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Department of Defense, U.S. Northern Command, National Guard,  and Defense Support of Civil Authorities
 

Department of Defense, U.S. Northern Command, National Guard, and Defense Support of Civil Authorities

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    Department of Defense, U.S. Northern Command, National Guard,  and Defense Support of Civil Authorities Department of Defense, U.S. Northern Command, National Guard, and Defense Support of Civil Authorities Document Transcript

    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 1 Running Head: DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA Department of Defense, U.S. Northern Command, National Guard, and Defense Support of Civil Authorities Lindsey Landolfi Towson University Team Building and Leadership Skills, IHSM 614 Professor D. Schrader April 2013 Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 2 Executive Summary The scope of this paper is focused on the roles and missions of the Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM), and the National Guard (NG) in both homeland defense and civil- support missions addressing both state and federal governance roles and responsibilities as well as supporting legislation with emphasis on state and federal strategic considerations with respect to Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA). Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 3 The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is responsible for coordinating and supervising all government agencies and functions directly related to the US Armed Forces and national security. The Secretary of Defense heads the DoD and is “the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense.” (10 U.S.C. § 113) Regulatory documents, such as homeland security directives, establish the DoD's roles and specific responsibilities. The DoD's primary missions include homeland defense and military operations, however there is an emphasis on the DoD's supportive role for the states in the form of Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA). See Appendix A for a diagram depicting the DoD's role and missions in the homeland security environment including homeland defense, civil support, and emergency preparedness. DoD DSCA can take many forms for example, intelligence and law enforcement support to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), support to Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in accordance with the National Response Framework (NRF), or assistance to state and local government in civil emergencies. “Many DoD components and agencies are authorized to respond to save lives, protect property and the environment, and mitigate human suffering under imminently serious conditions, as well as to provide support under their separate established authorities, as appropriate. The provision of defense support is evaluated by its legality, lethality, risk, cost, appropriateness, and impact on readiness.” (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2008) Under the Request for Assistance (RFA) evaluation criteria, legality addresses compliance with applicable law for example, use of the proper authorities. Readiness addresses the impact of the use of DoD resources and capabilities on the performance of the primary mission. Lethality and risk both address the safety, including the receipt or issuance of lethal force, of DoD forces upon involvement. Cost addresses the financial backing and impact of DoD involvement on the budget. Whereas appropriateness considers the national interest of DoD involvement. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 4 The DoD possesses operational capabilities, experience, equipment, organization, and training that are unique to the military. In comparison to civil authorities, military divisions such as DSCA are better prepared to execute the functions required by certain emergency response scenarios for instance, dealing with hazardous materials and/or weapons of mass destruction. National Guard (NG) troops may have specialized training in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear detection and analysis, as well as access to robust mobile communication capabilities, and even experience with technical decontamination operations. For example, the capabilities provided by NORTHCOM's Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams (WMD-CSTs), Joint Task Force Civil Support (JTF-CS), the Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF), and the Chemical/Biological-Rapid Response Team (CBRRT). Additionally, DSCA can provide heavy equipment, aviation support, life support, and other assets that are military specific such as vaccinated military personnel. The U.S. Department of Defense, in its 2005 Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support, defines defense support of civil authorities as “DoD support, including Federal military forces, the Department’s career civilian and contractor personnel, and DoD agency and component assets, for domestic emergencies and for designated law enforcement and other activities.” (U.S. Department of Defense, 2005, p.5) policy defines the DoD's role in civil support within the broader issue of homeland defense. According to the DoD’s Homeland Security doctrine issued by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in August 2005, the DoD is considered as a last resort resource only to be requested when other local, state, and federal resources and capabilities are exhausted. Typically federal assistance for state and local disasters is provided under the authority of The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub.L.No. 93–288 as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq). The Stafford Act provides that “during the immediate aftermath of an incident which may ultimately qualify for assistance under … this Act, the Governor of the State in which such incident occurred may request the President to direct the Secretary of Defense to utilize the