Investment Planning


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Investment Planning

  1. 1. Module 4 Investment PlanningCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  2. 2. This session will help you understand • The importance of investment planning in the financial planning process. • The types of investment products and their risk return characteristics. • How to evaluate investment choices in the light of the client’s financial needs. • Understand what client portfolios- how they are created, monitored and rebalanced based on needs. • How to recommend a investment portfolio. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  3. 3. Purpose of Investments • Investment is nothing but using money to make more money. • It involves sacrifice of something now for the prospects of getting something in future. • To part with money, investors need compensation for: – Time period for which the money Is parted with. – The expected rate of price rise- Inflation – The uncertainty of payments in future. • Investment planning is an important part of overall financial planning.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  4. 4. The Financial Planning process involves 6 steps Establishing and Defining the client- Planner relationship Monitoring the Gathering Client Data & recommendations Goals Implementing the Analysing and Financial plan Evaluating Financial recommendations Status Developing and Presenting Financial Planning Recommendations/ Alternatives Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  5. 5. Financial Planning Steps • Establishing the relationship: – The Financial Planner will describe the services that he is offering. The client and planner to mutually decide on their respective responsibilities.The remuneration is also to be decided upon. • Gathering the data and goals of the client: – The financial planner is to gather information on the client’s financial situation.Both mutually define personal and financial goals, set time frames for results with the planner evaluating the clients appetite for risks. • Analysis and evaluation of clients financial status: – The financial planner will then evaluate the clients financial status, assess the current situation and then decide on what needs to be done to achieve the set goals.This could include analysis of assets, liabilities and cash flows, insurance coverage, investment or tax strategies.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  6. 6. Financial Planning Steps• Developing plan and making recommendations: – The financial planner will then make recommendation to the client based on the goals and objectives of the client. The financial planner should go over the plans with you to help the client understand the risks involved. – The financial planner should revise the recommendations when possible, based on your concerns.• Implementation: – The Financial Planner will then implement the plan on the basis of the consensus arrived at with the client.In some cases, the planner may act as a coach, co-ordinating the whole process with you and other professionals.• Monitoring the financial recommendations: – The Financial planner and the client should agree on who will actually monitor the progress that is being made towards the goal. In case the Financial planner is in charge, he/ she should periodically report to you and make recommendations.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  7. 7. RISK AND RETURNCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  8. 8. Introduction to Risk & Return • Return and risk are two important characteristics of any investment product. • Generally return and risk go hand in hand. • A rational investor likes return and dislike risk, so most of the investment is a tradeoff between risk and return. To part with money, investors require compensation for • The time period for which the resources are committed • The expected rate of price-rise • The uncertainty of the payments in futureCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  9. 9. Type of returns • Total return or Holding period return: The period during which the investment is held by the investor is known as holding period and the return generated on that investment is called as holding period return during that period. • Annualized return (CAGR): It is also known as compounded annual growth rate. The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time. The compound annual growth rate is calculated by taking the nth root of the total percentage growth rate, where n is the number of years in the period being considered.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  10. 10. Measurement of return• Return is reward for undertaking investment. Historical return A) Total return: The total amount of earnings on an investment is "total return". And this is generally broken down into two main components. Current Income – Income received regularly over the course of the investment (dividends, interest or rent) Capital Gains – the increase in the market value of the specific investment vehicle. This return is generally not received or recognized until the asset is sold.• B) Average return: It is a measure of return that gives summary of a series of return .It represents the series with one number. The sum of annual return is divided by the number of years it shows now much on an average investment has grown over a period of time. It is also called as arithmetic mean. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  11. 11. Expected returnThe expected rate of return is the weighed average of all possible returns multipliedby their respective probabilities. n E(R) = ∑Ri Pi i=1 Where, E(R) = Expected return from the stock Ri = Return form the stock under state i Pi = Probability that the state i occurs n = Number of possible states of the world Portfolio return The expected return on a portfolio of securities weighted average of expected return for the individual investment in a portfolio. