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Companion Animal Dentistry Kk

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Transcript

  • 1. Companion Animal Dentistry
  • 2. Dental Prophylaxis vs. Dental Cleaning
    • Prophylaxis : preventative treatment of disease
    • Cleaning: often times periodontal disease is already present
  • 3. Tooth Anatomy
  • 4. Parts of the Tooth
    • Crown – enamel
    • Root - cemental
    • Dentin – porous – hot/cold travels to nerve here
    • Apex - root tips
    • Gingival Sulcus – normal space between free gingiva and crown surface (1-3mm in dogs, 0.5-1mm in cats)
    • Pulp Chamber – houses nerves/blood vessels – connects to root canal
    • Periodontal Ligament – attaches to cemental surface and aveolar bone (spongy bone) on opposite end
  • 5. Dental Vocabulary
    • Furcation – where roots separate – only on multi-rooted teeth
    • Enamel – hard surface protecting crown of tooth
    • Cemental Enamel Junction (CEJ) – where cementum and enamel meet
    • Occlusal Surface – biting surface-usually in reference to molars
    • Cusp – pointed surface
    • Mucul Gingival Line – were free gingiva and attached gingiva meet
  • 6. Enamel
    • Hardest substance in the body
    • Helps prevent fracture of teeth
    • Thickness of enamel in
    • animals is 1/3 that of
    • human enamel
  • 7. Surface Terminology
  • 8.
    • Incisor – (nibble) single rooted
    • Canine – (fang teeth) single, yet more extensive root - 1/3 crown, 2/3 root that extends back to second premolar
    • Premolar – (biting/chewing) first is single rooted, second/third is double rooted, fourth is three rooted
    • Molar – three rooted (tearing/gripping)
    • Carnassial Tooth – “meat
    • shearing” – 4 th upper premolar
    • and 1 st lower molar-
    • consistent in cats and dogs
    • Mesial root – closest to middle of
    • jaw
    • Palatal root – closest to palate –
    • distal
  • 9. Root System Recap
    • Single Rooted
      • Incisors
      • Canines
      • 1 st premolar
      • 3 rd lower molar
    • Double Rooted
      • Upper 2 nd and 3 rd premolar
      • Lower premolars and molars except for M3
    • Triple Rooted – no 3 rooted teeth in the mandible
      • Upper 4 th premolar
      • Upper first molar
      • Upper 2 nd molar
  • 10. Dental Formulas
    • Canine Permanent Teeth
    • 2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3) = 42
    • Canine Deciduous Teeth
    • 2(i 3/3, c 1/1, p 3/3) = 28
    • Feline Permanent Teeth
    • 2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1) = 30
    • Feline Deciduous Teeth
    • 2(i 3/3, c 1/1, p 3/2) = 26
    • I/i – incisor C/c – canine
    • P/p – premolar M/m - molar
  • 11. Anatomic System Examples
    • 4 th upper right premolar =
    • PM 4
    • 3 rd lower left premolar =
    • 3 PM
    • Lower left canine =
    • 1 C
  • 12. Triadan System
    • Uses a 3 number system to identify teeth
    • First number = quadrant tooth is located in
    • Second/Third numbers = identification number of tooth, which is always
    • represented by two
    • numbers for a total of
    • 10 teeth
    • Upper right = 1
    • Upper left = 2
    • Lower left = 3
    • Lower right = 4
  • 13. Tips To Remember in Dogs
    • 1 st central incisor always = 01
    • Canine always = 04
    • Upper carnassial always = 08
    • Lower carnassial always = 09
    • Premolars are numbered 05 – 08
    • Molars are numbered 09 - 11
    • Examples:
    • 103 = upper right third incisor
    • 204 = upper left canine
    • 308 = lower left 4 th premolar
    • 409 = lower right 1 st molar
  • 14. Diagram of Triadan System in a Dog
  • 15. Tips to Remember in Cats
    • 1 st central incisor always = 01
    • Canine always = 04
    • Upper carnassial always = 08
    • Lower carnassial always = 09
    • Premolars are numbered 05 – 08
      • Cats do not have a 1 st premolar, therefore there is no 05 in cats
    • Molars are numbered 09 and 10
  • 16. Diagram of Triadan System in a Cat
  • 17. Pros and Cons of Each System
    • Triadan
      • Computer friendly
      • Similar to human dental system
      • Confusing/hard to memorize
    • Anatomical
      • Easy to remember
      • Uses familiar terms
      • Subscripts are not computer friendly
  • 18. Three Major Components of Dental Calculi
    • 1) food particles (calcium)
    • 2) saliva (contains glycoprotein)
    • 3) bacteria – has been identified and linked to organ problems within the liver, kidneys, heart and lungs such as
    • bacteria endocarditis
  • 19. Calculi vs. Plaque
    • Plaque – white filmy stuff/cotton mouth - precursor to calculi
    • Calculi/tartar – unbrushed plaque hardens and becomes calculi – NOT THE SAME AS PLAQUE
  • 20. Formation of Calculi
    • Eat a meal
    • Acquired pellicle (glycoprotein) attaches to surface of tooth
    • Bacteria colonize forming plaque
    • Bacteria die and attract more bacteria – absorbs calcium from saliva
    • Results in new substance called calculus
    • Vicious cycle because eating is unavoidable and provides calcium which in return aids in binding plaque to teeth
  • 21. Periodontal Disease
    • Periodontitis , formerly known as Pyorrhea alveolaris , is the name of a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth .
    • Involves progressive loss of the bone around teeth which may lead to loosening and eventual loss of teeth if untreated.
    • Caused by bacteria that adhere to and grow on tooth surfaces ( microbial plaque or biofilms ), particularly in areas under the gum line.
  • 22. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades
    • Grade 1 :
      • Mild, marginal gingivitis
      • Pellicles
      • Halitosis
      • Gingival Sulcus at normal
      • depth
      • Inflammation – red
      • Reversible
  • 23.
    • Grade 2:
      • Moderate gingivitis
      • Increase in inflammation
      • Red line appears
      • Starts to cut off blood supply to bone
      • Gingival Sulcus still normal depth because no bone loss
      • Edema
      • Gingival bleeding upon probing
      • Advanced gingivitis
      • Still reversible
    Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades
  • 24. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades
    • Grade 3:
      • Increase in inflammation
      • Edema
      • Gingival bleeding upon probing
      • Pustular discharge
      • Slight to moderate bone loss
      • Gingival recession
      • Gingival Sulcus > 3mm in a dog = pocket formation
      • Not Reversible
  • 25. Periodontal Disease: 4 Grades
    • Grade 4:
      • Includes all of Grade 3 and
      • Bone and ligament (supporting structures) affected
      • Increase in teeth mobility
      • Severe bone loss
      • Loss of attachment
      • Ligament detachment
      • Not Reversible
      • Taxing on immune system
      • Tooth sensitivity
  • 26. Cavities In Animals
    • Very rare – almost never occur
    • Occur from the outside in
    • Simple carbs breakdown leading to cavities
    • Incidence being higher in pets fed cheaper foods because of lack of quality is questionable
    • pH has to be conducive – broad spectrum within a species
    • Resorptive lesions in cats are not cavities because they occur from the inside out