Conducting High Impact Research<br />IUSSP September 26 & 27, 2009<br />Tara Nutley & Scott Moreland <br />
Workshop Objectives<br />Provide a framework for linking research to program and policy needs & decision making process<br...
Introductions<br />In 5 minutes…<br />Introduce yourselves to your <br />	colleagues at your table<br />Provide your name,...
Background: Why are we here?<br />Global/local health context<br />HIV epidemic<br />Resurgence of TB<br />Continued preva...
Context<br />Pressing need to develop health policies, strategies  and interventions<br />
Context<br />Increased financial investments for service delivery<br />Increased accountability requirements<br />Improved...
Level of Dissatisfaction that Policy is Based on Scientific Evidence<br />Percent dissatisfied<br />Overseas Development I...
Evidence-based Decision Making Process<br />Stakeholders<br />
Culture Divide: Researchers vs. Decision-makers<br />Decision makers think that health researchers:<br />Lack responsivene...
Culture Divide:Researchers vs. Decision-makers<br />Health researchers think that decision-makers:<br /><ul><li>Impose unr...
Don’t understand what is a researchable question
Don’t distinguish good from bad research
Value “political” considerations over evidence
Are unprepared to measure or evaluate the consequences of their decisions</li></li></ul><li>Breakdown in Decision-making C...
Breakdown in Decision-making Cycle<br />Data not available<br />Data not accessible in user friendly formats<br />External...
Strengthening Evidence-based Decision Making <br />Apply improved research paradigm<br />Start with the decision to be inf...
Placing Research in the Policy-Program Continuum<br />
Continuum: What & Why?<br />Organizes how research supports both policy and programs<br />Placing research in the continuu...
The Policy - Program Continuum<br />Advocacy & Policy formulation<br />Program formulation<br />Program monitoring<br />Pr...
Advocacy & Policy Formulation<br />
Program Formulation<br />
Program Monitoring<br />
Program Evaluation<br />
PRACTICUM 1: Mapping Research Questions to the Program – Policy Continuum<br />
Report Back – PRACTICUM 1<br />One individual will volunteer from each table to report on the decision the group made and ...
Role of Stakeholders in the Research Process<br />
What is a Stakeholder?<br />Any person or group with a particular interest or ‘stake’ in your research<br />Providers / Im...
Context of Decision-Making<br />Information/data<br />Stake-holders<br />Decisions<br />
Implications for Research<br />Different stakeholders<br />Have different perspectives<br />Need/want different informatio...
Involving Stakeholders Throughout  the Research Process<br />Increases understanding of the research process <br />Increas...
Involving Stakeholders Throughout the Research Process<br /> Relevance of data<br />	  Ownership of data<br />	  Appropria...
When & How: Involving Stakeholders<br />Study question development<br />Protocol development<br />Data collection<br />Dat...
Stakeholder Analysis<br />Clarifies who has interest in a topic/program and what that interest is<br />Identifies who can ...
Stakeholder Engagement Matrix<br />
Stakeholder Analysis Matrix<br />
Formulating Meaningful Research Questions<br />
Identifying, Assessing, Refining, Prioritizing Questions<br />Refined Question<br />Initial Question<br />Final Question<b...
Priority
Actionable
Data gap
Not already underway
Answerable
 Method available
 Reasonable time period</li></li></ul><li>Criteria for Meaningful and High Impact Research Questions<br />Importance: Coul...
Let’s look at some examples (1)<br />Research topic: Physical activity and cardiovascular disease<br />Research problem: I...
Let’s look at some examples (2)<br />Research  topic: Parity and contraceptive use<br />Research problem: Do low parity wo...
PRACTICUM 2:Developing High Impact Research Questions & Identifying Stakeholders<br />
Report Back – PRACTICUM 2<br />Spend 15 minutes with your neighboring table and discuss what you found challenging about t...
Developing Recommendations Based on Research Findings<br />Process begins with the formulation of the initial research que...
Developing Actionable Recommendations<br />How did we get to actionable findings?<br />Ensured research questions were rel...
Considerations When Developing Recommendations<br />Impact - What will be the impact on health programs both long-term and...
Data Use Action Plans<br />
Data Use Action Plans<br />
Communicating Study Results & Program / Policy Recommendations<br />Process begins in the study planning phase with the in...
Consider Varied Information Needs<br />Different stakeholders make different types of decisions <br />Tailor key messages ...