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  12. 12. How much risk can an investor take? This would depend on the following factors:Risk Tolerance Age Goals Time horizon How much are Younger If you are saving The longer you you prepared to investors can to buy a house or can afford tolose over one year usually afford starting to invest wait, the less risk without giving up to be more for retirement, is involved. Do you will need to not invest in on investment? aggressive invest in growth risky assets if stocks. This you may need means taking on funds in the short more risk term. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  13. 13. Types of Investment Risks Non Systematic/ Interest RateSystematic/ Market Re-investment Non Market Risks Risks Risks RisksThe element of The variability The risk that The possibilityreturn variability in a securitys interest income of a reduction infrom an asset total returns or principal the value of awhich results not related to repayments will security,from overall market have to be especially afluctuations in variability reinvested at bond, resultingthe aggregate lower rates in a from a rise inmarket declining rate interest rates. environment. Such changes generally affect security prices inversely Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  14. 14. Types of Investment Risks Exchange Purchasing Re-investment Interest Rate Political Rate Power Risks Risks Risks Risks RisksThe risk of The risk that The possibility The risk of The risk thatloss in the interest of a reduction loss when a businessvalue of income or in the value of investing in a operationscash due to principal a security, given country or aninflation. repayments especially a caused by investmentsThis is also will have to bond, changes in a value will beknown as be resulting from countrys affected byinflation risk reinvested at a rise in political changes in lower rates interest rates. structure or exchange in a policies rates declining rate environment Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  15. 15. Managing risk• Avoiding Risks: Simply avoid the risk altogether. Don’t invest in the financial market to avoid financial loss. However, some risks are unavoidable.• Controlling Risks: Put in place some control measures for the risks. For example, you can install sprinkler systems in your office to control the risk of loss due to a fire.• Accepting risk: Assume all financial responsibility of a risk. Self Insurance falls under this. For example, An employer can self insure a medical expense benefits plan for his employees by setting aside a sum of money for this.• Transferring Risks: Shifting the financial responsibility for that risk to the other party, generally in exchange for a fee. Purchasing Insurance is the most common method of transferring risk from the individual to the insurance company Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  16. 16. Measurement of risk• Being able to measure and determine the past volatility of a security is important in that it provides some insight into the riskiness of that security as an investment.Historical risk:Variance: Variance is the standard measure of total risk. It measures the dispersion of returns around the expected return. The larger the dispersion, the more risk involved with an individual security. Variance is an absolute number and can be difficult to interpret. The square root of variance is standard deviation.Standard Deviation: Standard Deviation is a measure of variability of returns of an asset as compared with its mean or expected value. It measures total risk. There is a direct relationship between standard deviation and risk. The larger the dispersion around a mean value, the greater the risk and larger the standard deviation for a security. The standard deviation of a portfolio is the not the average of the standard deviations of individual assets. The standard deviation of a portfolio is usually less than the average standard deviation of the stock in the portfolio.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  17. 17. Steps to calculate historical standard deviation • For each observation, take the difference between the individual observation and the average return. • Square the difference. • Sum the squared differences. • For sample SD, divide this sum by one less than the number of observations. For population SD, divide this sum by the total number of observations • Take the square root.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  18. 18. Beta: Beta is a measure of the systematic risk of a security that cannot be avoided through diversification. Beta is a relative measure of risk-the risk of an individual stock relative to the market portfolio of all stocks. If the stock has a beta of 1, the implication is that the stock moves exactly with the market. A beta of 1.2 is 20 percent riskier than the market and 0.8 is 20 percent less risky than the market.Expected Risk:The variance of a probability distribution is the sum of the squares of the deviation .the variance of a probability distribution is the sum of the squares of the deviations of actual returns from the expected return, weighted by the associated probabilities.• σ 2 = ∑ Pi Ri –E (r) 2 Where,E(r) = expected return from the stockRi = return from stock under statePi = probability that the event i occursn = number of possible eventsCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  19. 19. Portfolio risk• Portfolio risk is computed by risk attached with each of the securities in the portfolio i.e. standard deviation or variance as well as the interactive risk between the securities i.e. covariance.• Covariance is a measure of the degree to which two variables move together over time. A positive covariance indicates that variables move in the same direction, and a negative covariance indicates that they move in opposite directions.• Covariance is an absolute number and can be difficult to interpret.