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Introduction to Phonetics

Introduction to Phonetics
Consonants

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Gha2010 iwk5 Gha2010 iwk5 Document Transcript

  • Academic writing is a structure of arguments. <br />Your essay is a construction of arguments based on evidence found in your research which is based on the texts you have studied. <br />Arguments can be constructed as supporting one another, conflicting or opposing each other, or offering alternative viewpoints.<br />Logical argument structure show that you have:- <br />
    • Collected the data
    Read the texts you have supposed to have read.<br />If necessary carry out a literary search in that area (if you tutor wants you to do more reading than is on the reading list, check with them about this). <br />Look at your handouts and notes.<br />Consider how much time you have for this task and apportion it wisely. If the essay is due in three days you can only spend one day in collecting your data. <br />
    • Collated the data
    Put supporting data together and opposing data together and alternative data in your work.<br />See how various ideas fit together.<br />This is the time to drop some material that may be irrelevant. You do not have to use ALL your ideas or data. <br />What is the main crux of your overall essay argument? This will be your thesis statement. <br />Think about what your introduction and conclusion might be. <br />
    • Created a pattern from the collation
    What patterns are emerging from this research, are there any gaps in your source arguments, arguments that are not logical or do not follow coherently, is this the fault of your writing or of not finding a counter argument in the texts?<br />Depth of arguments<br />Showing both pros and cons of data/text, even pointing out flaws in your own arguments and giving counter claims to your arguments or their supporting arguments is good academic writing. If you do not supply counter claims or opposing claims in your essay structure (“this could be seen in another way ...”) while hopefully demolishing them (“but this is not as strong as ... this claim can be dismissed because ...this evidence is flawed because ...this reading of the text is ambiguous because...) can make your writing look weak. It can look like either you are not mentioning counter arguments because you cannot think of a rebuttal or because you have not research the texts enough to find the counter claims. <br />Logical construction of arguments will probably have a structure similar to the following :<br />Introduction & Thesis Statement Supporting/ background informationMain developments of argumentsConclusionOpposing argumentsAlternative proposals1113322<br />Which leads back to ...<br />Trigger Connectives<br />There are some words that show a text is using supporting, opposing and alternative evidence. Often they are shown by conjunctions. <br />Conjunctions are words and phrases such as and or but which join parts of a sentence together. <br />There are six main types of conjunctions:<br />a) Addition: Furthermore, child mortality rates must be examined.<br />b) Result: Prices are rising worldwide, thus encouraging investment.<br />c) Reason: Owing to the strike today’s classes are cancelled.<br />d) Time: Thirdly, the role of the architect will be reviewed.<br />e) Example: Various writers have examined the issue, for instance Van<br />Exel (2000).<br />f) Opposition: Although this study concentrates mainly on peak-time<br />travellers …<br />1 The ‘AND’ connectives<br />Used when the discussion, arguments or topics are developed in a straightforward or linear way. The most common form is of course ‘and’ but other forms are:<br />a) Listings <br />i.Enumeration, this indicates a catalogue of what is being said. Most enumeration belongs to clearly defined sets.<br />First ... furthermore, ... finally <br />one, ...two, ... three, ...<br />first(ly) , ... second(ly), ... third(ly) <br />marks the end of an ascending orderabove all<br />last but not least <br />marks the beginning of an ascending orderfirst and foremost <br />first and most importantly <br />to begin with/ to start with, <br />moreover<br />and to conclude <br />ii.Addition to what has been previously indicated : <br />(a) Reinforcement includes the sense of confirmation to previous argument. Connections include:<br />also, again, furthermore, further, moreover, what is more, then, in addition, besides, above all, too, as well (as) <br /> (b) Equation shows a similarity to the preceding argument:<br />equally, likewise, similarly correspondingly, in the same way, ... the truth of the previous assertion may be confirmed or contradicted by ..., indeed, actually, in (actual) fact, really, in reality <br />
    • (b) Cause and Effect connectives
    It is also possible to use conjunctions that demonstrate cause and effect.<br />Cause Effect<br />because (of) so<br />since therefore<br />as consequently<br />owing to which is why<br />due to<br />Because it rained heavily, the flooding was severe. (because + verb)<br />The flooding occurred because of days of heavy rain. (because + noun)<br />Owing to the heavy rain the flooding was severe.<br />It rained heavily for days, therefore the flooding was severe. (used in midsentence)<br />NB It is more common to use conjunctions to illustrate particular situations.<br />
    • 2. The BUT and NEGATIVE AND connectives
    • Often you will need to include opposing and hypothesise to your main theories. This shows that you are aware of all aspects of your essay topic and have considered/ included all relevant material. A sign of a well researched essay is that it will present ALL viewpoints, however briefly you may touch on the opposition.
