Emergency Medical Responder

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Power Points for EMS Education - This is the entire EMR course on power point

Power Points for EMS Education - This is the entire EMR course on power point

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  • cau·dal  (kôd l)
    adj. Anatomy
    1.
    a. Of, at, or near the tail or hind parts; posterior: the caudal fin of a fish.
    b. Situated beneath or on the underside; inferior.
    2. Similar to a tail in form or function.
  • A patient presenting with chest pain requires the advanced skill provider to ask questions regarding the specific condition. Use the two previously discussed acronyms to assist with information gathering. At the same time deliver care in the form of oxygen and other advanced procedures, such as an IV and medications, and conduct the physical examination in the form of blood pressure and lung sounds. While one crew member obtains information, the other can provide care. More often than not, basic skills are performed first, followed by advanced skills. However, this is not an absolute. At times, advanced procedures should be performed first, such as securing the airway of an esophageal varices patient with uncontrollable bleeding.
    Ultimately, you need to decide how much information to glean and what physical examination to perform in order to know what's necessary to care for the patient. You may obtain enough information in your initial assessment to allow you to treat the patient. You may decide on your care after asking about a few attributes of the acronym information. You may only need to determine the event—“I was stung by a bee”—and the allergies—“I'm allergic to bee stings.” If this patient presents in distress, provide appropriate medical care.
    The goal of the focused history and physical examination for specific medical conditions should be guided by the intent of obtaining enough information to begin care, and completed while providing that care.
  • fascia (fas·cia) (fash´e-ə) gen. and pl. fas´ciae [L. “band”]   [TA] a sheet or band of fibrous tissue such as lies deep to the skin or forms an investment for muscles and various other organs of the body
  • Class Osteichyes (bony fish), these fish have a skeleton made of bone and paired fins
  • NOTE: Briefly review key issues of anatomy.
    NOTE: Point out brain stem (respiratory center) at area of foramen magnum.
    NOTE: Point out optic nerves would come directly from brain to pupils (pupil evaluation).
     
    Increased volume of any one of these components has to result in decrease of another component.
    Vasoconstriction or vasodilation influence intracranial volume.
    Brain normally adjusts blood flow in response to metabolic needs based on level of carbon dioxide in blood (pCO2).
    Normal level of pCO2 is around 40 mmHg (also commonly listed as 35 to 45 mmHg).
    Increased pCO2 (hypoventilation) promotes cerebral vasodilatation, which increases ICP. Lowering pCO2 (hyperventilation) causes vasoconstriction and decreases blood flow.
    Hyperventilation has only minimal effect on ICP.
    NOT, as previously thought, that hyperventilation improved cerebral blood flow by causing vasoconstriction and decreasing ICP.
  • Gross contamination such as leaves or gravel should be removed from wound, and smaller pieces of contamination can be irrigated from wound with normal saline in same manner that you would irrigate a chemically contaminated eye.
    If bleeding cannot be stopped with pressure or with tourniquet, such as injuries to axilla or groin, use one of new hemostatic agents such as QuikClot or Celox. These agents should be packed into wound (not for use in open abdominal or chest wounds) and pressure applied.
    Patients with severe hemorrhage should be transported immediately after ITLS Primary Survey.
  • In Raynaud's phenomenon, exposure to the cold or strong emotions trigger blood vessel spasms that result in interruption of blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose. Raynaud's phenomenon can occur without any other associated symptoms or disease.
  • NOTE: Closer look at image on next slide. Included here to emphasize that respiratory system changes do not just occur in lungs.
    Aging is gradual process whereby changes in bodily functions occur.
    Changes are in part responsible for greater risk of injury in geriatric population.
    Airway
    Potential obstructions due to caps, bridges, dentures, and fillings. Gums shrink with age, causing dentures to become loose.
    Respiratory system
    Decreased alveolar exchange means decreased carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange.
    Decreased inhalation time leads to rapid breathing.
  • From previous slide: Airway potential obstruction also due to decreased airway clearance, decreased laryngeal reflexes, decline in mucolary clearance, and decreased ciliary action (which also increases chance of infection).
    From previous slide: Decreased pulmonary circulation combined with loss of elastic recoil leads to ventilation/perfusion mismatch.
    From previous slide: Decreased alveolar exchange means decreased carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange. This is due to decreased numbers of alveoli.
    From previous slide: Decreased chest wall movement is due to stiffening of chest wall with declining strength of chest muscles.
    From previous slide: Decreased pulmonary circulation, rapid breathing, and decreased alveolar exchange lead to hypercapnia due to resulting altered chemoreceptor response.
    From previous slide: Decreased pulmonary circulation, rapid breathing, and decreased alveolar exchange lead to arterial hypoxemia with reduced PO2 levels.
    Increased work of breathing leads to increased anterior-posterior diameter.
  • NOTE: Emphasize importance of neutral alignment/positioning specific for that patient (pediatrics, adults, and geriatrics).
    Exhibit changes in posture.
    Decrease in total height due to narrowing of vertebral discs, slight flexion of knees and hips, and decreased muscle strength.