• Correlation coefficient (r) is a measure of the relationship of returns between two stocks. Correlation coefficient of (+1) means that returns always move together in the same direction. They are perfectly positively correlated. Correlation coefficient of (-1) means that returns always move in exactly the opposite directions. They are perfectly negatively correlated. A correlation coefficient of zero means that there is no relationship between two stocks returns. They are uncorrelated. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  20. 20. Measuring Risks • Coefficient of determination (R2) gives the variation in one variable explained by another and is an important statistic in investments. • R2 is calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient (r). It is a measure of systematic risk; • I - R2 is defined as unsystematic risk. The beta coefficient reports the volatility of some return relative to the market. • The strength of the relationship is indicated by R2. If R2 equals 0.15, an investor can assume that beta has little meaning because the variation in the return is caused by something other than the movement in the market (unsystematic risk). If R2 equals 0.95, the variation in the market explains 95 percent of the variation in the return (systematic risk-where beta is a good measure of risk).Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  21. 21. Managing Risks • Diversification • Diversification means spreading your money over a number of investments in order to reduce unique risks associated with individual investments • When you invest in the stock market you face both market risk and unique risk. You can mitigate unique risk by taking a diversified approach to investing. • The more stocks you add to your portfolio (your collection of individual investments) the more unique risk you eliminate and the smoother your overall returns become.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  22. 22. Diversification • There are three main practices that can help you ensure the best diversification: – Spread your portfolio among multiple investment vehicles such as cash, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and perhaps even some real estate. – Vary the risk in your securities. Youre not restricted to choosing only blue chip stocks. In fact, it would be wise to pick investments with varied risk levels; this will ensure that large losses are offset by other areas. – Vary your securities by industry. This will minimize the impact of specific risks of certain industries.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  23. 23. Types of DiversificationCompany Balancing potential risk of negative returns from oneDiversification country by investing in other countries that don’t face the same risk.Geographical Spreading your risks by investing in differentDiversification countries or in different regions in a particular country.Manager Using different fund managers with differentDiversification investment styles and philosophies to reduce risks.Asset Putting some of your money in more risky funds andAllocation putting some in less risky, fixed income yielding instruments is called asset allocation.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  24. 24. Managing Risks • Hedging: • Hedging is a strategy to protect oneself from losing by a counterbalancing transaction. It can be used to protect one financially--to buy or sell commodity futures as a protection against loss due to price fluctuation or to minimize the risk of a bet. • Hedging against investment risk means strategically using instruments in the market to offset the risk of any adverse price movements. In other words, investors hedge one investment by making another. Technically, to hedge you would invest in two securities with negative correlationsCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  25. 25. How do investors hedge? • Hedging techniques involve using complicated financial instruments known as derivatives, the two most common of which are options and futures. • Keep in mind that because there are so many different types of options and futures contracts an investor can hedge against nearly anything, whether a stock, commodity price, interest rate, or currency. • Every hedge has a cost, so before you decide to use hedging, you must ask yourself if the benefits received from it justify the expense. Remember, the goal of hedging isnt to make money but to protect from losses.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  26. 26. Relationship between risk and return RISK/RETURN TRADEOFF R E Higher Risk, higher potential return T U R N Low return high risk Risk (Standard Deviation)Low levels of uncertainty (low risk) are associated with low potential returns.High levels of uncertainty (high risk) are associated with high potential returns.The risk/return tradeoff is the balance between the desire for the lowest possiblerisk and the highest possible return. Other factors you will need to consider forinvestments are; how long you want to invest the money for and whether youneed quick access to it at any time during the investment period.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  27. 27. Compounding + =Compounding is the money that money makes, added tothe money that money has already made.And each time money makes money, it becomes capableof making even more money than it could before! Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  28. 28. Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)• CAGR measures a markets annual growth over a period of time (usually several years). This measure is a constant percentage rate at which a market would grow or contract year on year to reach its current value.• CAGR is a formula used to express the rate of growth in sales, earnings, units or some other measure over a number of years.• The CAGR is a more representative measure of annual growth over a number of years.