resources of the Department of Defense for the purpose of Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 5 performing on public and private lands any emergency work which is made necessary by such incident and which is essential for the preservation of life and property.” (42 U.S.C. 5170 b) The DoD has arrangements to support the missions of FEMA, the NRF, and its primary mission while remaining consistent with national security objectives. The NRF focuses on the who, what, and how of incident management outlining local, state, federal, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) roles, responsibilities, and organization of emergency preparation and response. The DoD is fully coordinated in federal domestic response to emergencies through NRF. The NRF Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) organize the functions used to provide federal support for declared disasters/emergencies for Stafford Act and non- Stafford Act incidents; the DoD is a supporting agency for ESFs Annex #1, #2, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, and #15, a primary agency for #9 (Search and Rescue Annex) as well as a primary and coordinating agency for #3 (Public Works and Engineering). See Appendix B for a break-down of DOD specific responsibilities for each ESF Annex according to the NRF. DoD resources may be committed on the discretion of the Secretary of Defense or the President; military forces operate under the military chain of command. The National Incident Management System (NIMS), a FEMA/NRF system proving all-hazard scalable framework for collaborative incident management, supports the elements of unified command. However it should be noted that DSCA do not operate under the Incident Command System (ICS) command structure. The DoD maintains responsibility for all emergency management activities related to DoD assets while supporting lead federal agencies in other areas of emergency preparation and response. There are a few ways in which a request for DoD assistance may be processed. When there is a Presidential disaster/emergency declaration the DoD is normally in direct support of a primary agency; the primary agency will initiate the request for assistance, the request process is handled by the Executive Secretary of the primary agency and the DoD Executive Secretary, DoD approval authority Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 6 generally rests with the Secretary of Defense, all assets provided are subject to the RFA evaluation criteria discussed previously. The process is similar for a request originating from a disaster site except that request are typically initiated by a Federal Coordinating Officer or a designated primary agency representative and the requests are routed though the Defense Coordinating Officer (DCO) to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas’ Security Affairs as well as the Joint Director of Military Support. In certain circumstances the DoD may still provide assistance to disasters that are not federally declared. For example, in imminently serious conditions, as described earlier, local civilian authorities may request assistance for DoD approval from local military commanders and responsible DoD officials. In these conditions all assets may be provided under the RFA evaluation criteria with the exception for those that have potential for lethality which must be approved by the Secretary of Defense. All DoD response assistance must be consistent with U.S. law for example, the DoD must adhere to the requirements of The Posse Comitatus Act which provides federal legislation prohibiting the use of federal troops as law enforcers in the US; this act is codified in 18 USC § 1385 and in 10 USC § 375. In order to ensure unity of command for US Armed Forces the 2002 Unified Command Plan (UCP) established U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to provide command and control over DoD homeland defense efforts and DSCA coordination in accordance with U.S. law. NORTHCOM's mission is to “anticipate and conduct Homeland Defense and Civil Support operations within the assigned area of responsibility to defend, protect, and secure the United States and its interests.” (U.S. Northern Command, n.d.) NORTHCOM has responsibility for increasing the coordination of interagency relationships associated with DoD actions or commitments in support of NORTHCOM's assigned mission as well as increasing the DoD's ability to plan, prepare, and execute DSCA. For example, upon the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), NORTHCOM can conduct national level exercises, training, and capabilities assessments of DoD's DSCA. Additionally, Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 7 NORTHCOM has personnel who are assigned as DCOs to the ten Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/FEMA regions; a DCO serves as a single point of contact for coordinating and processing requests for DSCA at the Joint Field Office (JFO). See Appendix C for a depiction of JFO organization including the DCO. NORTHCOM has several subordinate commands to assist in executing their mission including Army, Air-force, Marines, and five Joint Task Forces (JTF); NORTHCOM is reliant on the DoD force structure. NORTHCOM serves as the DoD's single combatant commander for DSCA, also referred to as Military Support to Civil Authorities (MSCA). NORTHCOM operates under combatant command and may allocate forces to execute missions as designated from the President, to the Secretary of Defense, to the NORTHCOM Commander. The “DoD can receive requests to provide federal assistance through two avenues: first, through DHS as the lead federal agency, or second, through a governor’s request under U.S. Code Title 32 authorities.” (US DOD, 2010, p. 19) DoD DSCA can take many forms; one major area of assistance is provided through the utility of the US National Guard (NG). The NG operates under three distinct legal statuses including Title 32 United States Code (USC), Title 10 USC, and State-active duty. Appendix D provides a