    Result in kyphosis or kyphotic deformity of spine (“S” curvature of spine often seen in stooped elderly).
    NOTE: Need to pad SMP accordingly.
    More susceptible to fractures.
    Advanced osteoporosis—a thinning of bone resulting in a decrease in bone density.
    Diminished subcutaneous tissue.
    Decreases protection from falls and blunt trauma.
    Decrease ability to respond to temperature changes.
    Weakening in strength of muscle and bone from decrease in physical activity.
    More susceptible to fractures with only a slight fall.
  • A child is part of a family unit. To a child, one constant factor in life is family.
    Best method to gain confidence is to demonstrate competence and compassion in managing child. Caregivers more likely to be cooperative if see EMS confident, organized, and using equipment designed for children.
    Can perform simple tasks such as holding a pressure dressing or holding child’s hand.
    Can explain to child what is going on or sing his or her favorite songs.
    Show concern for child, but do not freeze.
  • Hypotension is not shock; in children, by time they are hypotensive, they are in shock.
  • Lipofuscin is a brownish pigment left over from the breakdown and absorption of damaged blood cells.
    Lipofuscin is found in heart muscle and smooth muscles and is also called the aging pigment.
  • IMAGE: Table 19-2: Physiologic Changes during Pregnancy (on page 291).
    During pregnancy, dramatic physiological changes occur. The changes that are unique to pregnant state affect and alter physiological response by both mother and fetus.
    More fluid is needed to resuscitate if patient develops shock.
    Increase in both red blood cells and plasma with increase of plasma greater than red blood cells.
    Appears to be anemic (physiological anemia of pregnancy).
    Many women with poor nutrition also have an absolute anemia and are less able to compensate for hemorrhagic shock.
    Always assume stomach of a pregnant patient is full. Always guard against vomiting and aspiration.
  • NOTE: Table 19-1: Assessment of a pregnancy (on page 291).
    Fetus is considered viable at 24 weeks.
    Viability increases significantly at 25 weeks’ gestation. However, pre-term infants have survived with less gestation. True gestational age cannot be determined on-scene.
  • Remember: SMR needs to be in an anatomically neutral position specific for each patient to be neutral for spinal cord and airway. Although texts often recommend age ranges (including ITLS), SMR is principle-driven. Appropriate padding should be used for all age groups and situations (elderly, American football shoulder pads, infants, obesity, etc.).
    If uterus is up to umbilicus, you should tilt backboard using one of these methods.
    Carefully secure backboard when tilting so patient does not flip over onto floor of ambulance.
  • Gunshot wounds and stabbings are most common injuries encountered.
    Definitive care will depend on several factors, involving degree of shock, associated organ injury, and time of gestation.
  • <number>
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Transcript

  • 1. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010 1 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER CANADIAN RED CROSS
  • 2. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20102
  • 3. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20103 PURPOSE OF THE COURSE
  • 4. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20104 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER The purpose of the Canadian Red Cross Emergency Medical Responder course is to provide the responder with the knowledge and skills necessary in an emergency to help sustain life, reduce pain, and minimize the consequences of injury or sudden illness until the next level of care takes over.
  • 5. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20105 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER CONT This course is designed to meet the National Competency Profiles for the practitioner level of emergency medical responder (EMR) established by the Paramedic Association of Canada (PAC).
  • 6. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20106 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER CONT In March 2000, National Occupational Competency Profiles (NOCP) were established for four levels of pre- hospital care by PAC. On June 29, 2001, the updated NOCPs were approved by the directors of PAC.
  • 7. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20107 THE FOUR LEVELS OF CARE  EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER  PRIMARY CARE PARAMEDIC  ADVANCED CARE PARAMEDIC  CRITICAL CARE PARAMEDIC
  • 8. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20108 COURSE OBJECTIVES AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE COURSE, PARTICIPANTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:  Describe how to work as a professional  Identify ways to participate in EMR continuing education  Describe the medical-legal aspects of the EMR profession  Recognize and apply provincial and federal legislation relevant to the EMR
  • 9. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 20109 COURSE OBJECTIVES CONT  Demonstrate how to function effectively in a team environment  Demonstrate effective decision-making abilities at the EMR level  Demonstrate effective oral communication skills  Demonstrate effective written communication skills
  • 10. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201010 COURSE OBJECTIVES CONT  Explain how to use non-verbal communication skills  Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills  Identify strategies for maintaining good physical and mental health  Demonstrating safe lifting and moving techniques  Demonstrate the ability to triage
  • 11. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201011 COURSE OBJECTIVES CONT  Demonstrate how to create and maintain a safe working environment  Demonstrate how to obtain a casualty/patient history  Demonstrate how to complete a physical assessment and interpret finding(s)  Demonstrate how to assess vital signs  Demonstrate how to maintain an airway
  • 12. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201012 COURSE OBJECTINES CONT  Explain how to prepare oxygen delivery devices  Demonstrate the delivery of oxygen and administer manual ventilation  Demonstrate how to provide CPR  Demonstrate basic care for soft tissue injuries  Demonstrate immobilization techniques for fractures
  • 13. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201013 COURSE OBJECTIVES cont  Demonstrate how to integrate differential diagnosis, decision-making skills, and psychomotor skills in providing care to casualties/patients  Explain how to care for casualties/patients of special populations  Demonstrate how to conduct ongoing assessment and interpret results
  • 14. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201014 COURSE OBJECTIVES CONT  Describe how to prepare an ambulance for service  Describe how to operate an ambulance or similar emergency vehicle  Describe how to prepare a casualty/patient for air transport  Describe how to transfer a casualty/patient to an air ambulance
  • 15. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201015 COURSE CONTENT  The content of the course is based on the Paramedic Association of Canada: National Occupational Competency Profiles at the Emergency Medical Responder level.  Prerequisites: Standard First Aid with CPR- C
  • 16. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201016 COURSE LENGTH  The Emergency Medical Responder course is designed to be taught in 80 hours. Less time may be needed if participants are AED certified.
