A home of one’s own: Women’s property rights and HIV/AIDS Katherine Tumlinson, MA James C. Thomas, MPH, PhD MEASURE Evalua...
What we’ll be talking about <ul><li>What are structural interventions? </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement issues for structural...
Individual-level intervention
Structural interventions
Characteristics of structural interventions <ul><li>Less reliance on personal volition </li></ul><ul><li>Often addresses a...
Risk group intervention Unhealthy Very healthy Percent of population MARP Behavior
Structural intervention Unhealthy Very healthy Behavior Percent of population
Characteristics of structural interventions <ul><li>Less reliance on personal volition </li></ul><ul><li>Often addresses a...
Examples  <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cig...
Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cig...
Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cig...
Conditional cash transfers (CCT)
Conditional cash transfers (CCT) School attendance Increased employability Increased goal orientation Less time unsupervis...
CCT: Measurement challenges <ul><li>Effective only in subgroups? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects occur by which pathway? </li></...
Women’s Property Rights and HIV
Defining Property Rights <ul><li>The legal right to control property </li></ul><ul><li>Few countries have supportive laws ...
Lack of property rights: Ripple effects Lack of property rights Loss of home Loss of land Loss of social status Inability ...
The Vicious Cycle Lack of secure property rights http://www.ardinc.com/ard/us/capabilities/land-tenure-and-property-rights...
Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul>
Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul>Poster by Ji...
Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul><ul><li>Wome...
Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul><ul><li>Wome...
Property rights: Measurement challenges <ul><li>Comparison communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership data not gender-specifi...
Other points of view <ul><li>Rural women may not want land titles </li></ul><ul><li>Land isn’t enough </li></ul>
Your experience & advice  <ul><li>What do we know well enough to act on? </li></ul><ul><li>What needs more evidence before...
<ul><li>MEASURE Evaluation is a MEASURE project funded by the </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Agency for International Development ...
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Home of One’s Own: Women’s Property Rights and HIV/AIDS

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  • Kat Tumlinson, doctoral student in epidemiology at UNC-Chapel Hill and research assistant for the Carolina Population Center Dr. Jim Thomas, Deputy Director for HIV/AIDS and infectious disease at Measure Evaluation as well as Associate Professor of Epidemiology at UNC-Chapel Hill and Director of UNC’s Program in Public Health Ethics
  • http://www.dealio.com/blog/2010/01/daily-deal-get-fit-healthy-in-2010-deals/
  • Whole population: Not just MARPs Fundamental factor: Many outcomes, many paths Whole communities: may require official policy and thus hard to implement as an experiment Communities differ in many ways. Cannot control for all factors
  • Whole population: Not just MARPs Fundamental factor: Many outcomes, many paths Whole communities: may require official policy and thus hard to implement as an experiment Communities differ in many ways. Cannot control for all factors
  • http://www.newsli.com/2007/11/25/professionals-urge-end-to-water-fluoridation/
  • http://www.examiner.com/worldwide-travel-in-national/hotels-haiti-damaged-by-catastrophic-earthquake-with-video
  • http://www.employmentspectator.com/2009/02/stimulus-money-to-aid-nashvilles-sewers-create-jobs/
  • http://www.xiongdudu.com/image/Price_of_Cigarette_Pack
  • http://www.flickriver.com/photos/councilofeurope/popular-interesting/
  • http://www.flickriver.com/photos/councilofeurope/popular-interesting/
  • http://teyie.com/?p=602
  • http://www.globalenvision.org/tags/africa There has been a growing interest over the past decade in examining the relationship between the security of women’s property and inheritance rights (WPIR) and their vulnerability to HIV.
  • Property rights can refer to immovable property such as land and houses as well as movable property such livestock, furniture, kitchen utensils and any personal objects. Securing property rights for women means guaranteeing their legal right to control how they use property and whether they wish to sell or rent such property.
  • Why do property and inheritance rights matter when it comes to HIV?
  • Adapted from USAID: http://www.ardinc.com/ard/us/capabilities/land-tenure-and-property-rights/ltpr-resource-materials/assessment-tools-and-regional-reports/ltpr-and-hiv/aids.html
  • http://edc1creations.wordpress.com/2008/01/05/the-abscence-of-black-fathers-in-the-home-rhonicas-notebook-by-rhonica-wesley/
  • http://good50x70.org/2010/2009-edition/womens-rights-violations/
  • http://www.ihricon.org.np/index1.php?component=gallery&amp;id=102 (Nepalese women being trained in their rights)
  • http://beaumont.tamu.edu/ClimaticData/CountryMap.aspx?index=4_21&amp;name=GHANA
  • Now we’d like to hear from you: Specific audience questions: What do we know well enough to act on? What needs more evidence before we act on it? What interventions should we be thinking about? How should we measure or evaluate it?
  • Home of One’s Own: Women’s Property Rights and HIV/AIDS