Illustrative Information Needsby Stakeholder Group<br />
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Conducting High Impact Research

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Transcript of "Conducting High Impact Research"

  1. 1. Conducting High Impact Research<br />IUSSP September 26 & 27, 2009<br />Tara Nutley & Scott Moreland <br />
  2. 2. Workshop Objectives<br />Provide a framework for linking research to program and policy needs & decision making process<br />Provide guidance, tips and job aides to apply to the research process that will facilitate the ultimate use of research results <br />Provide hands on experience applying guidance and practicing job aides<br />
  3. 3. Introductions<br />In 5 minutes…<br />Introduce yourselves to your <br /> colleagues at your table<br />Provide your name, country <br /> of current residence, affiliated institution and research interests<br />
  4. 4. Background: Why are we here?<br />Global/local health context<br />HIV epidemic<br />Resurgence of TB<br />Continued prevalence of malaria<br />Pockets of stalled fertility decline<br />Population burden<br />Shortage of health care workers<br />
  5. 5. Context<br />Pressing need to develop health policies, strategies and interventions<br />
  6. 6. Context<br />Increased financial investments for service delivery<br />Increased accountability requirements<br />Improved national HMIS<br />Increased demand for evaluation and other research<br />
  7. 7. Level of Dissatisfaction that Policy is Based on Scientific Evidence<br />Percent dissatisfied<br />Overseas Development Institute, Jones et al., 2008.<br />
  8. 8. Evidence-based Decision Making Process<br />Stakeholders<br />
  9. 9. Culture Divide: Researchers vs. Decision-makers<br />Decision makers think that health researchers:<br />Lack responsiveness to priorities<br />Take too long to answer questions<br />Favor jargon to transparent communication<br />Don’t commit to a yes or a no answer<br />Rely mainly on written reports rather than face-to-face conversation<br />
  10. 10. Culture Divide:Researchers vs. Decision-makers<br />Health researchers think that decision-makers:<br /><ul><li>Impose unrealistic timelines
  11. 11. Don’t understand what is a researchable question
  12. 12. Don’t distinguish good from bad research
  13. 13. Value “political” considerations over evidence
  14. 14. Are unprepared to measure or evaluate the consequences of their decisions</li></li></ul><li>Breakdown in Decision-making Cycle<br />Failure to link the program and policy process to the research process<br />Stakeholders not involved throughout the research cycle<br />Data not fully relevant to decision-making needs<br />Low understanding of data, thus data ownership<br />
  15. 15. Breakdown in Decision-making Cycle<br />Data not available<br />Data not accessible in user friendly formats<br />External factors: political, cultural or religious ideology<br />
  16. 16. Strengthening Evidence-based Decision Making <br />Apply improved research paradigm<br />Start with the decision to be informed with new data<br />Consider the program/policy continuum in planning phase<br />Involve varied stakeholders throughout the research process<br />Develop action oriented recommendations<br />Make data, results and recommendations available & accessible in varied formats for data users<br />Follow-up<br />
  17. 17. Placing Research in the Policy-Program Continuum<br />
  18. 18. Continuum: What & Why?<br />Organizes how research supports both policy and programs<br />Placing research in the continuum assists to:<br />Determine how results of research will be used<br />Develop action oriented research questions<br />Include appropriate stakeholders in the research process<br />
  19. 19. The Policy - Program Continuum<br />Advocacy & Policy formulation<br />Program formulation<br />Program monitoring<br />Program evaluation<br />
  20. 20. Advocacy & Policy Formulation<br />
  21. 21. Program Formulation<br />
  22. 22. Program Monitoring<br />
  23. 23. Program Evaluation<br />
  24. 24. PRACTICUM 1: Mapping Research Questions to the Program – Policy Continuum<br />
  25. 25. Report Back – PRACTICUM 1<br />One individual will volunteer from each table to report on the decision the group made and how they came to that decision.<br />
  26. 26. Role of Stakeholders in the Research Process<br />
  27. 27. What is a Stakeholder?<br />Any person or group with a particular interest or ‘stake’ in your research<br />Providers / Implementers<br />Policymakers<br />Program managers<br />Funding agencies<br />Beneficiaries<br />Professional associations<br />
  28. 28. Context of Decision-Making<br />Information/data<br />Stake-holders<br />Decisions<br />
  29. 29. Implications for Research<br />Different stakeholders<br />Have different perspectives<br />Need/want different information<br />Need information at different levels of complexity<br />Have different intensities of interest<br />Stakeholders can facilitate and/or impede the eventual use of study results<br />
  30. 30. Involving Stakeholders Throughout the Research Process<br />Increases understanding of the research process <br />Increased knowledge of the quality of data<br />Increased opportunity to discuss and identify key programmatic questions and concerns <br />Jointly analyze and interpret data to answer programmatic questions<br />Direct link to users of the data<br />
  31. 31. Involving Stakeholders Throughout the Research Process<br /> Relevance of data<br /> Ownership of data<br /> Appropriate dissemination of data<br /> Use of data <br />
  32. 32. When & How: Involving Stakeholders<br />Study question development<br />Protocol development<br />Data collection<br />Data interpretation & recommendation development<br />Results dissemination<br />Data use plan development<br />
  33. 33. Stakeholder Analysis<br />Clarifies who has interest in a topic/program and what that interest is<br />Identifies who can help a program and how, and who can hinder it<br />Prioritizes stakeholders and clarifies roles<br />