  • 17. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201017 PARTICIPANT MATERIALS  The 2008 Emergency Care Manual ISBN: 978-1-58480-404-8  For written evaluations, each participant will receive at the appropriate time a mid-course exam, final exam and answer sheets
  • 18. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201018 UNIT 2 THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONDER AND THE EMERGENCY SCENE
  • 19. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201019 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES Primary points:  EMS systems throughout Canada vary  EMS systems can be provincial services or city services or privately owned services  Paramedic Association of Canada (PAC) in 2001 developed competencies and curriculum to address standardization across the country
  • 20. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201020 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES Primary points:  The emergency medical services (EMS) is network of community resources, including personnel, equipment, and supplies, that provide care to people who suffer a sudden illness or injury.  The EMS system was developed as a multitiered, national system of emergency health care
  • 21. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201021 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  EMS systems throughout Canada vary  EMS systems can be provincial services or city services or privately owned services  Paramedic Association of Canada (PAC) in 2001 developed competencies and curriculum to address standardization across the country
  • 22. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201022 EMR LEAGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT An effective EMS system ideally has the following components:  Regulation and Policy  Resource Management  Human Resources, Training, and Continuing Education  Communications  Transportation
  • 23. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201023 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT:  Public Information and Education  Medical Control  Trauma Systems  Evaluation  Facilities
  • 24. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201024 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  The EMS systems functions as a series of linked events that bring medical care to people as quickly as possible  These links begin the actions of the lay rescuer, who recognizes a problem and activates the system by calling EMS/9-1-1. The dispatcher determines what help is needed and sends the appropriate personnel
  • 25. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201025 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  The first person to arrive on the scene, who is trained to provide a higher level of care than the average citizen, is often referred to as a first responder  Traditionally, first responders have been law enforcement and fire fighter personnel
  • 26. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201026 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  The responder often provides a critical transition between the initial actions of the person who calls for help and the care provided by more highly trained personnel, such as paramedics or hospital personnel
  • 27. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201027 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  The higher the person’s level of training, the more advanced the skills the person can perform  Pre-hospital care ends when the ill or injured person arrives at the hospital emergency department and the emergency staff takes over. At this point, the hospital staff use whatever resources are needed to care for the patient
  • 28. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201028 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  The responder has a professional duty to respond to an emergency and provide care to the sick and injured at the scene. This implies that the responder is properly trained and has ready access to appropriate equipment and supplies
  • 29. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201029 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Emergency Medical Responders have six primary responsibilities: 1. Ensuring safety for themselves and bystanders 2. Gaining access to the ill or injured person(s) 3. Identifying any immediate life threatening conditions
  • 30. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201030 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT 4. Obtaining more advanced medical care when needed 5. Providing care for the ill or injured patient(s) 6. Assisting more advanced medical personnel when required
  • 31. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201031 Emergency Medical Responders also have several secondary responsibilities including but not limited to:  Summoning specialized assistance if required  Controlling and directing bystanders  Recording your actions (PCR)  Reassuring or comforting the ill, injured and family
  • 32. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201032 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Legal Considerations Law suits against those who give emergency medical care are extremely rare. By understanding and abiding by some basic legal principles, Emergency Medical Responders may avoid legal action in the future.
  • 33. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201033 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  Either as a result of case law, statute, or job description, an EMR could have a duty to act at any time. EMRs are expected to act appropriately in the event of an emergency.  Acting appropriately means performing to a certain standard of care expected of a person with your training and working in your position.
  • 34. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201034 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT  If an EMR fails to act or live up to the established standard of care, and this failure causes damage to another person, the EMR can be sued  To help avoid lawsuits, the EMRs are to do only what they are trained and authorized to do. EMRs must stay within their standard of care.
