Absolutism Review
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Absolutism Review Absolutism Review Presentation Transcript

  • Absolutism
  • Move Towards Absolutism
    • Snapshot of France in the mid 1500’s:
      • 20 million population
        • 1.2 million: Huguenots
          • 1/3 of nobles were Huguenots
        • 18.799 million: Catholics
    • Power Vacuum in France
      • Different groups compete to be the leader
    • Part One
  • Valois- 1 st Priority Line
    • Henry III
      • Mommy: Catherine Dimedici
      • Sister: Marguanite
      • Catholic
      • First ideas of politique- country before ethnicity.
  • Guise- 2 nd Priority Lines (If Valois was to end)
    • Henry
    • Catholic
    • “ Ultra”- Foreign Alliances
      • Holy Roman Empire
      • Charles V- Hapsburgs (rival family of Valois)
  • Bourbon- 3 rd Priority Line (If Guise was to end)
    • Henry
      • Huguenot
    • Married Marguarite of the Valois
      • Arranged by Catherine Dimedici (so her line would continue and Guise wouldn’t)
  • Assassination Attempt
    • Valois
    • Bourbon
    • Guise-
      • August-October 1572-
        • St. Barthalones Massacre.
        • Guise’s plot to assassinate Bourbons.
    Loveless Marriage Catherine Dimedici
  • Henry IV
    • Edict of Nantes
      • Religious toleration for hugies
      • Catholicism is state religion
      • Henry IV converts to Catholicism
    Stops Civil Wars! Creates Unison Stops Hapsburgs
  • Da Kat
    • KING
    • ARMY
    • TAXES
    • Military must support ruler.
      • Yes: Unstoppable.
      • No: stoppable.
  • Politique
    • What is best for the state.
    • Will become nationalism.
  • Louie XIII
    • Tried to reunite France
    • Politically- Henry centralizes power from regionalized.
    • Socially- Tolerance
    • Regent/Advisor
      • Cardinal Richelieu
  • Cardinal Richelieu
    • Religious Figure
      • Highest aside from pope.
    • Rason d’ Etat
      • Reason of State
      • Politique
  • The 3 Goals
    • Strengthen Catholisim
      • Hugenaut’s forts taken down.
    • Oppose Hapsburg
      • 30 Years War
    • Weaken the Nobles
      • Centralize power
      • Office of Intendants
  • Office of Intendants
    • France Divided into 32 districts
    • Each district:
      • Run by a nobel who is appointed by king
        • Middle Class
          • VERY loyal
          • Ruled outside their region- Fairness in Courts
      • Tax Collection
      • Court System
    • Gazette starts- Government controlled newspaper.
  • 30 years war
    • Holy war?
      • It was.
      • But no.
    • People protesting HRE
      • Charles V retires
        • Phillip II
        • Ferdinand
  • Holy War Holy War… still? Spain & The Holy Roman Empire (Hapsburgs) Vs. Netherlands Sweden Denmark “ Northern Germany” Calvinist & Lutherans Spain & The Holy Roman Empire (Hapsburgs) Vs. Netherlands Sweden Denmark “ Northern Germany” FRANCE Calvinist & Lutherans
  • Result: Peace of Westphalia
    • Peace of Augsburg to include Lutheran OR Calvanism (prince determines)
    • Holy Roman Empire Shattered
    • France Acquires Alsace
  • The Sun King
    • “ None his equal”
    • Regents:
      • Anne of Austria (mommy)- Hapsburg! 
      • Cardinal Mazarin (mommy’s advisor)- Italian! 
  • Fronde
    • Nobles respect the king but not foreign regents.
    • Lack of Unity
      • Goal: Share power with royal family
    • Rebellion put down by king’s army.
    • Fights start… king allows.
  • L’etat C’est Moi
    • The State is Me.
    • Louie XIV
      • Tireless worker- very active
      • Thirst for attention- neglected by parents.
      • Fearful of Paris- Attacked as a kid (rebellion)
      • Resentful of Nobility
  • Etiquette Replaces Violence
    • Makes nobles compete but not fight.
    • Controlled nobles with social rules (parties)
      • Nobility to live in Versailles
      • Highest nobles excluded from councils.
      • Middle class Intendant
      • Social Pressures used to divert attention.
    • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
      • One king, one law, one faith
      • Three choices: Be catholic, convert to catholic, leave.
  • Results
    • French Economy falls
    • Hugies leave to Hapsburgs and Netherlands
      • Economies prosper.
    • Churches destroyed (Protestant)
    • Hugy schools closed
    • Conversions or emigration
  • Colbert- Economic Advisor
    • Mercantilism
    • Self sufficient  Gold, Raw materials from new world.
