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Requirements - Overweight or Anorexia?

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  • 1. IIBA Meeting July 1, 2010 Suzanne Robertson Principal The Atlantic Systems Guild www.volere.co.uk www.systemsguild.com IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 1
  • 2. Requirements: too thin or too fat? IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 2
  • 3. Too little or too much? • Every project has requirements • How do we avoid unnecessary requirements without missing necessary ones? • How do we minimise the work (meetings, documents, reviews, decisions) involved in communicating and managing necessary requirements? IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited Copyright the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited Copyrigh pyright Atlantic Systems Gui Limited lant yste uild imit 3
  • 4. Five influences on a balanced diet 1. Project Charter 2. Prioritisation 3. Statutory Need 4. Organisational Health 5. Focus on Content IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 4
  • 5. 1 Project Charter • A written constitution that authorises the project, and describes its objectives and constraints • This is the highest level requirement Investment Benefits Project Success criteria charter Opportunities Resources Scope IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 5
  • 6. ...Project Charter Pattern: Loud and Clear The project’s goals are clearly and repeatedly articulated Ref: Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Patterns of Project Behaviour. DeMarco, Hruschka, Lister, McMenamin, Robertson and Robertson. Dorset House New York, 2008 IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 6
  • 7. Prioritisation 2 Viewer/ Listener Sounds New DVD/ Profile Pictures CD and Scope of investigation Technology Updated Technology The Work of Controlling Entertainment New Viewer/ Listener using EC webpage Prompt Updated New Technology Technology Profile Technology Controller DVDPlayer DVD DVD Scope of product Command TV Status Signal Entertainment Controller Product Status Television TV Command Signal Speaker Status Speaker Command Signal CD Status Speakers Technology Technology Profile Technology Entertainment Manufacturer CD Specification CD Player Options Entertainment Technology Command Choice Specification Signal Technology Description Technology Description Viewer/ Manufacturer Listener Internet using EC Controller • Prioritise early – as soon as you have something consistent to prioritise • Encourage early exposure of conflict and need for resolution IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 7
  • 8. ...prioritisation • Which requirements contribute most to the project charter? • Prioritise continually, whenever you go down a level of detail • Record prioritisation decisions in the waiting room or on your backlog Scope of The work to be requirements investigation supported Available Response to a technology/arc Business event hitecture Business Business Use Case Use Case ............ Constraint ............ Product Product Require- Use Case Use Case ............ ment ............ Require- Technological ment requirements Require- ............ Require- ment ment Functional & Non- IIBA Meeting 2010 Functional Requirements © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited Copyright 8
  • 9. 3 Statutory Need? • Some industries have documentation and procedural review rules/laws/standards that must be met e.g. Medical, Aerospace, Defence....... • Documentation before building • But – some organisations fall into a habitual way of doing things • Every translation and duplication makes your requirements fatter IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 9
  • 10. Organisational Health 4Pattern: Babel The project fails to develop a consistent language understood by all members of the development team and stakeholder community Ref: Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Patterns of Project Behaviour. DeMarco, Hruschka, Lister, McMenamin, Robertson and Robertson. Dorset House New York, 2008 IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 10
  • 11. Words and meanings • The names used in models, scenarios and atomic requirements are defined in the dictionary • Define the terms progressively rather than waiting until the end • Use the dictionary as a way of sharing and reusing knowledge PUC 1.1 Find Device Specs - Traceable back to BUC 1 New Technology Details of new technology that Device Name a viewer wants to control + Device Model Number For each new device mentioned in the New Technology: + Manufacturer Name - Prompt the Viewer/Listener to identify/provide the manufacturer/ d e v ice type/model number of the new device Viewer/ - Accept manufacturer name/device type/model number from the Listener V iewer/Listener using EC - Search the web to find the matching manufacturer name/device webpage t ype/model number DVDPlayer - Confirm the match with the Viewer/Listener Television - Get the device specification PUC Number PUC Name BUC Number 1.1 (see PUC scenario 1.1) Find Device Specs 1 (see BUC scenario 1) New Requirem Rqt Type Description Rationale Fit Criterion Other Related PUCs Viewer/ Technology ent Number Listener DVD TV Speakers EC001 Functional The product shall prompt the Need to let the Viewer/Listener See definitions of device Updated DVD Command TV Viewer/Listener for the know what is required in order manufacturer name, device name Technology Status Signal Command manufacturer name, device name and model number. to set up a new device. and model number in Terms and Definitions New Status Signal EC002 Functional The product shall accept the Need to know which new See definitions of device Technology New Profile device manufacturer device name and device model from the the Viewer/Listener devices to add to the controller's technology profile. manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and Definitions Technology EC003 Functional The product shall search the web to find the matching manufacturer Need to look for device specifications. See definitions of device manufacturer name, device name Updated Prompt Speaker name/device type/model number and model number in Terms and Definitions Technology Status Speaker EC004 Functional The product shall confirm to the Need to ensure that the device See definitions of device Command Viewer/Listener that a matching device has been located. located is the one intended by the Viewer/Listener. manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and DVD/ Profile Entertainment Signal EC005 Functional The product shall get the device specification for the matching Need for the Entertainment Controller to have the device Definitions See definitions of device specification in Terms and Pictures CD Controller EC006 Look and Feel device. specification. Definitions. The product shall be recognisable To promote the Easylife brand. Viewer/Listeners are able to All other PUC's with a direct and Product as an Easylife product. recognise the product as an interface to the Easylife product the first time they Viewer/Listener Sounds Controller CD Status EC007 Usability The product shall make it easy for To avoid annoying the use it. The Viewer/Listener can tell the Technology the Viewer/Listener to enter the Viewer/Listener and wasting his product the manufacturer name, manufacturer name, device name time. device name and model number The Work of