comparison reference chart of NG duty statuses. Each statue supports different types of command and control structures. See Appendix E for figures depicting the control, command, and coordinating relationships of military forces in the homeland including state command and control, federal command and control, parallel command and control, and dual-status command and control. Under state-active duty status the state command structure commands and uses the NG for state missions and is dependent on state funding. NG employment under state command must be in accordance with state law. The roles and responsibilities of governor as Commander and Chief are codified in state constitutions; governors have authority to deploy NG for state use as permitted by the law. Other authorities that fall under state command structure includes Title 32 USC; the status to perform state missions under the governor's authority. Under Title 32 authorities the types of missions Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 8 are limited to missions/training that comply with 2007 NDAA amendments to 32 USC 502(f), such as homeland defense activities, however funding is federally provided. State command uses a Joint Force Headquarters-State (JFHQ-State) to provide for in-state command and control of NG forces. “One of the responsibilities of the JFHQ-State is to support JTF-State commanders and all of the deployed units within the state, as well as acting as an information channel to the National Guard Bureau and combatant commanders.” (National Guard Bureau, 2008)In the event state military capabilities require supplementation in order to respond to an emergency, assistance such as the NG may be requested from other states through mutual-aid agreements such as the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) or through the Stafford Act. The FY 2007 John Warner National Defense Authorization Act expanded Presidential authority to activate NG without requiring the approval of governors. Federal Command operates under the Title 10 USC status. Under Title 10 USC the federal government is in command, funds, and directs the national and international missions of the NG. NG forces are federalized with the active US Armed Forces and perform DSCA under the command and control of NORTHCOM. During national contingency operations NORTHCOM mobilizes NG forces using the JFHQ-State to integrate forces into the responding federal JTF, at this point the JTF will assume tactical control. NG forces are typically deployed under Title 10 USC in times of crisis or war; the Joint Director of Military Support serves as the liaison between DoD and Lead Federal Agencies. Parallel command uses both military forces under the command and control of NORTHCOM as well as state Guard forces. This structure typically occurs when there is already an activated state response and NORTHCOM is then activated under the responsibilities of an ESF. Federal and state forces follow different chains of command and authorities. Based on the severity of an incident NORTHCOM will assign an appropriate command structure to fulfill the span of control requirements for the requested response actions; operations at a smaller scale may employ the DCO as the joint force Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 9 commander, at a larger scale a Joint Task Force (JTF) may be deployed. If a JTF is established it must be consistent with operational requirements and NORTHCOM command and control in order to ensure coordinated and unified response. Having a JTF does not replace the requirement for a DCO. The dual-status command structure operates under the full spectrum of homeland security including tasks such as emergency preparation and response, support to civil authorities, critical infrastructure (CI) protection, and homeland defense. Dual-status allows for a single commander to control both federal and state forces simultaneously. The 2004 National Defense Authorization Act amended Title 32 USC to permit NC commanders on Title 32 USC status to be activated under Title 10 USC federal active duty status while still maintaining their state commission. NG forces under Title 32 USC perform missions under the command of the governor. Title 10 USC forces perform DSCA for NORTHCOM. Under Title 10 duty NG forces must respond to the requirements of the DCO; Adjutant Generals of each state and district serve as the contact between the NG and state and local authorities. Dual-status command has many advantages including the preservation of state sovereignty as well as Presidential command and control. Dual-status maintains clear lines of command while allowing for the integration of federal forces in order to achieve operational unity. Additional advantages pertaining to Title 32 authorities include faster response times and increased coordination as well as greater familiarity with local conditions, resources, organizations, and operations due to community based emergency management personnel, first responders, and NG units. Another advantage under dual-status command is that with the Title 10 authorities NG forces can be assigned regionally in order to execute interstate operations. DOD regulatory documents provide guidance establishing policy and responsibilities in legal accordance to the statutes described above. DoD Directive (DoDD) 3025.1, “Use of Military Resources During Peacetime Civil Emergencies within the United States, its Territories, and Possessions” 1993, under the authorities of the Stafford Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq) and Executive Order 12656, Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 10 “Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities” creates a “single system for Military Support to Civil Authorities (MSCA) by which DoD components will plan for and respond to requests from civil government agencies” (DoDD No. 3025.1) during peacetime disasters or national security emergencies. This directive establishes policy regarding DoD DSCA planning including topics such as