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Conducting High Impact Research

Conducting High Impact Research






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    Conducting High Impact Research Conducting High Impact Research Presentation Transcript

    • Conducting High Impact Research
      IUSSP September 26 & 27, 2009
      Tara Nutley & Scott Moreland
    • Workshop Objectives
      Provide a framework for linking research to program and policy needs & decision making process
      Provide guidance, tips and job aides to apply to the research process that will facilitate the ultimate use of research results
      Provide hands on experience applying guidance and practicing job aides
    • Introductions
      In 5 minutes…
      Introduce yourselves to your
      colleagues at your table
      Provide your name, country
      of current residence, affiliated institution and research interests
    • Background: Why are we here?
      Global/local health context
      HIV epidemic
      Resurgence of TB
      Continued prevalence of malaria
      Pockets of stalled fertility decline
      Population burden
      Shortage of health care workers
    • Context
      Pressing need to develop health policies, strategies and interventions
    • Context
      Increased financial investments for service delivery
      Increased accountability requirements
      Improved national HMIS
      Increased demand for evaluation and other research
    • Level of Dissatisfaction that Policy is Based on Scientific Evidence
      Percent dissatisfied
      Overseas Development Institute, Jones et al., 2008.
    • Evidence-based Decision Making Process
    • Culture Divide: Researchers vs. Decision-makers
      Decision makers think that health researchers:
      Lack responsiveness to priorities
      Take too long to answer questions
      Favor jargon to transparent communication
      Don’t commit to a yes or a no answer
      Rely mainly on written reports rather than face-to-face conversation
    • Culture Divide:Researchers vs. Decision-makers
      Health researchers think that decision-makers:
      • Impose unrealistic timelines
      • Don’t understand what is a researchable question
      • Don’t distinguish good from bad research
      • Value “political” considerations over evidence
      • Are unprepared to measure or evaluate the consequences of their decisions
    • Breakdown in Decision-making Cycle
      Failure to link the program and policy process to the research process
      Stakeholders not involved throughout the research cycle
      Data not fully relevant to decision-making needs
      Low understanding of data, thus data ownership
    • Breakdown in Decision-making Cycle
      Data not available
      Data not accessible in user friendly formats
      External factors: political, cultural or religious ideology
    • Strengthening Evidence-based Decision Making
      Apply improved research paradigm
      Start with the decision to be informed with new data
      Consider the program/policy continuum in planning phase
      Involve varied stakeholders throughout the research process
      Develop action oriented recommendations
      Make data, results and recommendations available & accessible in varied formats for data users
    • Placing Research in the Policy-Program Continuum
    • Continuum: What & Why?
      Organizes how research supports both policy and programs
      Placing research in the continuum assists to:
      Determine how results of research will be used
      Develop action oriented research questions
      Include appropriate stakeholders in the research process
    • The Policy - Program Continuum
      Advocacy & Policy formulation
      Program formulation
      Program monitoring
      Program evaluation
    • Advocacy & Policy Formulation
    • Program Formulation
    • Program Monitoring
    • Program Evaluation
    • PRACTICUM 1: Mapping Research Questions to the Program – Policy Continuum
    • Report Back – PRACTICUM 1
      One individual will volunteer from each table to report on the decision the group made and how they came to that decision.
    • Role of Stakeholders in the Research Process
    • What is a Stakeholder?
      Any person or group with a particular interest or ‘stake’ in your research
      Providers / Implementers
      Program managers
      Funding agencies
      Professional associations
    • Context of Decision-Making
    • Implications for Research
      Different stakeholders
      Have different perspectives
      Need/want different information
      Need information at different levels of complexity
      Have different intensities of interest
      Stakeholders can facilitate and/or impede the eventual use of study results
    • Involving Stakeholders Throughout the Research Process
      Increases understanding of the research process
      Increased knowledge of the quality of data
      Increased opportunity to discuss and identify key programmatic questions and concerns
      Jointly analyze and interpret data to answer programmatic questions
      Direct link to users of the data
    • Involving Stakeholders Throughout the Research Process
      Relevance of data
      Ownership of data
      Appropriate dissemination of data
      Use of data
    • When & How: Involving Stakeholders
      Study question development
      Protocol development
      Data collection
      Data interpretation & recommendation development
      Results dissemination
      Data use plan development
    • Stakeholder Analysis
      Clarifies who has interest in a topic/program and what that interest is