      • Colonization in Canada
      • Explores down Mississippi
        • Louis iana
      • Exports over imports
    • Part 2
  • Spain – Phillip II
    • Gold and Silver from vast empire made Spain incredibly wealthy.
    • King gets 3/8 th s of every shipload and spent on:
      • Pagtonage
      • Army
      • Intimidating palace
    • No control on silver and flooded marketplace – demand down, supply up and value dropped.
    • Severe inflation
  • Spain Becomes Bankrupt – Phillip II
    • Inflation
    • Jews and Moors being banished made Spain lose artisans and businessmen.
    • Nobles exempt from taxes.
    • Lower classes had so many taxes they could not afford to pay them.
    • As a result, Phillip raises taxes in the Netherlands
  • Netherlands Reaction
    • Mobs
    • Killed Protestants.
    • Spain and Netherlands broke out in war (William of Orange took over Spain).
    • Netherland achieves freedom
      • Government becomes stable
      • Largest fleet (military and trading) in history
      • Very smart with waiting on selling products (unlike silver incident)
    •  Dutch become wealthy
  • Divine Right
    • Must believve in monarch.
    • Growing middle class supports monarch.
    • Less Church Authority
  • Wars Between Huguenots and Catholics in France
    • Ended by Henry Bourbon
      • Tried to create unity through religion
      • Gave up Protestantism dn became a Catholic.
      • Declared the Edict of Nantes (Later taken down by Philip XIV)
    • Cardinal Richelieu strengthens the French Monarchy
      • Weakens nobles’ power.
      • Involved France in the 30 years war to weaken HRE’s power and raise their own.
      • Exercised authority.
        • Forbids Protestant cities from building walls.
  • Wars Between Huguenots and Catholics in France
    • Effects of religious wars on French intellectuals
      • Start of skepticism as a new intellectual movement.
      • Development of the essay.
  • Louis XIV becomes the most powerful ruler of his time
    • Jean Baptist Colbert
      • Tried to make France self-sufficient.
      • Wanted to manufacture everything (no imports)
        • Recognized importance of colonies.
        • Had a lot of raw material and a market for manufactured goods.
    • Patron of the Arts
      • Vesallies
    • Failure of Expansion
      • Dutch floods countryside by opening dikes.
      • A European alliance is created to stop France.
  • Legacy of Louis XIV
    • Left France as a power to be reckoned with.
    • Staggering debts.
    • Resentment over the royal abuse of power.
      • Will lead to revolution.
    • Intendant- Agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
    • Skepticism- The ideology of questioning of a government or idea. Nothing can be known for sure.
  • Thirty Years War
    • Causes of the war:
      • Religion
      • Territory
      • Power
    • Consequences of the Peace of Westfalia :
      • Germany’s population dropped 4 million.
      • Germany’s economy destroyed (trade and agriculture)
      • Weakened Spain and Austria but strengthened France.
      • German princes independent of HRE
      • Ended religious wars.
      • Introduced new methods of peace negotiation.
  • Central Europe
    • Serfs in Western Europe previously won freedom and moved to small towns.
    • Central Europe passed laws restricting the ability of serfs to gain freedom and move to cities.
    • Central European Empires are Weak
      • Development of strong government was blocked by landowners who wanted power.
      • Allowed king little income, no law courts and no standing army.
  • Russia and Austria
    • During the thirty years war, Austria (Hapsburg) remained the most powerful and important state of the Holy Roman Empire.
      • Conquered Bohemia.
      • Wiped out Protestantism and created a new Czech nobility that pledged more loyalty.
      • Retook Hungary from Ottomans.
    • Hohenzollerns
      • Created best standing army in Europe
      • Weakened representative assemblies of territories.
      • Military advances.
  •  
    • Part III
  • Louis XIV
    • The Sun God, French Empire
  • Louis XIV
    • Palace of Versailles - Propaganda, statues  power, model estate at the time.
    • Reduced Powers of the Nobles
      • Social Affairs
      • Politically through office of Intendants (by Louie XIII)
    • Revocation of Edict of Nantes
      • Created by his Grandpa (Henry IV)
      • Closes schools, kicks Calvinists out
        • 1 King
        • 1 Faith
        • 1 Law
  • Louis XIV
    • Military Strength
      • Focused on his army through taxes, bought tons of hospitals to keep his population healthy and built fortifications (mostly walled cities).
      • Took a large coalition of nations to take him down in the War of Spanish Succession.
    • Economic Policies
      • Mercantilism
        • Colbert  Exports of Imports
        • Colonization  Land
  • Louis XIV
    • Methods of Public Obedience
      • Propaganda
      • Censorship
      • Secret Police
  • Akbhar
    • Mughal Empire
  • Akbar
    • Religious Toleration
      • He defended religious freedom.