  34. 34. Stakeholder Engagement Matrix<br />
  35. 35. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix<br />
  36. 36. Formulating Meaningful Research Questions<br />
  37. 37. Identifying, Assessing, Refining, Prioritizing Questions<br />Refined Question<br />Initial Question<br />Final Question<br /><ul><li>Important
  38. 38. Priority
  39. 39. Actionable
  40. 40. Data gap
  41. 41. Not already underway
  42. 42. Answerable
  43. 43. Method available
  44. 44. Reasonable time period</li></li></ul><li>Criteria for Meaningful and High Impact Research Questions<br />Importance: Could the answer to the question lead to a policy or program change that would have a large effect on the population in question?<br />Priority: Does the question address a current and pertinent issue<br />Actionable: Can the results of the research be used to identify clear policy or program recommendations?<br />Answerable: Are data available, or can data be collected, to address the question?<br />
  45. 45. Let’s look at some examples (1)<br />Research topic: Physical activity and cardiovascular disease<br />Research problem: Is there a link between lack of physical activity and hypertension?<br />Research question: Will 30 minutes of moderate activity daily reduce hypertension in office workers?<br />Hypothesis: 30minutes of moderate activity daily in sedentary workers will reduce the median systolic blood pressure by 10mm mercury.<br />
  46. 46. Let’s look at some examples (2)<br />Research topic: Parity and contraceptive use<br />Research problem: Do low parity women have a lower demand for family planning?<br />Research question: How does contraceptive use vary by parity among married women?<br />Hypothesis: Low parity married women will have lower contraceptive prevalence rates?<br />
  47. 47. PRACTICUM 2:Developing High Impact Research Questions & Identifying Stakeholders<br />
  48. 48. Report Back – PRACTICUM 2<br />Spend 15 minutes with your neighboring table and discuss what you found challenging about the exercise and seek feedback from the visiting group<br />Switch roles<br />
  49. 49. Developing Recommendations Based on Research Findings<br />Process begins with the formulation of the initial research questions and the initial involvement of stakeholders<br />
  50. 50. Developing Actionable Recommendations<br />How did we get to actionable findings?<br />Ensured research questions were relevant and of priority to the local context<br />Linked them to specific programmatic and policy actions<br />How do we get to actionable recommendations?<br />Interpret results with stakeholders <br />
  51. 51. Considerations When Developing Recommendations<br />Impact - What will be the impact on health programs both long-term and short-term? <br />Resources - Are additional resources needed?<br />Supporting factors - Are policy, operational or management changes needed?<br />Acceptability - Politically and culturally acceptable?<br />Timeliness – Can implementation be timely?<br />
  52. 52. Data Use Action Plans<br />
  53. 53. Data Use Action Plans<br />
  54. 54. Communicating Study Results & Program / Policy Recommendations<br />Process begins in the study planning phase with the initial identification of stakeholders<br />
  55. 55. Consider Varied Information Needs<br />Different stakeholders make different types of decisions <br />Tailor key messages and communication channels to different audiences<br />Prioritize key recommendations that are actionable & practical<br />
  56. 56. Illustrative Information Needsby Stakeholder Group<br />
  57. 57. Assessing the Effect of Research<br />
  58. 58. Why Assess Effect?<br /><ul><li> Validates the conduct of the study
  59. 59. Provides additional evidence that research can improve decision making
  60. 60. Increases demand for future research
  61. 61. Helps identify best practices in research communication & utilization</li></li></ul><li>How Can You Assess Effect?<br />Did all identified and important stakeholders see and understand research results?<br />Were research results taken into consideration in decision making?<br />Were recommendations acted upon?<br />Has there been an evaluation of the impacts of such action?<br />
  62. 62. PRACTICUM 3:Developing a Data Use Action Plan<br />
  63. 63. Report Back – PRACTICUM 3<br />One individual will volunteer from each table to discuss what they found useful about the data use action plan and how they can apply it in their own work.<br />
  64. 64. Strengthening Evidence-based Decision Making <br />Apply improved research paradigm<br />Start with the decision to be informed with new data<br />Consider the program/policy continuum in planning phase<br />Involve varied stakeholders throughout the research process<br />Develop action oriented recommendations<br />Make data, results and recommendations available & accessible in varied formats for data users<br />Follow-up<br />
  65. 65. Thank You<br />Give us feedback<br /> Tara Nutley<br />tnutley@futuresgroup.com<br /> Scott Moreland<br /> smoreland@futuresgroup.com<br />
  66. 66. Join Data Use Net<br />Send an email to listserv@unc.edu. Leave the subject field blank and in the body of the message type ‘subscribe DataUseNet.’ For example: <br />To: listserv@unc.edu<br />From: youremail@youremail.com<br />Subject:<br />Subscribe Data Use Net<br />
  67. 67. MEASURE Evaluation is funded by the U.S. Agency for <br />International Development and is implemented by the<br />Carolina Population Center at the University of North <br />Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with Futures Group<br />International, ICF Macro, John Snow, Inc., Management <br />Sciences for Health, and Tulane University. The views <br />expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect<br />the views of USAID or the United States Government.<br />

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