• CAGR = ((Y / X) ^ (1 / N)) - 1 – Where: (“^ " ) denotes "to the power of” – Where: Y is the value in the final year – Where: X is the value in the first year – Where: N is the number of years included in the calculation• CAGR-based forecasts do not show the effects of inflation that would impact the overall dollar value in the future Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  29. 29. Real Returns • The earnings from an investment above the prevailing inflation rate is called the real return on that investment. • The real returns are determined with the help of the following formula: – [{(1 + nominal rate)/ (1+ inflation rate)}-1]*100 • Where the nominal rate is the absolute return and the inflation rate is the rate of inflation for the period.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  30. 30. Risk Adjusted Returns• In determining the various returns earned by a portfolio, a higher return by itself is not necessarily indicative of superior performance. Alternately, a lower return is not indicative of inferior performance.• In order to determine the risk-adjusted returns of investment portfolios, several eminent authors have worked since 1960s to develop composite performance indices to evaluate a portfolio by comparing alternative portfolios within a particular risk class. The most important and widely used measures of performance are: – The Treynor Measure – The Sharpe Measure – Jenson Model – Fama Model Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  31. 31. Measures of Performance• Treynor Measure: Developed by Jack Treynor, this performance measure evaluates funds on the basis of Treynors Index. This Index is a ratio of return generated by the fund over and above risk free rate of return during a given period and systematic risk associated with it (beta).• Symbolically, it can be represented as: – Treynors Index (Ti) = (Ri - Rf)/Bi.• Where, Ri represents return on fund, Rf is risk free rate of return and Bi is beta of the fund.• Sharpe Measure: According to Sharpe, it is the total risk of the fund that the investors are concerned about. So, the model evaluates funds on the basis of reward per unit of total risk.• Symbolically, it can be written as: – Sharpe Index (Si) = (Ri - Rf)/Si• Where, Si is standard deviation of the fund. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  32. 32. Measures of Performance• Jenson Model: developed by Michael Jenson (sometimes referred to as the Differential Return Method) involves evaluation of the returns that the fund has generated vs. the returns actually expected out of the fund given the level of its systematic risk. The surplus between the two returns is called Alpha, which measures the performance of a fund compared with the actual returns over the period.• Required return of a fund at a given level of risk (Bi) can be calculated as: – Ri = Rf + Bi (Rm - Rf)• Where, Rm is average market return during the given period. After calculating it, alpha can be obtained by subtracting required return from the actual return of the fund. Higher alpha represents superior performance of the fund and vice versa. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  33. 33. Measures of Performance• The Fama Model: The Eugene Fama model is an extension of Jenson mode and compares the performance, measured in terms of returns, of a fund with the required return commensurate with the total risk associated with it.• The difference between these two is taken as a measure of the performance of the fund and is called net selectivity.• The net selectivity represents the stock selection skill of the fund manager, as it is the excess return over and above the return required to compensate for the total risk taken by the fund manager. Higher value of which indicates that fund manager has earned returns well above the return commensurate with the level of risk taken by him. – Required return can be calculated as: Ri = Rf + Si/Sm*(Rm - Rf)• Where, Sm is standard deviation of market returns. The net selectivity is then calculated by subtracting this required return from the actual return of the fund. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  34. 34. Post- Tax Returns • The amount of taxes paid will affect an investors total return. Therefore it is important for an investor to understand the impact of taxes on the performance of investment. • There are many different assumptions to use in calculating the impact of taxes on investment returns. The post-tax return is calculated by multiplying the pretax rate by the quantity one minus the marginal tax bracket of the investor.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  35. 35. Holding Period Returns • The amount of taxes paid will affect an investors total return. Therefore it is important for an investor to understand the impact of taxes on the performance of investment. • There are many different assumptions to use in calculating the impact of taxes on investment returns. The post-tax return is calculated by multiplying the pretax rate by the quantity one minus the marginal tax bracket of the investor. • The holding period return (HPR) is the total return and is determined by taking the total return divided by the initial cost of the investment: – HPR= (PI - Po + D)/ Po • Where, PI is the sale price, Po is the purchase price, and D is the dividend paid. • There is a major weakness in using the holding period. It does not consider how long it took to earn the return.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  36. 36. Yield to Maturity (YTM) • The yield to maturity is the internal rate of return of a bond if held to maturity • Internal rate of return is the discounted rate that makes the present value of the cash outflows equal to initial cash inflows such that the net present value is equal to zero. • YTM considers the current interest return and all price appreciation or depreciation. It is also a measure of risk and is the discount rate that equals the present value of all cash flows. From a firm perspective, it is the cost of borrowing by issuing new bonds. From an investor perspective, it is the internal rate of return that is received if the bond is held to maturity. • The yield to maturity can easily be solved using a financial calculator, in the same way as finding the internal rate of return.