Occupational hazards


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Occupational hazards

  2. 2. Occupational Hazards<br />Working condition that can lead to chronic illness or death<br />Danger to health, limb, or life that is inherent in, or is associated with, a particular occupation, industry, or work environment (e.g., Oil & Gas Industry)<br />Occupational Health and Safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at:<br />the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations;<br />the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions;<br />the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health;<br />
  3. 3. Occupational Hazards<br />Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration and participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes, and involves the consideration of issues relating to:<br />occupational medicine, <br />industrial hygiene, <br />toxicology, <br />education, <br />engineering safety, <br />ergonomics, <br />psychology, etc.<br />
  4. 4. Occupational Health Hazards<br />Infections:<br />Skin and blood infection due to direct contact with waste from infected wounds<br />Eye and respiratory infected dust<br />Disease due to bite of animals feeding on the waste<br />Intestinal infections transmitted by flies<br />Chronic Diseases:<br />Respiratory diseases<br />Cancers<br />Accidents:<br />Infecting wounds due to sharp objects<br />Poisoning and chemical burns due to hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste<br />Burns and other injuries due to occupational accidents at disposal sites<br />Bone and muscle disorders due to handling of heavy containers<br />
  5. 5. Range of Hazards<br />Unsafe working conditions, such as unguarded machinery, slippery floors or inadequate fire precautions<br />A number of categories of insidious hazards (that is, those hazards that are dangerous but which may not be obvious) including:<br />chemical hazards, arising from liquids, solids, dusts, fumes, vapours and gases;<br />physical hazards, such as noise, vibration, unsatisfactory lighting, radiation and extreme temperatures;<br />biological hazards, such as bacteria, viruses, infectious waste and infestations;<br />psychological hazards resulting from stress and strain;<br />hazards associated with the non-application of ergonomic principles, for example badly designed machinery, mechanical devices and tools used by workers, improper seating and workstation design, or poorly designed work practices.<br />
  6. 6. Occupational Hazards in Oil and Gas Industry<br />One of the riskiest industries when it comes to health and safety of employees ~<br />Interruptions in oil production caused by Fire/Accident<br />significant economic losses, and potential hazards to humans and the environment<br />Endangered to infectious disease, food borne / waterborne illness, and wildlife and vector induced diseases<br />In case of Oil Refineries exposure to Benzeneand Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) –substances that are dangerous to health<br />
  7. 7. Occupational Hazards in Oil and Gas Industrycontd…<br />Process chemicals in oil and gas industry cause occupational hazard<br />numerous activities within the industry that include chemical use for various processes which include drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation, and production<br />
  8. 8. Occupational Hazards in Oil and Gas Industrycontd…<br />Benzene poses the greatest risk to workers using petroleum solvents containing benzene<br />Benzene poisoning through inhalation of the vapors evaporating from the solvent and by absorbing it through the skin by handling materials soaked with the solvents<br />Consequences: Rare forms of Leukemia<br />Although banned in the US, but still used in some degree in most petroleum solvents in many of the oil producing nations<br />
  9. 9. Occupational Hazards in Oil and Gas Industrycontd…<br />Proximity of livestock to drilling operations and production sites often results in poisoning of animals from ingestion of crude oil, condensate, salt water, heavy metals, and caustic chemicals<br />Heavy metals encountered most frequently are Lead from Pipe Joint Compound and Arsenicals and Chromates used as Corrosion Inhibitors<br />Toxic and Caustic Chemicals are used in Drilling Mudsand Fluids<br />Crude oil and Salt water Spills are common occurrences around Production Sites<br />
  10. 10. Consequences...<br />Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons may result in sudden death from Peracute Bloat. <br />The most common cause of illness or death following exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons is Aspiration Pneumonia<br />which may cause a chronic progressive deterioration of health, with death after several days or weeks<br />Petroleum hydrocarbons, salt water, and caustic chemicals have the potential of altering rumen flora as well as damaging the ruminal and gastrointestinal epithelium<br />
  11. 11. The Health Watch Study…<br />Since 1980, the Australian Institute of Petroleum has sponsored the development and operation of an independent epidemiology program called Health Watch<br />Started at the University of Melbourne and then transferred to the Monash Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health<br />A University-based Research Program<br />Studies people who have worked in the Australian petroleum industry to find out what happens to them in terms of their health<br />Has followed about 19,000 past and present employees<br />Records any occurrence of cancer and, eventually, the cause of death<br />
  12. 12. Study Findings...<br />Overall<br />Petroleum industry employees have better health than the general Australian community and are less likely to die of the diseases commonly causing death - including cancer, heart and respiratory conditions<br />The Cancer Rate<br />No different to the average cancer rate for the general Australian population<br />Deaths from Cancer<br />Significantly lower than the average death rates from cancer for the Australian population<br />Leukaemia<br />A cancer of special concern in this industry because of its association with benzene exposure<br />
  13. 13. Study Findings...<br />Asbestos-related Cancers<br />23 cases of Mesothelioma diagnosed among Health Watch members, the majority before 2000<br />Other Cancers<br />A higher rate of Melanomas being diagnosed in workers in the petroleum industry<br />Other diseases<br />Death rates for heart disease, stroke, respiratory and digestive diseases and other causes (eg. accidents) are significantly lower than the comparable Australian rates<br />
  14. 14. Occupational Risk Management<br />ORM is a combination of disciplines necessary to reduce fatalities and injuries in any working environment and increase the productivity, efficiency and quality of the work output.<br />The disciplines included in ORM are <br />Ergonomics, <br />Health, Safety and Environmental Management<br />