  • 35. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201035 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Negligence Negligence is the failure to follow a reasonable standard of care, resulting in the damage (injury or death) Four components must be present for a lawsuit charging negligence to be successful:
  • 36. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201036 EMR /LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES CONT 1. Duty of care 2. Breach of duty 3. Causation of damage due to what someone did or failed to do 4. Damage caused
  • 37. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201037 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT SCOPE OF PRACTICE Is defined as the range of duties and skills an EMR is allowed and expected to perform when necessary An EMR is governed and regulated by legal, ethical, and medical standards These standards establish the scope of practice for the EMR
  • 38. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201038 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Paramedic Association of Canada has developed four levels 1. Emergency Medical Responder 2. Primary Care Paramedic 3. Advanced Care Paramedic 4. Critical Care Paramedic
  • 39. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201039 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Profiles for each level providing a set of competencies have been created Individual organizations and educational institutes may exceed training based on their operational needs Having national standards sets the stage for consistency across the country
  • 40. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201040 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT MEDICAL CONTROL Is the process by which a physician directs the care given by prehospital care professionals to ill or injured patients The physician oversees training and development of protocols Protocols are standardizes procedures to be followed when providing care to patients of illness or injury
  • 41. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201041 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT The Medical Director directs the care given through standing orders Standing orders allow certain types of care or treatment without speaking to the physician This type of medical control is called indirect or off-line medical control
  • 42. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201042 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT Procedures that are not covered by standing orders require the EMR to speak directly with a physician This can be done through cell phone, radio or telephone This type of medical control is called direct on-line medical control
  • 43. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201043 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT Be aware of the variations that may differ from province to province
  • 44. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201044 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES EMR’s have an ethical responsibility to carry out their duties and responsibilities in a professional manner They must show compassion when dealing with a patient’s physical or mental needs and communicate sensitively and willingly at all times
  • 45. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201045 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT As a professional, you should strive to develop your skills to surpass the standards established in your province or region And practice and master the skills presented in this course
  • 46. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201046 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT Continue with further training, such as workshops, continuing medical education, conferences, and supplemental or advanced educational programs Be honest in reporting your actions and events that occurred at the scene or while responding to an emergency
  • 47. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201047 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT Make it a personal goal to be a person whom others trust and can depend on to give accurate reports and provide effective care Conduct a regular self-review of performance with respect to patient care, communication with the patient, partners. and agency members, and documentation in order to improve personally
  • 48. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201048 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONT Remember that proper documentation can help provide an accurate and legal document should legal action occur. Keep careful written records and write your record as soon as possible after the emergency while the facts are fresh. Refer to YEMS DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS, May 2006
  • 49. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201049 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT COMPETENCE Refers to the patient’s ability to understand the questions of the EMR and to understand the implications of decisions made EMRs need to obtain permission from competent patients before beginning any care
  • 50. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201050 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT In certain cases, such as intoxication, drug abuse, or an altered level of consciousness, or when the patient has a serious injury that could affect his judgment, or is mentally ill or challenged, the patient is not considered competent to make rational decisions
  • 51. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201051 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT In such cases where the patient still refuses treatment, a law enforcement officer may be required to obtain the necessary legal authority for care to be provided by the EMR
  • 52. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201052 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT CONSENT Unless injury or illness is life threatening, a parent or guardian who is present must give consent for minors It is important to explain (to the parent or guardian) the consequences if care is not provided to the minor Use terms that the parent or guardian will understand
  • 53. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201053 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT It may be necessary to request the presence of a law enforcement officer in order to treat a minor Do not argue with the parent or guardian as this may create an unsafe scene Some adults may be under legal guardian care. In this case, you will need the guardian’s consent to provide care
  • 54. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201054 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Refer to Policy and Procedure on “Care and Consent” Cultural or religious beliefs may prevent a person from receiving care. In these situations, respect the person’s wishes; however, if you feel the patient is in danger if left untreated, then you may have to request law enforcement for assistance
  • 55. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201055 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT ADVANCED DIRECTIVES AND DO NOT RESUSCITATE ORDERS Advanced directives and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders are written instructions from patients and signed by his/her physician They protect a person’s rights to refuse resuscitation efforts
  • 56. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201056 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT These orders are usually written for people who have terminal illnesses or extreme advanced age These orders may differ from province or region Some provinces have instituted the new NO CPR bracelet
  • 57. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201057 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT The person wears the bracelet, which is applied by the family doctor and cannot be removed. The bracelet has an ID number along with a 1-800 number that can be accessed to confirm identity of the patient Advanced directives are often found in extended care homes. The DNR stated for the individual patient, may have different degrees of intervention
  • 58. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201058 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT An EMR has a scope of practice and an important role within the EMS system There are legal and ethical implications that guide the actions of EMRs
  • 59. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201059 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT Summary EMRs need certain characteristics to do their job well EMRs must be aware of certain responsibilities There are legal and ethical implications that guide the actions of EMRs
  • 60. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201060 EMR LEGAL/ETHICAL ISSUES CONT EMRs have a scope of practice and an important role within the EMS system.