reiterating NG forces as having primary responsibility for providing military assistance for state and local emergencies when not in active federal service, however NG forces employed in DSCA activites remain under military command. DoDD 3025.1 also requires planning and preparedness measures for DSCA including resource coordination and DoD DSCA staff augmentation. DoDD 3025.15, “Military Support to Civil Authorities”, establishes policy and assigns responsibility for DoD MSCA including DoD response covered under DoDD 3025.1. DoDD 3025.15 designates the authorities of the Secretary of Defense in assigning DoD MSCA as well as established the RFA evaluation criteria as discussed previously. DoDD 3025.18, “Defense Support of Civil Authorities”, incorporates and cancels DoDD's 3025.1 and 3025.15, providing guidance for DSCA execution and oversight. The directive codifies the DSCA; defining the DCSA as “support provided by U.S. Federal military forces, DoD civilians, DoD contract personnel, DoD Component assets, and National Guard forces [when the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Governors of the affected States, elects and requests to use those forces in Title 32, U.S.C., status] in response to requests for assistance from civil authorities for domestic emergencies, law enforcement support, and other domestic activities, or from qualifying entities for special events.” (DoDD No. 3025.18) Other DoD regulatory issuance relevant to homeland defense and DSCA include, but are not limited to, DOD Instruction (DoDI) 6055.17, DoDD 7730.65, DoDD 3020.40, DoDI 3020.45, DoDD 5105.83, and DoDD 5105.77. DoDI 6055.17 “DoD Installation Emergency Management (IEM) Program” 2010, is primarily designed to align DoD DSCA emergency management with NIMS and the NRF. This directive also establishes DoD IEM Program policy and procedures. DoDD 7730.65 Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 11 “Guidance for the Defense Readiness Reporting System (DRRS)” 2011, establishes and assigns responsibility for DoD readiness reporting. The DRRS enables the Reserve chain of command to share readiness information in order to better assess mission readiness as well as better manage relevant preparations and response. DRRS provides capability assessments for NG Title 10 requirements as well as preparedness for Title 32 DSCA authorities. Both DoDD 3020.40 “Defense Critical Infrastructure Program (DCIP)” 2005, and DoDI 3020.45 “DCIP Management” 2008, cover aspects of the DCIP, implementing DoD responsibilities for critical infrastructure (CI) as a federal agency under HSPD-7 as well as assigns risk management responsibilities, such as risk identification and mitigation, for defense CI. DoDD 5105.83 “ National Guard Joint Force Headquarters – State” 2011, “a. Establishes policy for and defines the organization and management, responsibilities and functions, relationships, and authorities of the NG JFHQs-State; b. Establishes 54 NG JFHQs-State.; c. Describes the joint, interagency, and intergovernmental functions, responsibilities, authorities, and relationships among the NG JFHQs-State, the DoD Components, State and Federal civil authorities, and international programs; d. Establishes the Federal mission of the NG JFHQs-State.” (DoDD No. 5105.83) DoDD 5105.77 “National Guard Bureau (NGB)” 2008, updated the National Guard Bureau 2008 charter to better clarify the roles and responsibility of the NGB in regard to coordinating with federal and state agencies in support of military operations, overseas and domestic. Addressing topics such as defining the NG's role in facilitating interstate planning and response for large scale events such as those discussed in the national planning scenarios. This directive also formalizes and updates coordination procedures between the DHS, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense, and NORTHCOM, as well as for the use of new planning tools like the NRF and the Homeland Security Council's national planning scenarios. The Reserve Components (RC), specifically the NG, are the primary resource for DoD homeland defense and DSCA response operations. The defense strategy articulated in the FY 2010 Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 12 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) addresses role that the National Guard and Reserves play in the national defense strategy as well as the size and shape of the Reserve component forces. QDR objectives for the reserve component are described under the “Keeping Faith with the Reserve Component” subtitle focusing on the effective and efficient use of the National Guard and Reserve in an operational capacity. The QDR states that “prevailing in today's wars requires a Reserve Component that can serve in an operational capacity—available, trained, and equipped for predictable routine deployment. Preventing and deterring conflict will likely necessitate the continued use of some elements of the Reserve Component—especially those that possess high-demand skill sets—in an operational capacity well into the future. . . . The challenges facing the United States today and in the future will require us to employ National Guard and Reserve forces as an operational reserve to fulfill requirements for which they are well-suited in the United States and overseas. For example, the National Guard often serves at the forefront of DoD operations.” (2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, 53.) The QDR themes specifically related to the National Guard and Reserve Components include preserving the All-Volunteer Force, being better prepared for foundational activities (ie. wartime operations) as well as civil-support, and recommendations for a comprehensive review of the future role of RC, including an examination of the balance between Active and Reserve forces. DoD Directives 1200.17 “Managing the Reserve Components as an Operational Force”, DoDD 1235.10 - “Activation, Mobilization, and Demobilization of the Ready Reserve”, and DoDI 1235.12 “Accessing the Reserve Components” are designed to provide legal backing, including principles and policies, for the operational reserve (NG and Reserve forces). For example, DoDI 1235.12 mandated that the RC be allocated resources “to fulfill roles and missions as both a strategic and operational force.” (DoDI No. 1235.10) In an interview with PBS NewsHour, National Guard underfunded, not prepared for crises, Ret. Maj. Gen. Arnold Punaro U.S. Marine Corps, chairman of the Commission on the National Guard and Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 13 Reserves contributed his opinion on the trend towards the increase of “operational reserve”. specifically by identifying issues; His major concern was that the NG activated and mobilized under Title 10 lacks equipment overseas, while NG activated under Title 32 for domestic missions lacks personnel in state; he identifies the primary issues as finances.