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Requirements - Overweight or Anorexia?

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  • 1. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 1 IIBA Meeting July 1, 2010 Suzanne Robertson Principal The Atlantic Systems Guild www.volere.co.uk www.systemsguild.com
  • 2. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 2 Requirements: too thin or too fat?
  • 3. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 3CoCoCoCopypypypyririririghghghghtttt ©©©© ththththeeee AtAtlalalalalalalalalantntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntntnticicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicic SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysysystetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetetemsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsmsms GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuiuildldldldldldldldldldldldldldldldld LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimimititititititititedededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededededed 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 Too little or too much? • Every project has requirements • How do we avoid unnecessary requirements without missing necessary ones? • How do we minimise the work (meetings, documents, reviews, decisions) involved in communicating and managing necessary requirements?
  • 4. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 4 Five influences on a balanced diet 1.  Project Charter 2.  Prioritisation 3.  Statutory Need 4.  Organisational Health 5.  Focus on Content
  • 5. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 5 Project Charter •  A written constitution that authorises the project, and describes its objectives and constraints •  This is the highest level requirement 1 Success criteria Investment Opportunities Benefits Scope Resources Project charter
  • 6. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 6 ...Project Charter Pattern: Loud and Clear The project’s goals are clearly and repeatedly articulated Ref: Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Patterns of Project Behaviour. DeMarco, Hruschka, Lister, McMenamin, Robertson and Robertson. Dorset House New York, 2008
  • 7. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 7 Prioritisation •  Prioritise early – as soon as you have something consistent to prioritise •  Encourage early exposure of conflict and need for resolution 2 Manufacturer Technology Specification Technology Description Updated Technology Profile New Technology Internet Entertainment Controller Product Television DVDPlayer Viewer/ Listener using EC webpage Speakers Viewer/ Listener using EC Controller Entertainment Options Entertainment Choice DVD Command Signal DVD Status TV Command Signal TV Status Speaker Command Signal Speaker Status CD Status CD Command Signal Controller Technology Profile New Technology Prompt CD Player Technology Specification Updated Technology Profile New Technology Technology Description DVD/ CDPictures and Sounds Viewer/ Listener Manufacturer The Work of Controlling Entertainment Technology Scope of investigation Scope of product
  • 8. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 8 ...prioritisation • Which requirements contribute most to the project charter? • Prioritise continually, whenever you go down a level of detail • Record prioritisation decisions in the waiting room or on your backlog Available technology/arc hitecture The work to be supported Product Use Case Constraint Product Use Case Response to a Business event Technological requirements Scope of requirements investigation Business Use Case Business Use Case Require- ment Require- ment Require- ment Require- ment Require- ment Functional & Non- Functional Requirements ............ ............ ............ ............ ............