    • (a) Contrast with the preceding arguments:
    • Instead, conversely, then, on the contrary, by (way of) contrast, in comparison, (on the one hand) ...on the other hand
    • (b) Negative AND, there are some negative equivalents of the AND connection, these include
    • Either, neither, nor, not only ...(but) also, neither ...nor.
    • Neither leaves the set open for further addition while nor concludes the set.
    • (c) Concessions indicate the unexpected, surprising nature of what is being said in view of what was said before:
    • besidesyet
    • (or) elsein any case
    • howeverat any rate
    • neverthelessfor all that
    • nonethelessin spite of / despite that
    • notwithstandingafter all
    • onlyat the same time
    • still on the other hand
    • while all the same
    • (al)thougheven if/ though
    .Conjunctions of opposition<br />Note the position of the conjunctions in the following examples.<br />The economy is strong, but/yet there are frequent strikes.<br />Although there are frequent strikes, the economy is strong.<br />In spite of/despite the frequent strikes, the economy is strong.<br />There are frequent strikes. However/nevertheless, the economy is strong.<br />What are the implications of each? <br />It is difficult to give rules for academic style which apply to all subject areas.<br />When reading books and journals in your area you should note what is acceptable. You will probably meet exceptions to the points below as you read, but if you follow these guidelines you should be able to develop a suitable style of your own.<br />a) Do not use idiomatic or colloquial vocabulary: dad, guy. Use Standard English: father, man.<br />b) Use vocabulary accurately. There is a difference between rule and law, or currency and money, which you are expected to know.<br />c) Be as precise as possible when dealing with facts or figures. Avoid phrases such as about a hundred or hundreds of years ago. If it is necessary to estimate numbers use ‘approximately’ rather than ‘about’.<br />d) Conclusions should use tentative language. Avoid absolute statements such as education reduces crime. Instead use cautious phrases: may reduce crime or tends to reduce crime.<br />e) Avoid adverbs that show your personal attitude: luckily, remarkably, surprisingly.<br />f) Do not contract verb forms: don’t, can’t. Use the full form: do not, cannot.<br />g) Although academic English tends to use the passive more than Standard English, it should not be over-used. Both have their place. Compare:<br />Manners (1995) claims that most companies perform worse when …<br />It is widely agreed that most companies perform worse when …<br />In the first case, the focus is on the source, in the second on what companies do.<br />h) Avoid the following:<br />like for introducing examples. Use such as or for instance.<br />thing and combinations: nothing or something. Use factor, issue or topic.<br />lots of. Use a significant/considerable number.<br />little/big. Use small/large.<br />get phrases such as get better/worse. Use improve and deteriorate.<br />i) Do not use question forms such as What were the reasons for the decline in wool exports? <br />Instead use statements: There were four main reasons for the decline…<br />j) Avoid numbering sections of your text, except in certain reports. Use conjunctions and signposting expressions to introduce new sections (Turning to the question of taxation …). Sub-headings are widely used (but not normally in Literature essays). .<br />k) When writing lists, avoid using etc. or and so on. Insert and before the last item:<br />The forests of the twelfth century consisted of oak, ash and lime.<br />l) Avoid using two-word verbs such as go on or bring up if there is a suitable synonym. Use continue or raise.<br />Thesis Statement Exercise (print and use this later!)Write out the main idea from your paper (the point you want the reader to get) in 25 or fewer words:Now answer these questions: What question is my assignment asking? How can I answer that question AND focus on a small area of investigation?Can I sum up the main idea of my paper in a nutshell? See if you can reduce to a sentence or two the main idea that you wrote just now.What " key words" (such as " relative freedom" or " lifestyles" ) does the draft of my thesis statement contain? Are these words adequately explained?As I read my paper, have I supported the thesis, or digressed? Where? How?<br />Analysing the Question:Key Words in Rubric Analysis <br />Key words are words in a question that tell you the approach you should take when answering an essay question. <br />• Task Words tell you what you have to do; the action(s) you need to perform.<br />• Limiting Words limit and define the essay, making it workable.<br />• Content Words tell you what the focus is and what you should write about.<br />Make sure you understand the meaning of all the key words in an essay question, especially the Task words. As Task words direct you and tell you how to go about answering a question, understanding the meaning helps you to know exactly what you have to do. Limiting words define the scope of your assignment and take you halfway towards narrowing down your material and selecting your answer. If you’re not sure about any aspect of the question, ask your tutor/ lecturer for clarification. Never start any assignment until you know and understand exactly what you are being asked to do.<br />A Five Step Plan to analysing the Question<br />From William, K. (1995) Writing Essays: developing writing, Oxford, OUP. <br />Example <br />Account for the emergence of the policy of privatisation developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s. <br />Step 1: Identify the Subject, the CONTENT <br />This is the topic on the syllabus or course outline – the knowledge base. Ask yourself ‘What is the gist of this question?’ <br />