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  37. 37. Investment Portfolio • A portfolio is a combination of different investment assets mixed and matched for the purpose of achieving an investors goal(s). • Items that are considered a part of your portfolio can include any asset you own--from real items such as art and real estate, to equities, fixed-income instruments, and cash and equivalents. • The Following are the various types of portfolio strategies: – Aggressive Investment Strategy: Search for maximum returns from an investment. Suitable for risk takers and for a longer time horizon. Higher investment in Equities. – Conservative Investment Strategy: Safety of investment is a high priority. Suitable for those who have a low risk appetite and a shorter time horizon. High investments in cash and cash equivalents, and high quality fixed income yielding assets.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  38. 38. Investment Portfolios • Moderately Aggressive investment strategies: These are suitable for people who have a large an average appetite for risk and a longer time horizon. The objective is to balance the amount of risk and return contained within the fund. The portfolio would consist of approximately 50-55% equities, 35-40% bonds, 5-10% cash and equivalents. • You can further break down the above asset classes into subclasses, which also have different risks and potential returns. More advanced investors might also have some of the alternative assets such as options and futures in the mix. As you can see, the number of possible asset allocations is practically unlimited.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  39. 39. Why is important to maintain a portfolio? • Diversification which works on the principle of “Not putting all your eggs in one basket”. • Different securities perform differently at any point in time, so with a mix of asset types, your entire portfolio does not suffer the impact of a decline of any one security. • When your stocks go down, you may still have the stability of the bonds in your portfolio. • If you spread your investments across various types of assets and markets, youll reduce the risk of catastrophic financial losses.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  40. 40. Investment Vehicles Small Savings • Small savings continue to be a favorite investment alternative for a large section of investing population despite the emergence of a number of alternative avenues such as mutual funds and unit-linked insurance plans (ULIPs). • Small savings scheme in India generally include National Savings Scheme (NSC), Public Provident Fund (PPF) and Kisan Vikas Patra (KVP). • All small savings schemes tend to be characterized as the same despite the fact that they vary on parameters including tenure, returns and liquidity. There is much more to these schemes than just the safety and returns.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  41. 41. Small Savings• Public Provident Fund:• It presently offers a return of 8% per annum and has a maturity period of 15 years. Contributions can vary from Rs 500 to Rs 70,000 per annum.• Investment under PPF is not very liquid. Withdrawals are permitted only after the expiry of 5 years from the end of the financial year of the first deposit. Also only a small portion can be withdrawn• Investors are entitled to claim tax-benefits under Section 80 C for deposits made up to Rs 70,000 pa in the PPF account and interest exemptions under Section 10 of the Income Tax Act.• Suitable investment option for investors who have age on their side and for whom liquidity is not a concern.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  42. 42. Small Savings• National Savings Certificate:• NSC is another attractive instrument offering a return of 8% pa. Investors are required to make a single deposit and the interest component is returned along with the principal amount on maturity. NSC has an edge over its peers on account of a relatively lower tenure i.e. 6 years.• Premature encashment of certificate is allowed under specific circumstances only, such as death of the holder(s), forfeiture by the pledgee or under courts order.• Investments in NSC enjoy tax-benefits under Section 80 C of the Income Tax Act. The interest is entitled for exemption under section 80L of the Income Tax Act. An added incentive is that the accrued interest is automatically reinvested, and qualifies for benefit under Section 80 C.• Investors who offer more weightage to tax benefits vis-à-vis other factors like liquidity should consider investing in the NSCCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  43. 43. Small Savings• Kisan Vikas Patra• KVP falls under the category of small saving schemes which dont offer any benefits under the Income Tax Act. The scheme runs over a tenure of 8 years and 7 months (which is a fairly longish horizon) and doubles the amount invested. This makes the return one of the most attractive one amongst its peers.• Investors are permitted to liquidate their investments in KVP any time after 2.5 years from the investment date. However a loss of interest has to be borne. In terms of tenure for withdrawal (2.5 years) it scores far better than the NSC and PPF on this parameter.• Investors whose priority is earning attractive returns while maintaining a reasonable degree of liquidity should consider investing in the KVP. Also KVP will hold appeal for investors in cases where tax benefits are not a priority.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  44. 44. Small Savings• Post office monthly income scheme:• This scheme provides monthly income (at 8% pa) to investors. On competition of 6 years, a 10% bonus on the principal sum is provided.