  • 9. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 9 3 Statutory Need? •  Some industries have documentation and procedural review rules/laws/standards that must be met e.g. Medical, Aerospace, Defence....... •  Documentation before building •  But – some organisations fall into a habitual way of doing things •  Every translation and duplication makes your requirements fatter
  • 10. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 10 Organisational Health 4Pattern: Babel The project fails to develop a consistent language understood by all members of the development team and stakeholder community Ref: Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Patterns of Project Behaviour. DeMarco, Hruschka, Lister, McMenamin, Robertson and Robertson. Dorset House New York, 2008
  • 11. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 11 Words and meanings •  The names used in models, scenarios and atomic requirements are defined in the dictionary •  Define the terms progressively rather than waiting until the end •  Use the dictionary as a way of sharing and reusing knowledge Manufacturer Technology Specification Technology Description Updated Technology Profile New Technology Internet Entertainment Controller Product Television DVDPlayer Viewer/ Listener using EC webpage Speakers Viewer/ Listener using EC Controller Entertainment Options Entertainment Choice DVD Command Signal DVD Status TV Command Signal TV Status Speaker Command Signal Speaker Status CD Status CD Command Signal Controller Technology Profile New Technology Prompt CD Player PUC Number PUC Name BUC Number 1.1 (see PUC scenario 1.1) Find Device Specs 1 (see BUC scenario 1) Requirem ent Number Rqt Type Description Rationale Fit Criterion Other Related PUCs EC001 Functional The product shall prompt the Viewer/Listener for the manufacturer name, device name and model number. Need to let the Viewer/Listener know what is required in order to set up a new device. See definitions of device manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and Definitions EC002 Functional The product shall accept the device manufacturer device name and device model from the the Viewer/Listener Need to know which new devices to add to the controller's technology profile. See definitions of device manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and Definitions EC003 Functional The product shall search the web to find the matching manufacturer name/device type/model number Need to look for device specifications. See definitions of device manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and Definitions EC004 Functional The product shall confirm to the Viewer/Listener that a matching device has been located. Need to ensure that the device located is the one intended by the Viewer/Listener. See definitions of device manufacturer name, device name and model number in Terms and Definitions EC005 Functional The product shall get the device specification for the matching device. Need for the Entertainment Controller to have the device specification. See definitions of device specification in Terms and Definitions. EC006 Look and Feel The product shall be recognisable as an Easylife product. To promote the Easylife brand. Viewer/Listeners are able to recognise the product as an Easylife product the first time they use it. All other PUC's with a direct interface to the Viewer/Listener EC007 Usability The product shall make it easy for the Viewer/Listener to enter the manufacturer name, device name and model number To avoid annoying the Viewer/Listener and wasting his time. The Viewer/Listener can tell the product the manufacturer name, device name and model number within n secs without any training or need to consult instructions. EC008 Performance The product shall not cause any physical harm to the Viewer/Listener. The product shall pass safety certification tests A, B & C. All other PUC's with functionality that involves contact between the electronic controller and the Viewer/Listener. EC009 Performance The product shall find the device specification quickly. To avoid annoying the Viewer/Listener. The product finds the device specification within n secs of the Viewer/Listener telling the product the device manufacturer name, device name and model number. EC010 Operational The product shall run on the most popular Internet browsers. To be compatible with the Viewer/Listener's environment. All product's functions allocated to the internet must work as specified using all the browsers specified in the Easylife Browser compatibility list version 10. All other PUC's with functionality that is allocated to the internet. EC011 Maintainability The product shall be able to recognise device specifications for future new devices. New devices are continually being released on the market. Any new device that satisfies the definition of device specification in Terms and Definitions shall be recognisable by the product. EC012 Security The product shall only allow the authorised Viewer/Listener to change the controller technology profile. To avoid annoying the owner of the controller. Any change made to the controller technology profile is proved to be made by the authorised Viewer/Listener. EC013 Cultural The product shall be usable by Viewer/Listeners who do not speak English. To expand the market for the entertainment controller. A representative sample of Viewer/Listeners who do not speak English are able to set up a controller technology profile within n time units. EC014 Legal The product shall only allow the authorised Viewer/Listener to access the technology profile. To protect the Viewer/Listener's privacy. All access to the technology profile must comply with the Data Protection act. PUC 1.1 Find Device Specs - Traceable back to BUC 1 For each new device mentioned in the New Technology: - Prompt the Viewer/Listener to identify/provide the manufacturer/ d e v ice type/model number of the new device - Accept manufacturer name/device type/model number from the V iewer/Listener - Search the web to find the matching manufacturer name/device t ype/model number - Confirm the match with the Viewer/Listener - Get the device specification Technology Specification Updated Technology Profile New Technology Technology Description DVD/ CDPictures and Sounds Viewer/ Listener Manufacturer The Work of Controlling Entertainment Technology New Technology Details of new technology that a viewer wants to control Device Name + Device Model Number + Manufacturer Name
