Leptos

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Leptos

  1. 1. Causative Agent Incubation Period Mode of Transmission Clinical ManifestationsDiagnosis and Treatment Nursing Management
  2. 2.  Also called as Weils Disease, Mud Fever, Trench Fever, Flood Fever, Spiroketal Jaundice, Japanese Seven Days Fever It is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by bacteria leptospires. Rat is the main host to leptospirosis although pigs, cattles, rabbits, hare, skunk and other wild animals serve as reservoir hosts. It is an occupational disease affecting veterinarians, miners, farmers, sewer workers, etc.
  3. 3.  1. Leptospiremic phase- leptospires are present in the blood and Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF). Onset of signs and symptoms are abrupt with fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, cough and chest pain. 2. Immune phase- correlates with the appearance of circulation IgM.
  4. 4.  Leptospira interrogans – gram negative, fine spiral bacteria 0.1um in diameter and 6-20 um in length. Locomotion is achieved in a fluid medium by a whirling motion around the longitudinal axis and by a serpentine or corkscrew motion in a semisolid medium.
  5. 5.  Ranges from 7-19 days, with average of 10 days.
  6. 6.  Entry of the leptospira bacteria through wounds when in contact with flood waters, vegetation, moist soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals, especially rats.
  7. 7.  Fever Non-specific symptoms of muscle pain, headache Severe cases result to liver involvement, kidney failure or brain involvement. Thus some cases may have yellowish body discoloration, dark-colored urine and light stools, low urine output, severe headache.
  8. 8.  By presenting clinical manifestations Culture Blood and CSF examination during the first week Urine examination on the 10th day
  9. 9.  Antibiotics duly prescribed by a physician.  Penicillins and other B- lactam antibiotics (PCN at 2M units q6H IM/IV)  Tetracycline (Doxycycline at 100mg q12H PO)  Erythromycin (500mg q12H PO) – if allergic to Penicillin Early recognition and treatment within two days of illness to prevent complications of leptospirosis, so early consultation is advised.
  10. 10.  Provide education to clients telling them to avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water or flood water. Use of proper protection like boots and gloves when work requires exposure to contaminated water. Drain potentially contaminated water when possible.
  11. 11.  Control rats in the household by using rat traps or rat poison, maintaining cleanliness in the house. Isolate the patient and concurrent disinfection of soiled articles. Report all cases of leptospirosis. Chemoprophylaxis can be done in a group of high risk infected hosts.

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