    • Here it is the policy of privatisation
    Step 2: Identify the Instruction, the TASK word <br />This is the word that tells you how you are expected to write; do you compare and contrast/ Account for/ Discuss/ Evaulate... <br />
    • The instruction here is to account for
    Step 3: Identify the Key Aspect(s) <br />What are the key aspect(s), the key words in the question; i.e. what words (after the subject and the instructions) are most important in the question. <br />Account for the emergence of the policy of privatisation developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s. <br />Step 4: Identify LIMITING words <br />Are there any other words that change or modify the meaning of the question that would change the areas you need to look at to study the question<br />Account for the emergence of the policy of privatisation developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s. <br />
    • Successive Conservative Governments (so do not bother with Labour Gov.)
    • Developed (this question is looking for points of difference between Conservative Government Policies)
    • During the 1980s (so no need to look at the 50s or the 90s then)
    Step 1: Ask Questions about the Questions<br />This essay is about the policy of privatisations. What was that? What was its scope? A definition is needed here. Emergence suggests process rather than an event, so you could ask ‘How did these policies emerge, whole or in bits little by little’ you could also ask ‘What factors caused these development, why did they change and evolve?’ You must identify which Governments ‘Successive..’ and how did they differ from other Conservative Government ;where they more rightwing, more centre stage, did they have any specific or new policies towards privatisation?<br />Explain how why?<br />A process of Define<br />how why? <br />Account for the emergence of the policy of privatisation developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s. <br />Note the era, not the 1990sWhich <br />Similar?<br />Different?<br />Glossary of Task Words<br />Task WordsFunction Account forExplain, clarify, give reasons for. (Quite different from ‘Give an account of’ which is more like ‘describe in detail’). AnalyseBreak an issue down into its component parts, discuss them and show how they interrelate. AssessConsider the value or importance of something, paying due attention to positive, negative and disputable aspects, and citing the judgements of any known authorities as well as your own. Argue Make a case, based on appropriate evidence for and/or against some given point of view.Comment On Too vague to be sure, but safe to assume it means something more than ‘describe’ or ‘summarise’ and more likely implies ‘analyse’ or ‘assess’. CompareIdentify the characteristics or qualities two or more things have in common (but probably pointing out their differences as well. Contrast Point out the differences between two things (but probably point out their similarities as well). CriticiseSpell out your judgement as to the value or truth of something, indicating the criteria on which you base your judgement and citing specific instances of how the criteria apply in this case. Critically analyse Like analyse but using your own judgements on authorial sources and stances. Define Make a statement as to the meaning or interpretation of something, giving sufficient detail so as to allow it to be distinguished from similar things.DescribeSpell out the main aspects of an idea or topic or the sequence in which a series of things happened. DiscussInvestigate or examine by argument. Examine key points and possible interpretations, sift and debate, giving reasons for and against. Draw a conclusion. EvaluateMake an appraisal or the worth of something, in the light of its apparent truth; include your personal opinion. Like ‘assess’. Enumerate List some relevant items, possibly in continuous prose (rather than note form) - and perhaps ‘describe’ them (see above) as well.Examine Present in depth and investigate the implications.Explain Tell how things work or how they came to be the way they are, including perhaps some need to ‘describe’ and to ‘analyse’ (see above). To what extent Explore the case for a stated proposition or explanation, much in the manner of ‘assess’ and ‘criticise’ (see above), probably arguing for a less than total acceptance of the proposition. How Far Similar to ‘to what extent . . .?’ (see above)Identify Pick out what you regard as the key features of something, perhaps making clear the criteria you use. structure or framework to show how they interrelate. IllustrateSimilar to ‘explain’ (see above), but probably asking for the quoting of specific examples or statistics or possibly the drawing of maps, graphs, sketches, etc. InterpretClarify something or ‘explain’ (see above), perhaps indicating how the thing relates to some other thing or perspective. Investigate Research and carefully survey all areas of the subject. Include any negative findings as well as positive one. Justify Express valid reasons for accepting a particular interpretation or conclusion, probably including the need to ‘argue’ (see above) a case. OutlineIndicate the main features of a topic or sequence of events, possibly setting them within a clear.ProveDemonstrate the truth of something by offering irrefutable evidence and/or logical sequence of statements leading from evidence to conclusion.ReconcileShow how two apparently opposed or mutually exclusive ideas or propositions can be seen to be similar in important respects, if not identical. Involves need to ‘analyse’ and justify’ (see above). Relate Either ‘explain’ (see above) how things happened or are connected in a cause-and-effect sense, or may imply ‘compare’ and ‘contrast’ (see above).<br />Discourse Markers (Including Reporting Verbs)<br />Discourse markers (these are words like ‘however’, ‘although’, ‘nevertheless’) are referred to more commonly as ‘linking words' and 'linking phrases’, or ‘sentence connectors’.  They may be described as the ‘glue’ that binds together a piece of writing, making the different parts of the text ‘stick together’. They are used less frequently in speech, unless the speech is very formal. <br />Without sufficient discourse markers in a piece of writing, a text would not seem logically constructed and the connections between the different sentences and paragraphs would not be obvious. <br />Care must also be taken, however, to avoid over-use of discourse markers. Using too many of them, or using them unnecessarily, can make a piece of writing sound too heavy and ‘artificial’. They are important, but must only be used when necessary.    <br />Transitional Words <br />Here is a list of transitional words; be certain you understand their meanings before you use them. Often, there exists a slight, but significant, difference between two apparently similar words. Also remember that while transitions describe relationships between ideas, they do not automatically create relationships between ideas for your reader. Use transitions with enough context in a sentence or paragraph to make the relationships clear. <br />Function Example Position within clause/sentenceAdditionMoreover; In addition; Additionally; Further; Further to this; Also; Besides; What is more. And. Initial Starts a second/ subordinate clause Illustrate Thus, for example, for instance, namely, to illustrate, in other words, in particular, specifically, such as.InitialStarts a second/ subordinate clause Contrast On the contrary, contrarily, notwithstanding, but, however, nevertheless, in spite of, in contrast, yet, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, or, nor, conversely, at the same time, while this may be true.Initial position Starts a second/ subordinate clause Enumerate And, in addition to, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise.Starts a second/ subordinate clause Expressing a conditionIf; In the event of; As long as...; So long as...; Provided that...; Assuming that...; Given that....Initial position Starts a second/ subordinate clauseTime After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning, day, week, etc., most important, later, ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.Initial position Starts a second/ subordinate clauseSpace At the left, at the right, in the center, on the side, along the edge, on top, below, beneath, under, around, above, over, straight ahead, at the top, at the bottom, surrounding, opposite, at the rear, at the front, in front of, beside, behind, next to, nearby, in the distance, beyond, in the forefront, in the foreground, within sight, out of sight, across, under, nearer, adjacent, in the background.Initial position Starts a second/ subordinate clauseConcession Although, at any rate, at least, still, thought, even though, granted that, while it may be true, in spite of, of course.Initial positionSimilarity or comparisonSimilarly, likewise, in like fashion, in like manner, analogous to.Initial position EmphasisAbove all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition. On the contrary; As a matter of fact; In fact. Initial position Details Specifically, especially, in particular, to explain, to list, to enumerate, in detail, namely, including.Initial position ExamplesFor example, for instance, to illustrate, thus, in other words, as an illustration, in particular.Initial position Consequence or result So that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then.Initial position Summary Therefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly.Initial position SuggestionFor this purpose, to this end, with this in mind, with this purpose in mind, therefore.Initial position <br />There are many discourse markers that express different relationships between ideas. The most common types of relationship between ideas, and the sentence connectors that are most often used to express these relationships, are given in the table below. The discourse markers in the table are generally used at the start of a phrase or clause. (a clause is a minimal grammatical structure that has meaning in its own right, and consists of a subject and verb, and often an object too). Sentence connectors do not always begin a completely new sentence; they may be separated from the previous idea with a semi-colon.