  • 61. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201061
  • 62. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201062 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress management steps include recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress, seeking professional help if necessary, balancing work, recreation, family, and health The EMR’s family may react with lack of understanding, fear, stress, and frustration to the EMR’s responsibilities
  • 63. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201063 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT A critical incident is a specific situation that causes a responder to have an unusually strong emotional reaction that interferes with his or her ability to function, either immediately or later on. This reaction can produce stress called Critical Incident Stress (CIS)
  • 64. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201064 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT Critical Incident Stress can build up over a period of days, weeks, months, or even years Some warning signs of stress can be; irritability toward co-workers, and friends, inability to concentrate, difficulty sleeping, increased sleeping or nightmares, anxiety, indecisiveness, guilt, increased use of alcohol and others
  • 65. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201065 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT COPING WITH CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS The emotional impact of the situation may be more than you can handle without help Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is the process of educating, preventing, or mitigating the effects from exposure to an abnormal or highly unusual event Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CSID), one component of a CISM program, is a type of meeting held within 24 to 72 hours of an incident
  • 66. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201066 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT During CSID, participants are encouraged to have an open discussion of feelings, fears, and reactions triggered by the incident A defusing is less formal and less structured Defusing is sometimes done at the scene or shortly thereafter An advantage of defusing is that it allows for immediate initial venting
  • 67. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201067 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT HAZARDOUS MATERIALS As an EMR, you may encounter a number of special response situations When approaching any scene, the EMR should be aware of dangers involving toxic chemical. When toxic substances are involved, EMR’s need specialized training to deal with the situation
  • 68. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201068 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT When dealing with a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) situation, such as a chemical spill, the EMR will work within a structured system that provides guidance in managing such a scene
  • 69. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201069 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT COMMON PROBLEMS A hazardous material is any chemical substance or material that can pose a threat to the health, safety, property of an individual Your local EMS office should have information on when and where programs are available (2004 EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDELINES manual found in your ambulance is one piece of program literature available)
  • 70. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201070 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT Whenever there is a chemical leak or spill, the potential of a HAZMAT incident exists.
  • 71. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201071 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT SAFETY IS THE PRIME CONCERN Safety of the EMR crew, the patient(s), and bystanders should be of primary concern While en route to potential HAZMAT scene, obtain as much information as possible from the dispatcher
  • 72. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201072 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT APPROACHING THE SCENE Never enter a scene that is not safe. In a HAZMAT incident, you will need the expertise of a highly trained HAZMAT team to make the scene safe
  • 73. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201073 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT CONT When approaching the scene, use extreme caution. If you suspect that you are involved in a HAZMAT situation, remember these general procedures:  Stay upwind and uphill from the incident  Stay well away from the area  Keep people away from the danger zone
  • 74. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201074 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT  CONT  Look for clues that indicate hazardous materials  Never enter a HAZMAT area unless you are trained as a HAZMAT Technician  The EMR should know how to activate the local HAZMAT response team
  • 75. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201075 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT  CONT
  • 76. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201076 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR THE EMR CONT PRIMARY POINTS  There are risks EMR’s face on a regular basis and it is important to maintain the health and safety of emergency responders
  • 77. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201077 EMR EQUIPMENT Emergency Medical Responders should be familiar with equipment used in local EMS systems. Typical equipment used in the EMS systems include:  Regulation and Policy  Stretchers and cots  Stair chairs  Portable stretchers
  • 78. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201078 EMR EQUIPMENT CONT CONT  Long and short backboards  Trauma kits  Airway kits • Equipment must be maintained in safe, working condition • EMR’s who attempt to provide care with malfunctioning equipment may harm the patient as well as themselves
  • 79. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201079 EMR EQUIPMENT CONT CONT
  • 80. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201080 TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES The ability to effectively communicate clearly and efficiently is necessary in every component of the EMS system Emergency Medical responders should be familiar with telecommunications equipment used in the local EMS systems. Telecommunications equipment must be maintained in working condition
  • 81. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201081 TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES CONT Operators of telecommunications equipment must have the knowledge of local laws governing the appropriate use and operation of equipment often used by emergency responders such as mobile and portable radios
  • 82. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201082 UNIT 3 PREVENTING DISEASE TRANSMISSION
  • 83. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201083 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Knowing the methods in which a disease is transmitted is important for implementing proper infection control measures and large scale prevention campaigns. Each disease has transmission characteristics based on the nature of the microorganism that causes it
  • 84. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201084 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Transmission by Direct Contact Direct contact transmission requires physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person, and the physical transfer of microorganisms. Direct contact includes touching an infected individual, kissing, sexual contact, contact with oral secretions, or contact with body lesions.
  • 85. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201085 Preventing Disease Transmission cont This type of transmission requires close contact with an infected individual, and will usually occur between members of the same household or close friends and family.
  • 86. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201086 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Diseases spread exclusively by direct contact are unable to survive for significant periods of time away from a host. Sexually transmitted diseases are almost always spread through direct contact, as they are extremely sensitive to drying.
  • 87. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201087 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Transmission by Indirect Contact Indirect contact transmission refers to situations where a susceptible person is infected from contact with a contaminated surface.
  • 88. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201088 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Some organisms (such as Norwalk Virus) are capable of surviving on surfaces for an extended period of time. To reduce transmission by indirect contact, frequent touch surfaces should be properly disinfected.
