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  1. 1. Everyday Life Information Behaviors of Tweens Meyers, Fisher and Marcoux
  2. 2. What is a Tween? <ul><li>Child between the ages of 9 and 13; also sometimes referred to as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation Y’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preteens </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Research Informed by: <ul><li>Dervin’s Sense-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Chatman’s Normative Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Fisher’s Information grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Sociologist notion of “Small World” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday happenings occur with some degree of predictability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimized others” share conceptual and physical space and thus shape social norms around information and others behavior </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research Questions Used: <ul><li>RQ 1: What types of everyday information do tweens perceive themselves as needing? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ 2: How do tweens seek everyday information? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ 3: What barriers do tweens encounter in seeking and using information? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ 4: How do tweens Manage Their accumulated everyday information? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research Questions Continued <ul><li>RQ 5: What criteria do tweens use in assessing and sharing information and information sources? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ 6: What roles are played by different social types regarding information flow? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ 7: What are the roles of information grounds in tweens’ lives? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uses Harris and Dewdney’s Six General Principals of Information Needs <ul><li>Arise from the help-seeker’s situation </li></ul><ul><li>Decision to seek help (or not) affected by many factors </li></ul><ul><li>People seek information that is most accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Information seekers expect emotional support </li></ul><ul><li>People follow habitual patterns in seeking information </li></ul>
  7. 7. Method: <ul><li>5 Hour “Play Date” </li></ul><ul><li>Used social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Creative play </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple data collection methods </li></ul>
  8. 8. Procedural Elements of Research <ul><li>Child Protection: (parents provided a schedule and contact info( </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule design: (kids provides healthy snacks, breaks to socialize( </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection: 2 Focus Groups of 4 to 6 teens </li></ul><ul><li>WebQuest: (Tweens designed Web page for other teens, one-on-one with a researcher) </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and Recognition: (tweens provided with gift bags and personalized certificates) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Data Collection Scenario <ul><li>A new kid (focus group participant’s age) moves into the neighborhood. Tweens asked to describe what everyday life would be like for the new tween and what types of things he or she would need to know. </li></ul><ul><li>Then tweens asked to discuss sources they would use to seek information: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Focus Group 1 <ul><li>Tweens indentified the information grounds (social settings) where people go for a particular purpose-activity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Focus Group 2 <ul><li>Expansion of the Grounds discussed in Focus Group 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who else would be present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What one would talk about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What one liked about it </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Systematic Data Analysis <ul><li>Consistent note-taking and use of multiple researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Using multiple, triangulated methods </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing emergent themes with findings from related studies </li></ul><ul><li>Employing intercoder checks </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the data for incidents of observer effect </li></ul>
  13. 13. Major Themes (or First Level Codes ) Emerged and… <ul><li>Were mapped onto the instruments’ questions </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed using iterative pattern-coding techniques (Atlas Ti 5.0) resulting in thematic sets </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly rich questions were further analysis using third-level coding schemes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Findings <ul><li>Were organized by the research questions initially posed. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Everyday Information Tweens Perceive Themselves Needing <ul><li>Concrete, immediate or short-term goals and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: school work, social events and relationships, sports and hobbies, consumer information, fashion and popular culture, neighborhood information, and “stuff” (spontaneous, undirected information-sharing) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to share and receive private or secret information </li></ul><ul><li>Tweens from urban population included: how to deal with bullies, dangeous strangers, drug and alcohol users, and unsafe placed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ways Tweens Seek Everyday Information <ul><li>Interpersonal peer sources most salient </li></ul><ul><li>Information-sharing enhanced by telephone, instant messaging, and email </li></ul><ul><li>Internet used, but accessibility largely varied </li></ul><ul><li>Print sources, TV and Radio, less popular than electronic and interpersonal, however, varied according to socio-economic status </li></ul>
  17. 17. Barriers Tweens Encounter in Seeking and Using Information <ul><li>Concerns for safety: ( parental restrictions on media access, fear of predators) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Mobility: (reliance on parents for transportation) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Authority: (Control or enforcement of parents upon behavior, organization, sharing practices ) </li></ul><ul><li>Oversight Monitoring (trust gap in presence of adult) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to information technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Social costs, perceptions: (embarrassment, loss of esteem) </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Tweens Manage Their Accumulated Everyday Information <ul><li>Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Artifacts and Strategies (homemade calendars, planners, writing on hands, mnemonic devices (ie. Self-generated songs </li></ul><ul><li>Parental involvement (family calendars or parental reminders) </li></ul><ul><li>Only five participants mentioned use of computers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criteria Tweens use in Assessing and Sharing Information and Sources <ul><li>Varying and often naïve criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notions of credibility and trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social costs associated with information sharing (ie. Embarrassment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely heavily on the judgment of peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely less and less on parental judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure information against their personal experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender specific, depending on information being sought </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Roles Played by Different Social Types Regarding Information Flow <ul><li>Tweens displayed a vetting process relying on affective concerns, trust and duration of relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Personal information only shared with “strong ties” </li></ul><ul><li>Logistical information sought only from “weak ties” </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and teachers seen as distinctly different from adults in general </li></ul>
  21. 21. Roles Played by Different Social Types Regarding Information Flow Continued : <ul><li>Two types of answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kid answers: Can be understood by young people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult Answers: perceived by tweens as inappropriate and punitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer Group Status: Good Friends (very trusted), Friends (less trusted) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Roles of Information Grounds <ul><li>“ An information ground is a synergistic “environment temporarily created when people come together for a singular purpose but from whose behavior emerges a social atmosphere that fosters the spontaneous and serendipitous sharing of information” (54. p. 811)” </li></ul><ul><li>Most Common Information Grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Hallway </li></ul><ul><li>Playground </li></ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping Mall </li></ul><ul><li>Athletic Fields </li></ul><ul><li>Community Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concluding Tween Principles <ul><li>Information seeking is a natural and necessary part of tweens’ physical social and intellectual growth </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of information behavior have social and affective nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy is developed and hones in informal settings as well as in tandem to with formal scholastic venues </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, as a blend of cognitive authority and multivariate cost, is a critical determinate of information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Informational social setting provide key opportunities for information exchange, particularly about everyday-life situations </li></ul>