  15. 15. ORM Model…<br />OSHAS 18001 is driving further awareness to the ORM Model and will be adopted, forcing companies on a worldwide basis to incorporate all of the disciplines contained within this model<br />Compatible with the ISO 9001 (quality) and ISO 14001 (environmental) Management Systems Standards, in order to facilitate the integration of quality, environmental and occupational health and safety management systems by organizations<br />
  16. 16. ORM Modelcontd…<br />Competition is driving companies to remain competitive on a worldwide basis. <br />Implementing Ergonomic Programs as part of ORM no longer can be ignored<br />Companies must predict the future costs to society brought through a lack of ergonomic awareness displayed by increasing medical costs<br />In the United States, corporations are spending over $60 billion annually for compensable injuries in every type of work environment. This can be reduced drastically by implementing an effective ergonomics program<br />
  17. 17. ORM Modelcontd…<br />Design of work methodologies, tools and equipment must include specifications that has advantages:<br />Enhance user capabilities and recognize the limitations humans develop as they age. If not considered, production, quality and human life will be at risk<br />Enhance a corporation or public entity by building a better working environment<br />Save lives, prevent injuries, establish major cost benefits resulting in greater profits and better overall efficiencies, thereby creating an atmosphere of better business<br />
  18. 18. Occupational Health Related Procedures<br />Health Care System<br />Medical Management of Obnoxious Substances<br />Hygiene and Sanitation<br />First-aid<br />Health Risk Assessment<br />Pre-employment and Regular Medical Checks<br />Wellness and Fitness Programme for Employees and Families<br />Emergency Medical Care<br />
  19. 19. Occupational Health and Safety ManagementThe Indian Scene…<br />Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated an Indian Standard on OH&S Management Systems: <br />IS 18001:2000 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems<br />Prescribes requirements for an OH&S Management Systems to enable an organization to formulate a policy and objectives, taking into account legislative requirements and information about significant hazards and risks, <br />which the organization can control and over which it can be expected to have an influence, to protect its employees and others, whose health and safety may be affected by the activities of the organization. <br />
  20. 20. The Indian Scenecontd…<br />Organizations interested in obtaining License for OH&S Management System as per IS 18001 should apply on the prescribed Proforma (Form IV) at the nearest Regional Office of BIS along with Questionnaire (Form X) and the prescribed Application Fee<br />The application shall be signed by the Proprietor or the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the organization or any other person authorised to sign on behalf of the organization. <br />The name and designation of the person signing the application must be recorded legibly in a space set apart for the purpose in the application form. Each application must be accompanied by a documented Occupational Health and Safety Management System Documentation (such as OHS manual etc.)<br />
  21. 21. The Indian Scenecontd…<br />The Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) and the Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) are the two field organisations of the Ministry of Labour and Employment in the area of Occupational Safety and Health in Mines, Factories and Ports<br />The DGFASLI, Mumbai, which is an attached office of the Ministry of Labour and Employment, functions as a technical arm of the Ministry in regard to matters concerned with safety, health and welfare of workers in factories and ports/docks. <br />DGMS is the Indian Government Regulatory agency for safety in mines and oil-fields. Its is to continually improve safety and health standards, practices and performance in the mining industry and upstream petroleum industry.<br />
  22. 22. Major Legislations relating to Occupational Health and Safety in India <br />The Factories Act,1948<br />It regulates health, safety, welfare and other working conditions of workers in factories.<br />It is enforced by the State Governments through their factory inspectorates. The Directorate General Factory Advice Service & Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) co-ordinates matters concerning safety, health and welfare of workers in the factories with the State Governments.<br />DGFASLI conducts training, studies and surveys on various aspects relating to safety and health of workers through the Central Labour Institute in Mumbai and three other Regional Labour Institutes located at Calcutta, Chennai and Kanpur.<br />
  23. 23. Major Legislations relating to Occupational Health and Safety in India <br />Mines Act, 1952<br />It contains provisions for measures relating to the health, safety and welfare of workers in the coal, metalliferous and oil mines.<br />The Mines Act, 1952, prescribed duties of the owner (defined as the proprietor, lessee or an agent) to manage mines and mining operation and the health and safety in mines. It also prescribes the number of working hours in mines, the minimum wage rates, and other related matters.<br />Directorate General of Mines Safety conducts inspections and inquiries, issues competency tests for the purpose of appointment to various posts in the mines, organises seminars/conferences on various aspects of safety of workers.<br />Courts of Inquiry are set up by the Central Government to investigate into the accidents, which result in the death of 10 or above miners. Both penal and pecuniary punishments are prescribed for contravention of obligation and duties under the Act.<br />
  24. 24. Major Legislations relating to Occupational Health and Safety in India <br />Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986<br />It contains provisions for the health, safety and welfare of workers working in ports/docks.<br />It is administered by Director General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes, Directorate General FASLI as the Chief Inspector there are inspectorates of dock safety at 10 major ports in India viz. Calcutta, Mumbai, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Kandla, Mormugao, Tuticorin, Cochin and New Mangalore<br />overall emphasis in the activities of the inspectorates is to contain the accident rates and the number of accidents at the ports.<br />
  25. 25. Major Legislations relating to Occupational Health and Safety in India <br />National Policy on Safety, Health and Environment at work place:<br />Continuous reduction in the incidence of work related injuries, fatalities, diseases, disaster and loss of national assets.<br />Continuous reduction in the cost of work place injuries and diseases.<br />Extend coverage of work related injuries, fatalities, and diseases for a more comprehensive data base as a means of better performance and monitoring.<br />Continuous enhancement of community awareness regarding safety, health and environment at workplace related areas.<br />Enhance the well-being of the employee and society at large.<br />
  26. 26. THANK YOU<br />