  • 89. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201089 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Frequent touch surfaces (fomites) include:  Door knobs, door handles, handrails  Tables, beds, chairs  Washroom surfaces  Cups, dishes, cutlery, trays  Medical instruments  Computer keyboards, mice, electronic devices with buttons  Pens, pencils, phones, office supplies  Children's toys
  • 90. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201090 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Transmission by Droplet Contact Some diseases can be transferred by infected droplets contacting surfaces of the eye, nose, or mouth. This is referred to as droplet contact transmission. Droplets containing microorganisms can be generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.
  • 91. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201091 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Droplets can also be generated during certain medical procedures, such as bronchoscopy. Droplets are too large to be airborne for long periods of time, and quickly settle out of air.
  • 92. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201092 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Droplet transmission can be reduced with the use of personal protective barriers, such as face masks and goggles. Measles and SARS are examples of diseases capable of droplet contact transmission.
  • 93. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201093 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Airborne Transmission Airborne transmission refers to situations where droplet nuclei (residue from evaporated droplets) or dust particles containing microorganisms can remain suspended in air for long periods of time. These organisms must be capable of surviving for long periods of time outside the body and must be resistant to drying.
  • 94. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201094 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Airborne transmission allows organisms to enter the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Fortunately, only a limited number of diseases are capable of airborne transmission.
  • 95. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201095 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Fecal-oral Transmission Fecal-oral transmission is usually associated with organisms that infect the digestive system. Microorganisms enter the body through ingestion of contaminated food and water.
  • 96. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201096 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Inside the digestive system (usually within the intestines) these microorganisms multiply and are shed from the body in feces.
  • 97. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201097 Preventing Disease Transmission cont If proper hygienic and sanitation practices are not in place, the microorganisms in the feces may contaminate the water supply through inadequate sewage treatment and water filtration. Fish and shellfish that swim in contaminated water may be used as food sources.
  • 98. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201098 Preventing Disease Transmission cont If the infected individual is a waiter, cook, or food handler, then inadequate hand washing may result in food being contaminated with microorganisms.
  • 99. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 201099 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Diseases capable of airborne transmission include:  Influenza  Whooping cough  Pneumonia  Tuberculosis  Polio
  • 100. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010100 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Vector-borne Transmission Vectors are animals that are capable of transmitting diseases. Examples of vectors are flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, and dogs. The most common vector for disease is the mosquito. Mosquitoes transfer disease through the saliva which comes in contact with their hosts when they are withdrawing blood. Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria, West Nile Virus, dengue fever, and yellow fever.
  • 101. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010101 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Vectors add an extra dimension to disease transmission. Since vectors are mobile, they increase the transmission range of a disease. Changes in vector behaviour will affect the transmission pattern of a disease.
  • 102. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010102 Preventing Disease Transmission cont It is important to study the behavior of the vector as well as the disease-causing microorganism in order to establish a proper method of disease prevention.
  • 103. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010103 Preventing Disease Transmission cont In the case of malaria, insecticides were sprayed and breeding grounds for mosquitoes were eliminated in an attempt to control the spread of malaria.
  • 104. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010104 Preventing Disease Transmission cont HOW DISEASES SPREAD For a disease to spread, all four of the following conditions must be met:  A pathogen is present  There is enough pathogen present  The patient is susceptible to the pathogen  The pathogen passes through the correct entry site
  • 105. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010105 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Biting is not the only way vectors can transmit diseases. Diseases may be spread through the feces of a vector. Microorganisms could also be located on the outside surface of a vector (such as a fly) and spread through physical contact with food, a common touch surface, or a susceptible individual.
  • 106. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010106 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The lungs are primarily involved, but the infection can spread to other organs
  • 107. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010107 Preventing Disease Transmission cont
  • 108. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010108 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs and health care workers or emergency workers who may be exposed to contaminated blood.
  • 109. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010109 Preventing Disease Transmission cont
  • 110. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010110 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Hepatitis A is an inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus
  • 111. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010111 Preventing Disease Transmission cont
  • 112. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010112 Preventing Disease Transmission cont
  • 113. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010113 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Most people who become infected with hepatitis B get rid of the virus within 6 months. A short infection is known as an "acute" case of hepatitis B.
  • 114. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010114 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Approximately 10% of people infected with the hepatitis B virus develop a chronic, life- long infection. People with chronic infection may have symptoms, but many of these patients never develop symptoms. These patients are sometimes referred to as "carriers" and can spread the disease to others.
  • 115. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010115 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Having chronic hepatitis B increases your chance of permanent liver damage, including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
  • 116. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010116 Preventing Disease Transmission cont HIV infection is a viral infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that gradually destroys the immune system, resulting in infections that are hard for the body to fight.
  • 117. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010117 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Causes, incidence, and risk factors Acute HIV infection may be associated with symptoms resembling mononucleosis or the flu within 2 to 4 weeks of exposure. HIV seroconversion (converting from HIV negative to HIV positive) usually occurs within 3 months of exposure.
  • 118. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010118 Preventing Disease Transmission cont People who become infected with HIV may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still transmit the infection to others. Meanwhile, their immune system gradually weakens until they are diagnosed with AIDS.