• POMIS offers investors an exit option after 1 year from the investment date.• An exit after 1 year would also entail a loss of 5% of the amount invested. As a result, while the investor would not suffer any loss in interest earnings, but the loss of principal can be a significant one (especially for investors with high investments). Investors have to wait for a 3 year period if they wish to liquidate their holdings without any loss of principal.• The interest on investments as well as bonus received on maturity qualifies for tax benefits under Section 80L of the Income Tax Act.• POMIS is best suited for investors like retirees who are looking for regular returns. The combination of assured returns with tax benefits makes POMIS an attractive proposition.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  45. 45. Small Savings• Post office Time Deposits:• Fixed deposits of varying tenures offered under the domain of small saving schemes. These deposits are available for periods ranging from 1 year to 5 years with the interest rates varying correspondingly. Interest payments are made annually. POTD have emerged as one of the most favoured instruments in recent times.• Investors can exercise the exit option within 6 months without receiving any interest (1-Yr lock-in for exit with interest receipt). However the penalty clause is applicable depending on the interest rates offered by the time deposit. A flat penalty of 2% is deducted from the relevant rate in case of premature withdrawals.• Interest on POTD is eligible for tax benefits under Section 80L of the Income Tax Act.• POTD fit into most portfolios across investor classes.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  46. 46. Small Savings• Senior Citizens Savings Schemes:• The scheme has been reserved for citizens above 60 years of age, albeit citizens above 55 years can invest in the same subject to certain conditions being fulfilled. SCSS offers a return of 9% pa, making it a must have proposition for the target audience. The SCSS in tandem with the POMIS can prove to be a very lucrative option for senior citizens who need regular income without taking on any risk.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  47. 47. Fixed Income Instruments• Securities: – Government Securities (G-Secs): – Government Securities (G-Secs) market comprises almost 95% of the debt market. – Government Security is a sovereign debt issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on behalf of Government of India. These securities are issued to cover the Central Governments annual market borrowing programme to fund the fiscal deficit. The term "Government Security" includes: * Central Government Dated Securities * State Government Securities * Treasury Bills (TBs). – The market borrowing of the Central Government is raised through the issue of dated securities and 364 days TBs either by auction or by floatation of fixed coupon loans. In addition, TBs of 91 days are issued for managing the temporary cash mismatches of the Government. These do not form part of the borrowing programme of the Central Government. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  48. 48. Fixed Income Instruments • Government securities are of 2 types: (a) Dated Securities are generally of fixed maturity and fixed coupon securities usually carrying semi- annual coupon. These are called dated securities because these are identified by their date of maturity and the coupon * They are issued at face value. * Coupon or interest rate is fixed at the time of issuance and remains constant till redemption of the security. * The tenor of the security is also fixed. * Interest /Coupon payment is made on a half yearly basis on its face value. * The security is redeemed at par on its maturity date.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  49. 49. Fixed Income Instruments (b) Zero Coupon Bonds are bonds issued at discount to face value and redeemed at par. The key features of these bonds are: • They are issued at a discount to the face value. * The tenor of the security is fixed. * The securities do no carry any coupon or interest rate. The difference between the issue price and face value is the return on this security. * The security is redeemed at par on its maturity date. – Though the benchmark does not change, the rate of interest may vary according to the change in the benchmark rate till redemption of the security. The tenor of the security is also fixed. * Interest /Coupon payment is made on a half yearly basis on its face value. * The security is redeemed at par on its maturity date.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  50. 50. Fixed Income Instruments (c) Floating Rate Bonds are bonds with variable interest rate with a fixed percentage over a benchmark rate. There may be a cap and a floor rate attached, thereby fixing a maximum and minimum interest rate payable on it. The key features of these securities are: • They are issued at face value. * Coupon or interest rate is fixed as a percentage over a predefined benchmark rate at the time of issuance. The benchmark rate may be TB rate, Bank rate, etc (d) Treasury Bills: There are different types of TBs based on the maturity period and utility of the issuance like, ad-hoc TBs, 3 months, 12 months TBs etc. At present, the TBs in vogue are the 91-days and 364-days TBs.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  51. 51. Fixed Income Instruments • State Government Securities: • State Government Securities are securities/loans issued by the RBI on behalf of various State Governments for financing their developmental needs. • The RBI auctions these securities from time to time. These auctions are of fixed coupon, with pre-announced notified amounts for different States. • The coupon rate and year of maturity identifies the government security. • For Central Government securities and State Government securities the day count is taken as 360 days for a year and 30 days for every completed month. However, for TBs it is 365 days for a year.