What is a Compound? Chemical combination of two or more elements. What is a covalent bond? Electrons are shared between atoms. What are Van der Waals forces? A slight attraction between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
The study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms is called organic chemistry. Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons, which allows them to form 4 covalent bonds with many other elements. Ex: H, O, P, S, and N. Carbon can bond with other carbon atoms to form almost unlimited chains.
Carbon can form millions of complex structures, no other element can do what carbon can do. Carbon is COOL!
They are made from hundreds and thousands of smaller molecules. Polymerization – Large compounds are built by combining smaller compounds together. Monomers – Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers. Polymers – Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Carbohydrate – Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Living things use carbohydrates as a main source of energy. Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural support. The break down of a carbohydrate like glucose provides immediate energy for use in cells.
Plants and animals store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches. Monosaccharide – single sugar molecules. Ex: glucose, galactose, fructose Polysaccharide – Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharaides. Ex: Glycogen Instead of glycogen to store excess sugar plants use something called cellulose, which gives them strength and rigidity.
Lipids – are made mostlyfrom carbon and hydrogen atoms. Fats, oils, and waxes Lipids can be used tostore energy. Some lipidsare also important parts of biologicalmembranes. Steroids are lipids, many of which serve as chemical messengers.
Many lipids form when a molecule known as glycerol combines with compounds called fatty acids. If each atom in a lipids fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond then it is saturated. If there is one double bond in the fatty acid chain then it is unsaturated. Ex: Olive oil If there is more than one double bond in the fatty acid chain then it is polyunsaturated. Ex: Corn, sesame, canola, and peanut oil
Nucleic Acids – macromolecules made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Nucleotides – consists of three parts; a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base. Nucleic Acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information.
DNA or RNA or Ribonucleic Deoxyribonucleic Acid, has the sugar Acid, has the sugar ribose. deoxyribose.
Proteins – macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Amino Acids – are compounds with and amino group (-NH2)on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end. The instructions of how to arrange amino acids into proteins is stored in DNA.
Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones and muscle. Others transport substances into or out of cell or help fight diseases.
1.) Sequence of amino acids in a protein chain. 2.) The amino acids in the chain start to twist and fold. 3.) The chain its self folds. 4.) The arrangement and folding of several amino acid chains. Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds help maintain a proteins shape.