“The National Guard and Reserve Equipment Report (NGRER), mandated in Section 10541, Title 10, United States Code, is a statutory requirement that reflects Congressional interest in ensuring a well equipped and robust RC capability within the armed forces.” (Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, 2011) In the beginning FY 2011 RC equipment shortages were on average 25 percent short of the required finances needed to proper equip RC components. Appendix F provides a chart depicting each RC components' requirements, on-hand, and shortage entries of total equipment values. Resource availability remains a concern for NORTHCOM mission execution. NG authorities provide guidance for the preparation and review of contingency plans for homeland defense and DSCA missions. For example, Title 10 USC requires the Secretary of Defense with consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and approval of the President to provide such guidance “every two years or more frequently as needed and shall include guidance on the specific force levels and specific supporting resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such plans are to be effective.” (10 USC § 113) Other national documents, such as The 2008 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), aim to enhance interagency relationships between DHS, DoD, NORTHCOM, and FEMA in order to improve on the cooperation and coordination with NG forces. “Seeking to continue to strengthen relationships between DHS and DoD, the 2008 NDAA directs the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, to determine what military-unique capabilities DoD provides that are necessary to support civil authorities during national catastrophic incidents. Additionally, the 2008 NDAA (P.L. 110-181) directs DoD to budget for Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 14 additional requirements deemed necessary to conduct civil support missions.” (Knight, 2008) Documents such as these create a way for the DoD to assess the requirements for civil support and homeland defense missions and prioritize budget and resources to best address both missions. Continued guidance to refine and transform defense capabilities to meet national security demands will improve upon DoD readiness for DSCA missions. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 15 References Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Materiel and Facilities). (2011, February). National Guard and Reserve equipment report for fiscal year 2012 (S. Taylor, COL, Ed.). Retrieved from http://ra.defense.gov/documents/publications/NGRERFY2012.pdf Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2008). National Response Framework. Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-core.pdf Federal Research Division, Library of Congress under an Interagency Agreement with the Commission on the National Guard and Reserves. (2007, February). Military Support to Civil Authorities: The role of The Department of Defense in support of homeland defense (A. Buchalter, Author).Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/CNGR_Milit-Support-Civil- Authorities.pdf Gereski, K. (2006). The Department of Defense as lead federal agency. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(3). Retrieved from http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.3.8#fn9 H.R. 5122--109th Congress: John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007. (2006). In www.GovTrack.us. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/109/hr512 H.R., Committee on Armed Services,Title 10, United States Code, Armed Forces, 103rd Cong., Pub.L. 112-283., Stat. 1631 Retrieved from the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov H.R., Committee on Armed Services,Title 32, United States Code, National Guard, 112th Cong., Pub.L. 112-283., Stat. 2492, Retrived from the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov Knight, W. (2008, June). Homeland security: roles and missions for United States Northern Command (Report No. RL34342). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL34342.pdf National Guard Bureau. (2008, July). Joint Force Headquarters-State. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.nationalguard.mil/media/factsheets/JFHQ-State.pdf The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, Sec.15 of Chp. 263, 45th Cong., 2nd Session. (1878). U.S. Department of Defense. (2010, February). Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Retrieved from http://www.defense.gov/qdr/images/QDR_as_of_12Feb10_1000.pdf U.S. Northern Command. (n.d.). About USNORTHCOM. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.northcom.mil/About/index.html Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]). (2011, January 05) National Guard Joint Force Headquarters – State (NG JFHQs-State) (DoD Directive 5105.83) Retrieved from DTIC Online website: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/510583p.pdf Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 16 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]). (2010, December 29) Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA) (DoD Directive 3025.18) Retrieved from DTIC Online website: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/302518p.pdf Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]). (2008, May 21) National Guard Bureau (NGB) (DoD Directive 5105.77) Retrieved from DTIC Online website: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/510577p.pdf Woodruff, J., Punaro, A., MAJ. GEN. USMC, Kulongoski, T., GOV. (D), & Thompson, J., REAR ADM. (Ret.). (2007, March 1). National Guard underfunded, not prepared for crises [Transcript Newsmaker Interview]. Retrieved from PBS NewsHour website: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/ military/jan-june07/military_03-01.html Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 17 Appendix A Appendix B Emergency Support Function #1 - Transportation Annex: DOD responsibilities: Provides military transportation capacity from the U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) or other organizations to move essential resources, including DOT response personnel and associated equipment and supplies that have been requested and approved by the secretary of defense. USTRANSCOM also provides staff to the headquarters ESF #1 function and the regional ESF #1 when requested and upon approval by the secretary of defense. Provides assets to complement temporarily degraded or disrupted DOT/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air navigation services capabilities as requested by DOT/FAA and ESF #1. Emergency Support Function #2 - Communications Annex: DOD responsibilities: •Promptly notifies the communications branch director of all communications requirements, assets available, and assets deployed to the incident area. •Provides resources and capabilities to relief operations after other federal resources and capabilities are exhausted. •The secretary of defense and assistant secretary of defense for homeland defense provide civilian oversight and policy direction for the use of DOD assets in defense support to civil authorities (DSCA). Landolfi, April 2013 H D E n v i r o n m e n t a n d R e s p o n s e D o D R o l e s • C o m b a t O p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n U . S . • S u r g e t o m e e t C r i s i s • P o s t E v e n t M a n a g e m e n t • L o g i s t i c s , S u p p l y , M o b i l i t y • S p e c i a l E v e n t s • S u p p o r t t o L a w e n f o r c e m e n t • T r a i n i n g 1 s t R e s p o n d e r s D o D L e a dD o D S u p p o r t E m e r g e n c y T e m p o r a r y E x t r a o r d i n a r y L o w H i g hL o w H i g h L o w H i g hI m p a c t o n o t h e r D o D M i s s i o n s C o n s e q u e n c e s o f F a i l u r e Likelihood H o m e l a n d D e f e n s eC i v i l S u p p o r t M i s s i o n s S u s t a i n i n g A c t i v i t i e s
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 18 •The joint director of military support serves as the DOD action agent for DSCA. •The defense coordination office/defense coordinating element serves as the DOD interface to FEMA and the federal coordinating officer at JFO and the single point of contact for requesting DOD assistance. Emergency Support Function #3 - Public Works and Engineering Annex: DOD/Navy supervisor of salvage and diving responsibilities: •Provides expertise and conducts/supports specialized salvage/wreck removal operations as part of a coordinated response and restoration strategy. •Exercises and manages regional standing emergency salvage contracts to quickly draw upon the required resources of the commercial salvage industry. •Accesses and coordinates the U.S. Navy's hydrographic survey assets and capabilities. •Coordinates salvage and wreck removal operations when requested. Emergency Support Function #4 - Firefighting Annex: DOD responsibilities: •Assumes full responsibility for firefighting activities on DOD installations. •Supports firefighting operations on nonmilitary lands with personnel, equipment, and supplies under the terms of the current interagency agreement between DOD, USDA, and DOI, including the arrangement of liaisons as required. •USACE: Provides contracting services through ESF #3, Public Works and Engineering to urban and rural firefighting forces to obtain heavy equipment and/or demolition services as needed to suppress incident-related fires. Emergency Support Function #5 - Emergency Management Annex: DOD responsibilities: National security; dam security (USACE); and hydrology, stream flows, and water-level data (USACE). Emergency Support Function #6 - Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing and Human Services Annex: DOD/USACE responsibilities: •Fulfills mass care requirements for ice and water in coordination with ESF #6. •Provides assistance by inspecting mass care shelter sites to ensure suitability and accessibility of facilities to safely shelter victims. •Provides assistance in constructing temporary shelter facilities, including accessible shelters, in the affected area, as required. •Provides temporary housing support, such as temporary structures and expedited repair of damaged homes (to include temporary roofing or other repairs that facilitate reoccupation of minimally damaged structures), as necessary. Emergency Support Function #7 - Logistics Management and Resource Support Annex: DOD responsibilities: When requested by FEMA and approved by DOD, DOD provides subsistence, administrative supplies, petroleum products, engineering and construction materials, personal demand items (water and ice), major end items (mobile units), medical materiel, telecommunications management, and transportation management. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 19 Emergency Support Function #8 - Public Health and Medical Services Annex: DOD responsibilities: •Alerts DOD National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) federal coordinating centers (FCCs) for the Army, Navy, and Air Force and provide specific reporting/regulating instructions to support incident relief efforts. •Alerts DOD NDMS FCCs to activate NDMS patient reception plans in a phased, regional approach and, when appropriate, in a national approach. •At the request of HHS, provides support for the evacuation of patients and medical needs populations to locations where hospital care or outpatient services are available. •Using available DOD transportation resources in coordination with the NDMS Medical Interagency Coordination Group, evacuates and manages victims/patients from the patient collection point in or near the incident site to NDMS patient reception areas. •Provides available logistical support to public health/medical response operations. •Provides available medical personnel for casualty clearing/staging and other missions as needed including aero-medical evacuation and medical treatment. •Mobilizes and deploys available reserve and National Guard medical units, when authorized and necessary to provide support. •Coordinates patient reception, tracking, and management to nearby NDMS hospitals, VA hospitals, and DOD military treatment facilities that are available and can provide appropriate care. •Provides available military medical personnel to assist ESF #8 personnel with protecting public health through the management of food, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, vectors, hygiene, and other environmental conditions. •Provides available veterinary military personnel to assist ESF #8 personnel with the medical treatment of animals. •Provides available DOD medical supplies for distribution to mass care centers and medical care locations for incident victims. Reimbursement is made to DOD. •Provides available emergency medical support to assist state, tribal, or local officials within the disaster area and in the surrounding area. Such services may include triage, medical treatment, mental health support, and the use of surviving DOD medical facilities within or near the incident area. •Provides assistance, as available, in managing human remains, including victim identification, mortuary affairs, and temporary internment of the dead. •Provides evaluation and risk management support through use of defense coordinating officers, emergency preparedness liaison officers, and joint regional medical planners. •Provides available blood products in coordination with HHS. •Provides medical surveillance, laboratory diagnostics, and confirmatory testing in coordination with HHS. •USACE:Through ESF #3, public works and engineering, USACE provides technical assistance, equipment, and supplies as required in support of HHS to accomplish temporary restoration of damaged public utilities affecting public health and medical facilities. In the event of a catastrophic mass fatality incident, USACE assists with the temporary interment of the dead. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 20 Emergency Support Function #9 - Search and Rescue Annex: DOD responsibilities: •DOD/USAF/Air Force rescue coordination center (AFRCC) serves as the primary agency for ESF #9 during SAR operations for aviation-related incidents requiring a coordinated federal response both in open and wilderness areas and in the vicinity of airports and urban areas requiring the coordinated deployment of rescue personnel and equipment. U.S. SAR coordinators are as follows: •DOD/USAF/AFRCC is the SAR coordinator for the U.S. aeronautical search and rescue region corresponding to the contiguous United States. •DOD/U.S. Pacific Command is the SAR coordinator for the U.S. aeronautical SAR corresponding to Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. possessions and territories in the Pacific. •DOD maintains active, National Guard, and reserve components, facilities, and other resources that are used to support their own operations across the contiguous United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. •For incidents in which it is the primary agency, DOD/USAF/AFRCC: •Serves as headquarters-level ESF #9 coordinator during aeronautical SAR operations. •Provides incident reports, assessments, and situation reports. •Provides SAR command and control experts to augment a joint task force joint personnel recovery center in support of incidents requiring a coordinated federal response. •Facilitates resolution of any conflicting demands for aeronautical distress response resources and ensures coordination between DHS/USCG and other federal, state, tribal, and local emergency response activities, as appropriate. •DOD/National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA): •Coordinates and manages the timely tasking, acquisition, analysis, and delivery of satellite imagery or imagery-derived products as directed by the primary agency. Activities and sources may involve non-DOD/NGA facilities or resources. •Provides expert analysis of imagery to determine damage levels and other elements of essential information as needed. Additionally, DOD/NGA, as requested, will provide technical expertise/analysis from other imagery sources if such expertise resides within DOD/NGA. •Provides mobile geospatial intelligence to support SAR field teams or other DHS/FEMA field teams as directed by the primary agency. This support includes technical experts (specifically, imagery analysts and geospatial analysts) and robust communications that can assist in more focused, directed searches and eliminate duplicate search efforts. •Provides imagery-derived and geospatial intelligence analysis in preparation for potential disasters or emergencies. •Coordinates for the release and dissemination of DOD/NGA products and data in accordance with applicable security classifications, licensing, copyright agreements, and limited distribution restrictions. •DOD/USACE: •Provides pre-incident training for DHS/FEMA task force/ incident support team (IST) structures specialists, as well as for DOD/USACE structures specialists. •At the request of DHS, deploys trained structures specialists and technical search specialist teams to supplement urban search and rescue (US&R) task forces and ISTs. •Assists IST engineering cells and task forces with US&R efforts. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 21 •Provides structural engineering analysis, recommends hazard mitigation, recommends shoring, ascertains structural integrity and assesses whether buildings are safe to enter, and provides building stability monitoring. Emergency Support Function #10 - Oil and Hazardous Materials Response Annex: DOD responsibilities: •Provides on-scene coordinators and directs response actions for releases of hazardous materials from DOD vessels, facilities, vehicles, munitions, and weapons. •Provides DSCA in response to requests for assistance during domestic incidents. With the exception of support provided under immediate response authority, DOD resources must obtain the approval of the secretary of defense before responding to requests for assistance. Details regarding DSCA and immediate response authority are provided in the NRF core document. •USACE: provides response and recovery assistance to incidents involving contaminated debris, including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear contamination. The scope of actions may include waste sampling, classification, packaging, transportation, treatment, demolition, and disposal. •The Navy supervisor of salvage,following appropriate statutory authorities, provides technical, operational, and emergency support in the ocean-engineering disciplines of marine salvage, pollution abatement, and diving services. Emergency Support Function #11 - Agriculture and Natural Resources Annex: DOD responsibilities: •Assesses the availability of DOD food supplies and storage facilities capable of storing dry, chilled, and frozen food. •Assesses the availability of DOD transportation equipment, material handling equipment, and personnel for support. This responsibility is confined to the posts, camps, and stations within or adjacent to the affected area. •Assesses the availability of laboratory and diagnostic support, subject-matter expertise, and technical assistance that may be provided. •Assists animal emergency-response organizations or others as requested and appropriate. Provides resources including senior Army Veterinary Corps officers to function as defense veterinary liaison officers and defense veterinary support officers (who serve as the onsite point of contact for DOD veterinary functions) and other military specialists trained in foreign animal disease diagnosis, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, entomology, pathology, and public health. •Provides laboratory support to assist and augment the capabilities of the USDAAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service. •USACE: provides expertise and resources to assist in the removal and disposal of contaminated and noncontaminated debris, to include animal carcasses and debris affecting natural and cultural resources and historic properties resources. Emergency Support Function #12 - Energy Annex: DOD/USACE responsibilities: Coordinates emergency power team missions with power-system restoration activities to establish priorities for emergency generator installation. Emergency Support Function #13 - Public Safety and Security Annex: Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 22 DOD/USACE responsibilities: Provides physical and electronic security systems assistance and expertise. Emergency Support Function #14 - Long-Term Community Recovery Annex: DOD/USACE responsibilities: Provides technical assistance in community planning and expertise in civil engineering and natural hazard risk assessment. Supports the development of national strategies and plans related to permanent and accessible housing, debris management, and the restoration of public facilities and infrastructure. Emergency Support Function #15 - External Affairs Annex: DOD responsibilities: Depending on the nature and scope of the incident, all federal departments and agencies support the NRF and are responsible for providing appropriate support for ESF #15 as required. Retrieved from: http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/docs/11-07/ch_5.asp Appendix C Joint Field Office Organization: Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 23 Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 24 Appendix D National Guard Duty Statuses: Retrieved From: http://dtlweb.au.af.mil///exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZ V9tZWRpYS8yODI3Ng==.pdf Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 25 Appendix E State Command and Control of National Guard Source: National Guard Bureau Briefing, March 30, 2007. Key: Red lines illustrate relative chain of command. Federal Command and Control of National Guard Source: National Guard Bureau Briefing, March 30, 2007. Key: Red lines illustrate relative chain of command. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 26 Parallel Command and Control of National Guard Source: National Guard Bureau Briefing, March 30, 2007. Key: Red lines illustrate relative chain of command. Dual-Status Command and Control of National Guard Source: National Guard Bureau Briefing, March 30, 2007. Key: Red lines illustrate relative chain of command. Landolfi, April 2013
    • DoD, NORTHCOM, NG, DSCA 27 Appendix F Beginning FY 2011 Reserve Component Equipment Shortages Reserve Component Requirements ($) On-hand (S) Shortage ($) Shortage (% of Reqd $$) ARNG S107.022.260,411 S66.277.389,846 540,744.870.565 38.1% AR 25.584.325.312 16.040.527,876 9.543,797,436 37.3% USMCR 5.528.229.631 4.707.362.484 820,867,147 14.8% USNR 10.297.002.798 9.461.719.369 835.283.429 8.1% ANG 44.600.000.000 43.300,000,000 1.300.000,000 2.9% AFR 23.387.360.423 22,427.591,645 959.768,778 4.1% USCGR 34.940.000 30.352.000 4.588.000 13.1% Total $216,454,118,575 $162,244,943,220 $54,209,175,355 25.0% Note: Requirements, on-hand, and shortage entries are total equipment value, excluding substitutes. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Materiel and Facilities). (2011, February). National Guard and Reserve equipment report for fiscal year 2012 (S. Taylor, COL, Ed.). Retrieved from http://ra.defense.gov/documents/publications/NGRERFY2012.pdf Landolfi, April 2013