      • He invented his own religion called Divine Faith based on different religions put together.
      • He held religious debates with representatives of all religions.
      • He gave Jesuits full freedom to convert and allowed them to bring up one of his sons.
      • Abolished high religion taxes.
  • Akbar
    • Fatehpur Sikri
      • A red-sandstone city was built dedicated to his first-born son, Jahangir. The meaning Sikri means “thanks to god.” It was a new capital that had Islamic and Hindu elements blended in. Fifteen years after it was built there was no water supply so it was abandoned.
      • The Red Fort of Agra was rebuilt during the reign of Akbar and used it as the capital of the Mughal Empire.
  • Akbar
    • Expansion of Empire
      • Heavy artillery– used cannons to break into walled cities.
      • Appointed Rajputs as officers turning potential enemies into allies.
      • Primarily into India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
    • Governing Council
      • He governed through a bureaucracy of officials and put military governors in charge of each region, if they abused their power they would be severely punished.
      • Natives and foreigners could have high office positions (Hindus and Muslims)
      • Ex: chief finance minister, Todar Mal, calculated the tax as a percent of the value of the peasants’ crops.
  • Shah Jahan
    • Mughal Empire
  • Shah Jahan
    • Red Fort and Taj Mahal
      • He raised taxes of people to finance new projects while a famine was occurring in India, which caused the hunger and starvation of the people of the Empire.
    • Expansion Through Military
      • During his years, captured the Rajput Kingdoms in the northwest and expanded south in Deccan.
  • Shah Jahan
    • Religious Persecution
      • He ordered that all Hindu temples be torn down.
      • In addition, he declared that all Christian churches at Agra and Lahore should be demolished.
      • Portuguese settlements were attacked for accused of kidnapping Mughals resulting in thousands of Christians killed.
      • He began the persecution of Christians. He also did not allow peoples of various religions to gain political power, which significantly decreased his popularity.
  • Mehmet II
    • Eurasia
    • Ottoman Empire
  • Mehmet II
    • Transfer of Power
      • Shortly into his rein, Mehmet was faced with a threat of a war with the Hungarians. His father left power as quickly as possible, when Mehmet was 12, in order to live a more relaxed lifestyle. Mehmet delivered this famous message to his father:
        • “ If you are the Sultan, come lead your armies If I am the Sultan, I hereby order you to lead my armies.”
      • His father took power for a few years and it was then transferred back to Mehmet.
  • Mehmet II
    • Invasion of Constantinople
      • Constantinople was caught in between two parts of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmet wanted to invade Constantinople for a long time, because it would officially end the Byzantine Empire. When the Byzantines asked for reinforcements from Italy, they enlisted 80 volunteers. He conquered it with ease and renamed it Istanbul.
  • Mehmet II
    • Religious Tolerance
      • Mehmet was a tolerant Sultan. He established millets, which were heads of individual religions. This kept internal conflicts to a minimum and allowed for a more unified empire.
    • Total Power
      • Although Mehmet had advisors, he rarely listened to them. He kept absolute power at all times. He was very powerful.
    • (Expansion)
      • Turkey, Morocco, Hungary, Austria, Iran
  • Suleiman
    • Eurasia
    • Ottoman Empire
  • Suleiman
    • Expansion Into Europe
      • Suleiman was a great leader militarily
      • During his time as the Sultan he captured Rhodes, Belgrade, Tripoli, Eastern Asia Minor, Iraq, Aegean Islands, large portions of Persia and large portions of Hungary.
    • Religious Tolerance
      • Even more tolerant than Mehemet II
    • Patron of Arts
      • Had many paintings of himself made.
    • Governmental Policies
      • Illuminated bureaucracy, reduced taxes and power to self
  • Ming Dynasty
    • China Dynasties
  • Ming Dynasty
    • The Great Wall of china
      • The Ming rulers helped build the Great Wall of China. This showed their power in a way that showed their wealth.
      • Assisted in isolating China
    • Confucianism
      • The Ming Dynasty restored Confucianism in China. Much of the government and social structure was based on Confucianism. The Ming Dynasty took the Confucian belief that agriculture should be the main source of wealth for a country and that trade only caused problems and was not needed. Also, the Confucian belief that being a merchant was not a superior occupation was kept, but unlike Confucian teachings, being a militant put you in a higher class than that of most jobs.
  • Ming Dynasty
    • Exploration to Isolation
      • Explored in
      • By the end of the fifteenth century, imperial subjects were forbidden from either building oceangoing ships or leaving the country. Some historians speculate this measure was taken in response to piracy.