    1. 1. A home of one’s own: Women’s property rights and HIV/AIDS Katherine Tumlinson, MA James C. Thomas, MPH, PhD MEASURE Evaluation and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
    2. 2. What we’ll be talking about <ul><li>What are structural interventions? </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement issues for structural interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Conditional cash transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Women’s property rights & HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Your experience and advice </li></ul>
    3. 3. Individual-level intervention
    4. 4. Structural interventions
    5. 5. Characteristics of structural interventions <ul><li>Less reliance on personal volition </li></ul><ul><li>Often addresses a fundamental factor </li></ul><ul><li>Affects a whole population </li></ul><ul><li>Affects many a little </li></ul>
    6. 6. Risk group intervention Unhealthy Very healthy Percent of population MARP Behavior
    7. 7. Structural intervention Unhealthy Very healthy Behavior Percent of population
    8. 8. Characteristics of structural interventions <ul><li>Less reliance on personal volition </li></ul><ul><li>Often addresses a fundamental factor </li></ul><ul><li>Affects a whole population </li></ul><ul><li>Affects many a little </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison is often whole communities </li></ul>
    9. 9. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul>
    11. 11. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul>
    12. 12. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette taxes </li></ul>
    13. 13. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights laws </li></ul>
    14. 14. Examples <ul><li>Water fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights laws </li></ul>
    15. 15. Conditional cash transfers (CCT)
    16. 16. Conditional cash transfers (CCT) School attendance Increased employability Increased goal orientation Less time unsupervised More hope/desire for a job Less need to exchange sex for material goods Decreased desire for early parenthood Fewer sexual opportunities Later age of first sex More condom use Less teen pregnancy Fewer STIs, HIV
    17. 17. CCT: Measurement challenges <ul><li>Effective only in subgroups? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects occur by which pathway? </li></ul><ul><li>Timing and duration of effects </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual factors </li></ul><ul><li>Comparability between sites </li></ul><ul><li>Unintended consequences </li></ul>
    18. 18. Women’s Property Rights and HIV
    19. 19. Defining Property Rights <ul><li>The legal right to control property </li></ul><ul><li>Few countries have supportive laws </li></ul><ul><li>Customary and religious practices dominate </li></ul>
    20. 20. Lack of property rights: Ripple effects Lack of property rights Loss of home Loss of land Loss of social status Inability to grow food More sex partners Less condom use Less able to remain in treatment Loss of income generating property Exchange sex for goods
    21. 21. The Vicious Cycle Lack of secure property rights http://www.ardinc.com/ard/us/capabilities/land-tenure-and-property-rights/ltpr-resource-materials/assessment-tools-and-regional-reports/ltpr-and-hiv/aids.html Spread of HIV Dispossession from home Landlessness Poverty, food insecurity, transactional sex Vulnerability to HIV
    22. 22. Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul>
    23. 23. Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul>Poster by Jing Zhou
    24. 24. Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul><ul><li>Women unaware of their rights </li></ul>
    25. 25. Barriers to property rights for women <ul><li>Patrilineal inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Social bias </li></ul><ul><li>Women unaware of their rights </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization of land tenure laws </li></ul>
    26. 26. Property rights: Measurement challenges <ul><li>Comparison communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership data not gender-specific </li></ul><ul><li>Who measures? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Other points of view <ul><li>Rural women may not want land titles </li></ul><ul><li>Land isn’t enough </li></ul>
    28. 28. Your experience & advice <ul><li>What do we know well enough to act on? </li></ul><ul><li>What needs more evidence before we act on it? </li></ul><ul><li>What interventions should we be thinking about? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we measure or evaluate it? </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>MEASURE Evaluation is a MEASURE project funded by the </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Agency for International Development and implemented by </li></ul><ul><li>the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>at Chapel Hill in partnership with Futures Group International, </li></ul><ul><li>ICF Macro, John Snow, Inc., Management Sciences for Health, </li></ul><ul><li>and Tulane University. Views expressed in this presentation do not </li></ul><ul><li>necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the U.S. Government. </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURE Evaluation is the USAID Global Health Bureau's </li></ul><ul><li>primary vehicle for supporting improvements in monitoring and </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation in population, health and nutrition worldwide. </li></ul>

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