<br />Reporting Verbs<br />When you wish to discuss a text or an author’s stance (viewpoint) you can use more than just ‘said’ or ‘stated’. Reporting verbs are a great way of giving your viewpoint regarding the veracity/accuracy of the text (i.e., correct, neither correct/incorrect, incorrect), or it can indicate the author’s viewpoint regarding the content of the literature (i.e., positive or negative).<br />Reporting verbs differ in terms of their strength – for example ‘’to suggest’ is much weaker, and more tentative, than ‘to argue’. The two verbs convey very different pictures about how the author you are studying sees his or her materials and research.  <br />Some reporting verbs are used principally to say what the writer does and does not do. These verbs do not indicate any value judgement on the part of the writer – they are called ‘neutral’ reporting verbs. <br />A second group of verbs is used to show when the writer has an inclination to believe something but still wishes to be hesitant – we call these ‘tentative’ reporting verbs. <br />Finally, if the writer has strong arguments to put forward and is absolutely sure of his or her ground, we can use ‘strong’ reporting verbs to refer to these ideas. <br />Student’s attitude towards the literature being cited:CORRECT NEUTRAL INCORRECTReporting verbsThese are usually in 3rd person singular or plural simple present tense form.E.g. Brown (2004) explains …Smith and Bull (2003) explain …acknowledgesdefines1demonstratesexplainsidentifiesobservesoutlinesshows throws light onaddsarguesclaimsclarifies2concludes5describes3expressesfeelsfindsindicatesinformspresentsproposes4remarksremindsreportsstatesusesconfusesdisregardsignores6<br />Care needs to be taken to ensure that these verbs are used appropriately – consult your dictionary for the meaning and usage if you are not sure.<br /> <br />Examples:<br />1 Stein-Parbury (2000) defines listening as the ability to hear, understand, and appreciate a patient’s experience.<br />2 De Cieri et al. (2003) clarify the role of human resources in terms of a company’s improved competitiveness in their Australian Business Excellence Model.<br />3 In their presentation, Sawyer and Smith (2001) described* their sampling methods and data analysis in great detail. [*Note: Simple past tense is used as the description of the sampling methods was completed in the past.]<br />4 In their study on acculturation, Birman, Sharpe, and Angeles (2004) propose a variety of solutions to the current problem facing urban constructs, that of “ghettoisation” (p. 77).<br />5 Previous studies on the work-study balance of tertiary students<br />(Campbell, 2004; Guthrie, Logan, & Tuomy, 2003; Smith, 1999) concluded* that most students prioritise work over study. [*Note: Present perfect tense is used here as a number of former studies and their findings are being discussed in terms of their relevance today.]<br />6 Lygon (2001) ignores conflicting data in his review of the literature thereby compromising the credibility of his research in the field.<br />Obviously, it is important (when we read) to ensure that we interpret the writer’s ideas correctly. For instance, if we say ‘Jones (1999) argues…’ rather than ‘Jones (1999) suggests…’ this is a major difference of meaning. The first indicates strength – the second tentativity. It is very important, in academic writing, not to misinterpret a writer’s intentions when we are reporting them. <br />Here is a list of possible reporting verbs indicating, from the author’s viewpoint:<br />• a positive attitude towards the content of the text/data <br />• a negative or uncertain attitude towards the content of the text/data.<br />Author’sattitudetowards thecontent beingdiscussed:POSITIVE/NEUTRALNEGATIVE/UNCERTAINReportingverbsThese are usually in 3rd person singular or plural Simple present tense form.E.g. Brown (2004)insists …Smith and Bull(2003) insist …acceptsadvisesaffirmsagreesapplaudsassertsconcurs7insists maintainsnotes8praisespoints outpositsrecommendsremarksstressessubscribes to9suggestssupportsthinksurgesattackschallenges10disagreesdismisses11disputesdoubtsmistrustsopposesquestions12rejectssuspectswarns<br />Function and strength Example verbs NEUTRAL: verbs used to say what the writer describes in factual terms, demonstrates, refers to, and discusses, and verbs used to explain his/her methodology.describe, show, reveal, study, demonstate, note, point out, indicate, report, observe, assume, take into consideration, examine, go on to say that, state, believe (unless this is a strong belief), mention, etc.TENTATIVE: verbs used to say what the writer suggests or speculates on (without being absolutely certain).suggest, speculate, intimate, hypothesise, moot,  imply, propose, recommend, posit the view that,  question the view that, postulate, etc.STRONG: verbs used to say what the writer makes strong arguments and claims for.argue, claim, emphasise, contend, maintain, assert, theorize, support the view that, deny, negate, refute, reject, challenge, strongly believe that, counter the view/argument that, etc. <br />