      • Zheng He
  • Zheng He’s Voyages
        • Famous Ming Explorer
        • Zheng He's first voyage consisted of a fleet of around 300 ships holding almost 28,000 crewmen. These were probably mainly large six-masted ships - it is now thought that the large and flat nine-masted "treasure ships" were probably river ships used by the Emperor.
        • After Zheng He died, isolation began.
        • Hai jin (literally "ocean forbidden") was a ban on maritime activities during China's Ming Dynasty and again during the Qing Dynasty. It is commonly referred to as "Sea Ban". Intended to curb piracy, the ban proved ineffective for that purpose, while imposing huge hardships on coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.
        • Sent China into isolation.
  • Ming Dynasty
    • Forbidden City
      • Stunning monument to China’s isolationism was an extravagant palace complex at the capital city.
      • Commoners and foreigners could not enter without special permission.
      • Mainly for the emperor and family.
      • Lived in luxury and isolation.
      • High upkeep cost.
  • Qing Dynasty
    • China Dynasties
  • Qing Dynasty
    • Expansion
      • Into modern day China, Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet.
    • Trading Policies
      • If foreign states wanted to trade with China, they would have to follow Chinese rules, which included trading only at special ports and paying tribute. They would also have to perform the “kowtow” ritual. This ritual involved kneeling in front of the emperor and touching their head to the ground nine times. The Dutch did this and became trading partners with China. Great Britain wanted to increase their trade with China, but did not like the restrictions. This made China not trade with Great Britain.
  • Qing Dynasty
    • Summer Palace
      • This palace was built by the Emperor Qianlong who commissioned work on the imperial gardens, where it is located.
      • Form of propaganda.
  • Philip II
    • Spain
  • Philip II
    • Military Campaigns
      • War with England – Fight with Elizabeth (Spanish Armadas and flaming ships). Never seized English land, but slowed them from colonizing Caribbean islands. 4 Armadas were sunk. On Elizabeths counter attempt with Armadas, she also failed
      • Drained Spanish treasury.
  • Philip II
    • Defender of the Faith
      • Prevented Protestantism to be practiced in Spain
      • Believed that it was his duty to defend the Catholic faith 
      • Anyone who was not Catholic was punished or converted to Catholicism
      • Attempted takedown of Protestant England
      • Always followed Pope’s orders to fight down the Ottoman Empire.
      • Philip II burned 270 of his subjects just because they believed in Protestantism. Philip II felt that Catholicism was the only religion that was worth believing in.
  • Philip II
    • El Escorial
      • A building in Madrid built as a monument signifying how great the Spanish empire was in Catholic religion.
      • Arches, columns and domes.
      • Where Philip II planned invasions of England with the Spanish Armada.
      • Paid for by king’s large cut of silver from the New World.
    • Spanish Colonies
      • South America exported Silver.
      • Too much silver flooding marketplace at once.
  • Peter the Great
    • Russia
  • Peter the Great
    • Conquering St. Petersburg
    • Had a 13 year war to conquer small plot of land
    • Peter the Great wanted a port city so he could trade with European countries
    • Fought Sweden for possession of land
    • Called the Great Northern War
    • Westernization
    • Peter the Great’s main goal was to westernize Russia
    • He took a trip to Europe to learn about Western culture and economy
    • Invited best engineers, builders, architects, and craftsmen from Europe
    • Had beard tax to reduce Mongol influence
    • Made Russians wear European clothing
  • Peter the Great
    • Religious Reformer
      • Abolished the office of patriarchs, whom were the leaders of the church
      • Made himself the leader of the church
      • Religion was now more connected to state
      • More Roman Catholic now
      • Was a minor revolution
    • Education
      • Before the Great Northern War, when planning invasion, he decided to make great schools in Russia
      • Created the Academies of Science
      • Made people more educated and literate
      • Made country stronger as a whole
  • Peter the Great
    • Winter Palace
      • Rastrelli, 1754-1762. View from Palace Square. This was the last of Rastrelli's imperial residences, and one of the last major Baroque buildings in Europe. It cost some 2.5 million rubles to build, with funds drawn from taxes on alcohol and salt.
      • The Winter Palace remains a great expression of imperial Russian architecture and of the autocratic state that willed it into being. Authority is connoted by the very scale of the building, whose horizontal lines are segmented by the repetition of the columns and statues. The Winter Palace represents the quintessence of St. Petersburg monumental style, an assimilation of Western principles applied in a manner and scale that were uniquely Russian.
  • Peter the Great
    • Expansion
      • Expanded into parts of Sweden
      • Conquered St. Petersburg, and valuable coastlines.