  • 119. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010119 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Acute HIV infection progresses over time to asymptomatic HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later, to AIDS (advanced HIV infection).
  • 120. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010120 Preventing Disease Transmission cont HIV Infection (acute HIV infection) -->early asymptomatic HIV infection -->early symptomatic HIV infection -->AIDS. Most individuals infected with HIV will progress to AIDS if not treated. However, there is a tiny subset of patients who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called non-progressors
  • 121. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010121 Preventing Disease Transmission cont
  • 122. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010122 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Universal Precautions Universal precautions are infection control guidelines designed to protect workers from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids.
  • 123. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010123 Preventing Disease Transmission cont In the workplace, universal precautions should be followed when workers are exposed to blood and certain other body fluids, including:  semen  vaginal secretions  synovial fluid  cerebrospinal fluid
  • 124. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010124 Preventing Disease Transmission cont  pleural fluid  peritoneal fluid  pericardial fluid  amniotic fluid
  • 125. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010125 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Universal precautions do not apply to:  Feces  nasal secretions  Sputum  sweat  tears  urine
  • 126. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010126 Preventing Disease Transmission cont  Vomitus  saliva (except in the dental setting, where saliva is likely to be contaminated with blood) Universal precautions should be applied to all body fluids when it is difficult to identify the specific body fluid or when body fluids are visibly contaminated with blood.
  • 127. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010127 Preventing Disease Transmission cont How can workers prevent exposure to blood and body fluids? Barriers are used for protection against occupational exposure to blood and certain body fluids. These barriers consist of:  Personal protective equipment (PPE)  Engineering controls  Work practice controls
  • 128. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010128 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – PPE includes gloves, gowns, shoe covers, goggles, glasses with side shields, masks, and resuscitation bags.
  • 129. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010129 Preventing Disease Transmission cont The purpose of PPE is to prevent blood and body fluids from reaching the workers' skin, mucous membranes, or personal clothing. It must create an effective barrier between the exposed worker and any blood or other body fluids.
  • 130. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010130 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Work Practice Controls Refers to practical techniques that reduce the likelihood of exposure by changing the way a task is performed.
  • 131. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010131 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Examples of activities requiring specific attention to work practice controls include: hand washing, handling of used needles and other sharps and contaminated reusable sharps, collecting and transporting fluids and tissues according to approved safe practices.
  • 132. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010132 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Is universal protection required by law? Occupational Health and Safety is regulated in Canada in each of the fourteen jurisdictions (provincial, territorial and federal). Some jurisdictions may have also developed specific modifications of infection control guidelines.
  • 133. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010133 Preventing Disease Transmission cont Engineering Controls Engineering controls refer to methods of isolating or removing hazards from the workplace. Examples of engineering controls include: sharps disposal containers, laser scalpels, and ventilation including the use of ventilated biological cabinets (laboratory fume hoods).
  • 134. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010134 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS Determination of Exposure:  Determines who is at risk for ongoing contact with blood and other bodily fluids  Creates a list of tasks that pose a risk for contact with blood or other bodily fluids  Includes personal protective equipment (PPE) required
  • 135. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010135 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Education and Training:  Explains why a qualified individual is required to answer questions about communicable diseases and infection control, rather than relying on packaged training material  Includes the availability of an instructor able to train ambulance personnel regarding blood borne and airborne pathogens
  • 136. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010136 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Education and Training:  Ensures that the instructor provides appropriate education, which is the best means for correcting many myths surrounding these issues.
  • 137. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010137 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Hepatitis B Vaccine Program:  Spells out the vaccine offered, its safety and efficacy, record keeping, and tracking  Addresses the need for post vaccine antibody titers to identify individuals who do not respond to the initial three-dose vaccination series
  • 138. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010138 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):  Lists the PPE offered and why it was selected  Lists how much equipment is available and where to obtain additional PPE  States when each type of PPE is to be used for each risk procedure
  • 139. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010139 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Cleaning and Disinfection Practices:  Describes how to care for and maintain vehicles and equipment  Identifies where and when cleaning should be performed, how it is to be done, what PPE is to be used, and what cleaning solution is to be used
  • 140. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010140 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Cleaning and Disinfection Practices:  Addresses medical waste collection, storage and disposal
  • 141. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010141 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Tuberculin Skin Testing/Fit Testing:  Addresses how often employees should undergo skin testing  Address how often fit testing should be done to determine the proper mask to protect the attendant from tuberculosis  Addresses all issues with the HEPA respirator masks
  • 142. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010142 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Compliance Monitoring:  Addresses how the service or department evaluates employee compliance with each aspect of the plan  Ensures that employees understand what they are to do and why it is important
  • 143. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010143 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Compliance Monitoring:  States that noncompliance should be documented  Indicates what disciplinary action should be taken in the face of continued noncompliance
  • 144. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010144 Preventing Disease Transmission cont EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN COMPONENTS: Record Keeping:  Outlines all records that will be kept, how confidentiality will be maintained, and how records can be assessed and by whom
  • 145. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010145
  • 146. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010146 UNIT 4 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS
  • 147. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010147 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS Anatomical position
  • 148. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010148 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 149. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010149 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Side View
  • 150. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010150 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 151. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010151 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals.