Profile and model number within n secs without any training or need to consult instructions. Controlling Entertainment Manufacturer CD EC008 Performance The product shall not cause any physical harm to the The product shall pass safety certification tests A, B & C. All other PUC's with functionality that involves Entertainment CD Player Viewer/Listener. contact between the Technology Options Entertainment Technology Command electronic controller and the Viewer/Listener. EC009 Performance The product shall find the device To avoid annoying the The product finds the device Choice Specification Signal specification quickly. Viewer/Listener. specification within n secs of the Viewer/Listener telling the product Technology the device manufacturer name, device name and model number. Specification Technology EC010 Operational The product shall run on the most To be compatible with the popular Internet browsers. Viewer/Listener's environment. All product's functions allocated to All other PUC's with the internet must work as specified functionality that is allocated Description using all the browsers specified in to the internet. the Easylife Browser compatibility Technology list version 10. Viewer/ EC011 Maintainability The product shall be able to New devices are continually recognise device specifications for being released on the market. Any new device that satisfies the definition of device specification in Description Listener Internet future new devices. Terms and Definitions shall be recognisable by the product. using EC EC012 Security The product shall only allow the To avoid annoying the owner of Any change made to the controller Controller authorised Viewer/Listener to change the controller technology profile. the controller. technology profile is proved to be made by the authorised Viewer/Listener. Manufacturer EC013 Cultural The product shall be usable by To expand the market for the A representative sample of Viewer/Listeners who do not entertainment controller. Viewer/Listeners who do not speak speak English. English are able to set up a controller technology profile within IIBA Meeting 2010 EC014 Legal The product shall only allow the authorised Viewer/Listener to Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited n time units. To protect the Viewer/Listener's All access to the technology profile privacy. must comply with the Data 11 access the technology profile. Protection act.
  • 12. Org X Org Y H/W S/W S/W S/W H/W P1 P2 P3 Org W Org Z Your Organisation Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 12 IIBA Meeting 2010
  • 13. ...organisational health • Applying systems thinking across projects and the organisation • Project management based on reality • Agreement on decision making structure • Feedback channels IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 13
  • 14. Focus on Content 5 Work Business Product System Scope 1 Business * Event Scope 1 * Design Architecture Component • Requirements content is boundary guiding 1 1 Business 1 1 Product * Supporting the knowledge that you responding partitioning Project 1.. * Goal 1 * Business Product * Implem- enting * Implement- Business relevancy Use Case 1.. Use Case ** ation Unit need to communicate to * * * * 1 Stake- holder 1 Owning Business tracing * *Product Testing tracing your stakeholders so that * ** Atomic Testing Test Implementing Naming Conventions Requirement ** Case you can get feedback and & Data Dictionary Are types of S * build the solution Constraint Functional Non-functional Technological Fact/ Requirement Requirement Requirement Assumption For more on Volere requirements knowledge model see http://www.volere.co.uk/pdf%20files/requirements%20management.pdf IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 14
  • 15. ...focus on content Content is communicated in some form/s • prescribed documents • project phases • Requirements form is the • review cycles • models vehicles you use to • meetings communicate requirements • prototypes • scenarios • conversations • or any other packaging of the content IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 15
  • 16. ...focus on content • Form vs Content • Heavy methodologies are driven by form • Light methodologies are driven by content IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 16
  • 17. ...focus on content The Murder Book • Based on the way crime investigations build their documentation • Each item is stored chronologically as it comes to light • Requirements analysts collect documentation, rather than write it at the end of the project. • All items of interest are added and dated • There is no standard format, just the collection of notes, diagrams, photos, interviews, models, stories, etc. Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 17
  • 18. Five influences on a balanced diet 1. Project Charter – a common understanding 2. Prioritisation – early and continuous 3. Statutory Need – real or imagined? 4. Organisational Health – terminology, sociological awareness, related project management 5. Focus on Content– the difference between form and content Other influences? IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 18
  • 19. Other influences? IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 19
  • 20. Resources Mastering the Requirements Process Requirements-Led Project Management: second Edition. Suzanne and James discovering David’s Slingshot. Suzanne Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies - Robertson. Addison-Wesley, 2006 Robertson and James Robertson, Addison Understanding Patterns of Project Behavior. Wesley, 2005 Tom DeMarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson. Dorset House Publishing, 2008. Hanser, Germany, 2008. Winner of 2009 Jolt award. • http://www.systemsguild.com Now available as Kindle ebook • http://www.volere.co.uk IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 20
  • 21. What is Volere? • A set of techniques to aid in discovery, communication and management of business, product, and software requirements • Books, templates, papers and web pages for guidance • Public and in-house seminars • Hands-on help with requirements • Requirements assessments • Requirements coaching * Volere is the Italian verb to wish or to want IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 21
  • 22. Provenance of Volere • Ongoing practice and research into requirements by James Robertson and Suzanne Robertson, systems engineers since 1970 • 1983 - formed the Atlantic Systems Guild: Tom DeMarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson • 1984 - formalised process and data model connections and published Complete Systems Analysis • 1995 - formalised connection between systems analysis models and business requirements and put version 1 of Volere requirements template on the web (now up to version 13) • 1999 - published Mastering the Requirements Process to communicate experience and use of Volere • 2005 - published Requirements-Led Project Management to communicate how requirements connect to project management • 2006 - published Edition 2 of Mastering the Requirements Process • 2008 - new book Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Understanding Patterns of Project Behaviour Download sample chapter from http://www.systemsguild.com • 2010 – currently integrating innovation and creativity techniques into the work of requirements engineers and business analysts IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 22