  • 12. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 12Your Organisation Org Y Org X Org W Org Z P1 P2 P3 S/W S/W H/W H/W S/W
  • 13. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 13 ...organisational health •  Applying systems thinking across projects and the organisation •  Project management based on reality •  Agreement on decision making structure •  Feedback channels
  • 14. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 14 Product Scope Design guiding Business Use Case Product Use Case Implement- ation UnitBusiness relevancy Supporting Implem- enting Atomic Requirement Constraint Functional Requirement Test Case Testing Non-functional Requirement Are types of Business responding Product tracing Business tracing Product partitioning Technological Requirement System Architecture Component Work Scope * ** * * * ** * * 1.. * ** Business boundary * * 1 1 1 1 1 Owning 1 *1 Project Goal Stake- holder Naming Conventions & Data Dictionary Fact/ Assumption 1.. * Business Event S Testing * 1 * 1 Implementing * * 5 Focus on Content •  Requirements content is the knowledge that you need to communicate to your stakeholders so that you can get feedback and build the solution For more on Volere requirements knowledge model see http://www.volere.co.uk/pdf%20files/requirements%20management.pdf
  • 15. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 15 Content is communicated in some form/s •  Requirements form is the vehicles you use to communicate requirements • prescribed documents • project phases • review cycles • models • meetings • prototypes • scenarios • conversations • or any other packaging of the content ...focus on content
  • 16. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 16 • Form vs Content • Heavy methodologies are driven by form • Light methodologies are driven by content ...focus on content
  • 17. 17Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited The Murder Book • Each item is stored chronologically as it comes to light • Requirements analysts collect documentation, rather than write it at the end of the project. • All items of interest are added and dated • There is no standard format, just the collection of notes, diagrams, photos, interviews, models, stories, etc. ...focus on content • Based on the way crime investigations build their documentation
  • 18. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 18 Five influences on a balanced diet 1.  Project Charter – a common understanding 2.  Prioritisation – early and continuous 3.  Statutory Need – real or imagined? 4.  Organisational Health – terminology, sociological awareness, related project management 5.  Focus on Content– the difference between form and content Other influences?
  • 19. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 19 Other influences?
  • 20. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 20 Resources Mastering the Requirements Process second Edition. Suzanne and James Robertson. Addison-Wesley, 2006 Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies - Understanding Patterns of Project Behavior. Tom DeMarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson. Dorset House Publishing, 2008. Hanser, Germany, 2008. Winner of 2009 Jolt award. Now available as Kindle ebook Requirements-Led Project Management: discovering David’s Slingshot. Suzanne Robertson and James Robertson, Addison Wesley, 2005 •  http://www.systemsguild.com •  http://www.volere.co.uk
  • 21. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 21 What is Volere? • A set of techniques to aid in discovery, communication and management of business, product, and software requirements • Books, templates, papers and web pages for guidance • Public and in-house seminars • Hands-on help with requirements • Requirements assessments • Requirements coaching * Volere is the Italian verb to wish or to want
  • 22. IIBA Meeting 2010 Copyright © the Atlantic Systems Guild Limited 22 Provenance of Volere •  Ongoing practice and research into requirements by James Robertson and Suzanne Robertson, systems engineers since 1970 •  1983 - formed the Atlantic Systems Guild: Tom DeMarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson •  1984 - formalised process and data model connections and published Complete Systems Analysis •  1995 - formalised connection between systems analysis models and business requirements and put version 1 of Volere requirements template on the web (now up to version 13) •  1999 - published Mastering the Requirements Process to communicate experience and use of Volere •  2005 - published Requirements-Led Project Management to communicate how requirements connect to project management •  2006 - published Edition 2 of Mastering the Requirements Process •  2008 - new book Adrenaline Junkies and Template Zombies: Understanding Patterns of Project Behaviour Download sample chapter from http://www.systemsguild.com •  2010 – currently integrating innovation and creativity techniques into the work of requirements engineers and business analysts