  • 152. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010152 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. Your nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone.
  • 153. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010153 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Joints Bones are connected to other bones at joints. There are many different types of joints, including: fixed joints (such as in the skull, which consists of many bones), hinged joints (such as in the fingers and toes), and ball- and-socket joints (such as the shoulders and hips).
  • 154. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010154 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Differences in males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born.
  • 155. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010155 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Body Cavities
  • 156. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010156 Body Cavities and Membranes  Dorsal body cavity  Cavity subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity.  Cranial cavity houses the brain.  Vertebral cavity runs through the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord
  • 157. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010157 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The cavities, or spaces, of the body contain the internal organs, or viscera.
  • 158. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010158 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Thoracic Cavity The thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs and the diaphragm
  • 159. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010159 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Abdominal and pelvic cavity: The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands.
  • 160. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010160 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT BODY SYSTEMS The Circulatory System The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the vascular system transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta.
  • 161. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010161 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste..
  • 162. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010162 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart, which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide
  • 163. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010163 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Respiratory System The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea.
  • 164. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010164 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Upper airway
  • 165. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010165 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Lung
  • 166. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010166 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, or primary bronchi, which go to the lungs. The primary bronchi branch off into even smaller bronchial tubes, or bronchioles. The bronchioles end in the alveoli, or air sacs.
  • 167. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010167 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Oxygen follows this path and passes through the walls of the air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes into the lungs and is exhaled.
  • 168. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010168 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Digestive System The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair.
  • 169. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010169 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT After food is chewed and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is further broken down by powerful stomach acids. From the stomach the food travels into the small intestine. This is where your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair- like projections.
  • 170. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010170 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The excess food that the body doesn't need or can't digest is turned into waste and is eliminated from the body.
  • 171. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010171 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Endocrine System The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long- distance messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development.
  • 172. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010172 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Endocrine glands
  • 173. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010173 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 174. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010174 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes, release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body.
  • 175. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010175 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Skeletal System The skeletal system is made up of bones, ligaments and tendons. It shapes the body and protects organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move. Marrow, which is soft, fatty tissue that produces red blood cells, many white blood cells, and other immune system cells, is found inside bones.
  • 176. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010176 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 177. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010177 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 178. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010178 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Urinary System The urinary system eliminates waste from the body, in the form of urine. The kidneys remove waste from the blood. The waste combines with water to form urine. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is discharged through the urethra.
  • 179. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010179 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 180. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010180 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Reproductive System The reproductive system allows humans to produce children. Sperm from the male fertilizes the female's egg, or ovum, in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus, where the fetus develops over a period of nine months.
  • 181. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010181 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 182. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010182 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 183. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010183 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Nervous System The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most important systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body.
  • 184. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010184 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 185. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010185 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system
  • 186. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010186 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It sends out nerve impulses and analyzes information from the sense organs, which tell your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste and feel.
  • 187. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010187 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The peripheral nervous system includes the craniospinal nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. It carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary action, such as heart beat and digestion.
  • 188. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010188 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Immune System The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues, cells, and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria) and substances that may enter the body from the environment.
  • 189. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010189 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 190. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010190 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT There are three types of response systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response. The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack.
  • 191. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010191 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though you don't feel well while it's happening, your body is fighting illness.
  • 192. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010192 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT When the inflammatory response fails, the immune system goes to work. This is the central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes, migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.
  • 193. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010193 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Muscular System The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles—like the ones in your arms and legs—are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them.
  • 194. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010194 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary. This means that they are controlled automatically by the nervous system and hormones—you often don't even realize they're at work.
  • 195. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010195 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Each of these has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. Skeletal Muscles help the body move. Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach and intestines. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Its motion is involuntary
  • 196. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010196 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Lymphatic System The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies.
  • 197. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010197 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 198. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010198 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT
  • 199. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010199 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels carry excess fluid away from the spaces between tissues and organs and return it to the bloodstream.
  • 200. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010200 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT Skin Skin is the flexible tissue (integument) enclosing the body of vertebrate animals. In humans and other mammals, the skin operates a complex organ of numerous structures (sometimes called the integumentary system) serving vital protective and metabolic functions.
  • 201. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010201 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT It contains two main layers of cells: a thin outer layer, the epidermis, and a thicker inner layer, the dermis. Along the internal surface of the epidermis, young cells continuously multiply, pushing the older cells outward.
  • 202. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010202 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT At the outer surface the older cells flatten and overlap to form a tough membrane and gradually shed as calluses or collections of dead skin. Although the epidermis has no blood vessels, its deeper strata contain melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin.
  • 203. B. Kidd 2007 revised 2009 revised 2010203 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS CONT The underlying dermis consists of connective tissue in which are embedded blood vessels, lymph channels, nerve endings, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, fat cells, hair follicles, and muscles. The nerve endings, called receptors, perform an important sensory function.