      Identifies who can help a program and how, and who can hinder it
      Prioritizes stakeholders and clarifies roles
    • Stakeholder Engagement Matrix
    • Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
    • Formulating Meaningful Research Questions
    • Identifying, Assessing, Refining, Prioritizing Questions
      Refined Question
      Initial Question
      Final Question
      • Important
      • Priority
      • Actionable
      • Data gap
      • Not already underway
      • Answerable
      • Method available
      • Reasonable time period
    • Criteria for Meaningful and High Impact Research Questions
      Importance: Could the answer to the question lead to a policy or program change that would have a large effect on the population in question?
      Priority: Does the question address a current and pertinent issue
      Actionable: Can the results of the research be used to identify clear policy or program recommendations?
      Answerable: Are data available, or can data be collected, to address the question?
    • Let’s look at some examples (1)
      Research topic: Physical activity and cardiovascular disease
      Research problem: Is there a link between lack of physical activity and hypertension?
      Research question: Will 30 minutes of moderate activity daily reduce hypertension in office workers?
      Hypothesis: 30minutes of moderate activity daily in sedentary workers will reduce the median systolic blood pressure by 10mm mercury.
    • Let’s look at some examples (2)
      Research topic: Parity and contraceptive use
      Research problem: Do low parity women have a lower demand for family planning?
      Research question: How does contraceptive use vary by parity among married women?
      Hypothesis: Low parity married women will have lower contraceptive prevalence rates?
    • PRACTICUM 2:Developing High Impact Research Questions & Identifying Stakeholders
    • Report Back – PRACTICUM 2
      Spend 15 minutes with your neighboring table and discuss what you found challenging about the exercise and seek feedback from the visiting group
      Switch roles
    • Developing Recommendations Based on Research Findings
      Process begins with the formulation of the initial research questions and the initial involvement of stakeholders
    • Developing Actionable Recommendations
      How did we get to actionable findings?
      Ensured research questions were relevant and of priority to the local context
      Linked them to specific programmatic and policy actions
      How do we get to actionable recommendations?
      Interpret results with stakeholders
    • Considerations When Developing Recommendations
      Impact - What will be the impact on health programs both long-term and short-term?
      Resources - Are additional resources needed?
      Supporting factors - Are policy, operational or management changes needed?
      Acceptability - Politically and culturally acceptable?
      Timeliness – Can implementation be timely?
    • Data Use Action Plans
    • Data Use Action Plans
    • Communicating Study Results & Program / Policy Recommendations
      Process begins in the study planning phase with the initial identification of stakeholders
    • Consider Varied Information Needs
      Different stakeholders make different types of decisions
      Tailor key messages and communication channels to different audiences
      Prioritize key recommendations that are actionable & practical
    • Illustrative Information Needsby Stakeholder Group
    • Assessing the Effect of Research
    • Why Assess Effect?
      • Validates the conduct of the study
      • Provides additional evidence that research can improve decision making
      • Increases demand for future research
      • Helps identify best practices in research communication & utilization
    • How Can You Assess Effect?
      Did all identified and important stakeholders see and understand research results?
      Were research results taken into consideration in decision making?
      Were recommendations acted upon?
      Has there been an evaluation of the impacts of such action?
    • PRACTICUM 3:Developing a Data Use Action Plan
    • Report Back – PRACTICUM 3
      One individual will volunteer from each table to discuss what they found useful about the data use action plan and how they can apply it in their own work.
    • Strengthening Evidence-based Decision Making
      Apply improved research paradigm
      Start with the decision to be informed with new data
      Consider the program/policy continuum in planning phase
      Involve varied stakeholders throughout the research process
      Develop action oriented recommendations
      Make data, results and recommendations available & accessible in varied formats for data users
    • Thank You
      Give us feedback
      Tara Nutley
      Scott Moreland
    • Join Data Use Net
      Send an email to listserv@unc.edu. Leave the subject field blank and in the body of the message type ‘subscribe DataUseNet.’ For example: 
      To: listserv@unc.edu
      From: youremail@youremail.com
      Subscribe Data Use Net
    • MEASURE Evaluation is funded by the U.S. Agency for
      International Development and is implemented by the
      Carolina Population Center at the University of North
      Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with Futures Group
      International, ICF Macro, John Snow, Inc., Management
      Sciences for Health, and Tulane University. The views
      expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect
      the views of USAID or the United States Government.