagnosis is un- when no other source of the abdominal pain can be identified. Ear- certain or when a surgical illness cannot be excluded with confi- ly enthusiasm for appendectomy in patients with chronic right low- dence. In such cases, laparoscopy can be very helpful, permitting er quadrant pain was sparked by observations of acute or chronic relatively complete and systematic exploration without involving the inflammation in specimens that seemed visibly normal.76,77 In sub- potential morbidity or the longer postoperative recovery and reha- sequent reports, however, this enthusiasm was tempered by the bilitation period associated with open exploration.69-72 From the recognition that these pathologic findings were not very prevalent surgeon’s point of view, an optimal outcome for laparoscopic explo- and that appendectomy did not always reduce the pain.78,79 No ran- ration in these settings is one in which a diagnosis is established by domized trial of appendectomy for chronic abdominal pain has means of visualization, with or without biopsy, and in which symp- been performed in a clearly defined patient group, as has been done toms improve as a consequence of a therapy directed by the laparo- for adhesiolysis.73 scopic findings. Overall, candidate lesions—including appendiceal At present, the surgeon can only use his or her best judgment as pathology (e.g., chronic appendicitis or carcinoid tumor), adhe- to the likelihood that a given episode of abdominal pain may origi- sions, hernias, endometriosis, mesenteric lymphadenopathy—are nate from a set of visible adhesions or a visually normal appendix. It identified in about 50% of cases, with pelvic adhesions the most should be remembered that unnecessary or potentially meddlesome common finding. From the patient’s point of view, however, estab- interventions are always best avoided; however, it should also be re- lishing a precise diagnosis may not be particularly critical, and membered that failure to alleviate chronic relapsing abdominal pain symptomatic improvement, by itself, may suffice to render the out- will lead to a program of chronic pain management, including long- come successful. Indeed, a number of reports have emphasized that term management with potentially addictive and enervating agents. laparoscopy often leads to improvement in symptoms even if no le- Thus, if adhesiolysis or appendectomy can be performed with the sion is identified or treated.69,70 This point may be illustrated by expectation of low morbidity and without conversion to laparoto- considering pelvic adhesions. my, it seems reasonable to perform these procedures during la- Given the frequency with which laparoscopic exploration identi- paroscopy if no other source of pain can be identified. References 1. de Dombal FT: Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal centre study. Br Med J 293:800, 1986 university hospital emergency room. Am J Surg Pain, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone, London, 1991 8. de Dombal FT, Dallos V, McAdam WA: Can com- 131:219, 1976 2. Purcell TB: Nonsurgical and extraperitoneal causes puter aided teaching packages improve clinical care 13. Irvin TT: Abdominal pain: a surgical audit of 1190 of abdominal pain. Emerg Med Clin North Am in patients with acute abdominal pain? BMJ emergency admissions. Br J Surg 76:1121, 1989 7:721, 1989 302:1495, 1991 14. Di Placido R, Pietroletti R, Leardi S, et al: Primary 3. Silen W: Cope’s Early Diagnosis of the Acute Ab- 9. Korner H, Sondenaa K, Soreide JA, et al: Struc- gastroduodenal tuberculous infection presenting as domen, 20th ed. Oxford University Press, New tured data collection improves the diagnosis of pyloric outlet obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol York, 2000 acute appendicitis. Br J Surg 85:341, 1998 91:807, 1996 4. Marco CA, et al: Abdominal pain in geriatric emer- 10. American College of Emergency Physicians: Clini- 15. Padussis, J, Loffredo B, McAneny D: Minimally in- gency patients: variables associated with adverse cal policy for the initial approach to patients pre- vasive management of obstructive gastroduodenal outcomes. 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Zalcman M, Sy M, Donckier V, et al: Helical CT Philadelphia, 2006, p 767 emergency department. Br J Surg 64:249, 1977 signs in the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia in small- 60. Majewski W: Diagnostic laparoscopy for the acute 83. Hawthorn IE: Abdominal pain as a cause of acute bowel obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175: abdomen and trauma. Surg Endosc 14:930, 2000 admission to hospital. J R Coll Surg Edinb 37:389, 1601, 2000 1992 61. Golash V, Willson PD: Early laparoscopy as a rou- 39. Mallo RD, Salem L, Lalani T, et al: Computed to- tine procedure in the management of acute abdom- mography diagnosis of ischemia and complete ob- inal pain: a review of 1,320 patients. Surg Endosc struction in small bowel obstruction: a systematic 19:882, 2005 Acknowledgments review. J Gastrointest Surg 9:690, 2005 62. Taylor EW, Kennedy CA, Dunham RH, et al: Diag- Figures 2 and 3 Tom Moore. 40. Wagner LK, Huda W: When a pregnant woman nostic laparoscopy in women with acute abdominal Portions of this chapter are based on a previous itera- with suspected appendicitis is referred for a CT pain. Surg Laparosc Endosc 5:125, 1995 tion written for ACS Surgery by Romano Delcore, scan, what should a radiologist do to minimize po- 63. Chung RS, Diaz JJ, Chari V: Efficacy of routine la- M.D., F.A.C.S., and Laurence Y. Cheung, M.D., tential radiation risks? Pediatr Radiol 34:589, 2004 paroscopy for the acute abdomen. Surg Endosc F.A.C.S. The author wishes to thank Drs. Delcore and 41. Fefferman NR, Bomsztyk E,Yim AM, et al: Appen- 12:219, 1998 Cheung.