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  52. 52. Fixed Income Instruments • Yield to maturity (YTM) is the discount rate that equates present value of all the future cash inflows to the cost price of the security and is also called the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The concept of Yield to Maturity assumes that the future cash flows are reinvested at the same rate at which the original investment was made. The price of a security/bond is inversely related to its yield. As the yield increases, the price decreases and if the yield falls there is an increase in the price. • All entities registered in India like Banks, Financial Institutions, Primary Dealers, Companies, Corporate Bodies, Partnership Firms, Institutions, Mutual Funds, Foreign Institutional Investors, State Governments, Provident Funds, Trusts, Nepal Rashtra Bank and even individuals are eligible to purchase Government Securities.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  53. 53. Fixed Income Instruments • Advantages of State Government Securities: • No TDS - Interest income up to Rs.12000/- is exempt under section 80L of Income Tax Act. The additional benefit of Rs.3000/- is also available for interest earned on Government securities • Zero default risk, being a sovereign paper • Regular income in the form of half yearly interest payments • Highly liquid due to active secondary market • Simplified and transparent transactions • Hassle free settlement through Demat / SGL accounts • Easy loans available from Banks • Holding possible in dematerialized formCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  54. 54. Fixed Income Instruments • How to invest in Government Securities: • Investment in Government Securities can either be made in the primary market by participating in the RBI auctions or by purchasing from the secondary market. • RBI has recently introduced the scheme of Non- Competitive Bidding for the benefit of retail investors. Under this scheme non- institutional participants will be allotted securities at the weighted average cutoff rate. • Up to 5% of the issue size is reserved for investors under this scheme. • Investors can invest in a hassle free manner by opening a Demat account. • Investors can contact any Primary Dealer to make an investment in Government Securities.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  55. 55. Fixed Income Instruments • Corporate Bonds: • Corporate bonds are debt obligations, issued by private and public corporations. • They are typically issued in multiples of Rs 1,000. Companies use the funds they raise from selling bonds for a variety of purposes, from building facilities to purchasing equipment to expanding the business. • When you buy a bond, you are lending money to the corporation that issued it. • The corporation promises to return your money, or principal, on a specified maturity date. Until that time, it also pays you a stated rate of interest, usually semiannually. • The interest payments you receive from corporate bonds are taxable. Unlike stocks, bonds do not give you an ownership interest in the issuing corporation. Benefits of Investing in Corporate BondsCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  56. 56. Fixed Income Instruments • Why Corporate Bonds? • Attractive yields: Corporates usually offer higher yields than comparable-maturity government bonds or CDs. This high-yield potential is generally accompanied by higher risks. • Dependable income: People who want steady income from their investments, while preserving their principal, include corporates in their portfolios. • Safety: Corporate bonds are evaluated and assigned a rating based on credit history and ability to repay obligations. The higher the rating, the safer the investment. (See Understanding Credit Risk) • Diversity: Corporate bonds provide the opportunity to choose from a variety of sectors, structures and credit-quality characteristics to meet your investment objectives. • Marketability: If you must sell a bond before maturity, in most instances you can do so easily and quickly because of the size and liquidity of the market.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  57. 57. Fixed Income Instruments • Types of Corporate Bonds: – Short-term notes – Maturities of up to 5 years – Medium-term notes/bonds – Maturities of 5-12 years – Long-term bonds – Maturities greater than 12 yearsCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  58. 58. Fixed Income Instruments • Structure of Corporate Bonds: Another important fact to know about a bond before you buy is its structure. • With traditional debt securities, the investor lends the issuer a specified amount of money for a specified time. In exchange, the investor receives fixed payments of interest on a regular schedule for the life of the bonds, with the full principal returned at maturity. • In recent years, however, the standard, fixed interest rate has been joined by other varieties.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  59. 59. Fixed Income Instruments • Structure of Corporate Bonds: – Fixed-rate Most bonds are still the traditional fixed-rate securities – Floating-rate These are bonds that have variable interest rates that are adjusted periodically according to an index tied to short-term Treasury bills or money markets. While such bonds offer protection against increases in interest rates, their yields are typically lower than those of fixed-rate securities with the same maturity. – Zero-coupon These are bonds that have no periodic interest payments. Instead, they are sold at a deep discount to face value and redeemed for the full face value at maturity.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  60. 60. Fixed Income Instruments • Benefits to a developing economy- In any developing economy, it is imperative that a well developed bond market with a sizable corporate bond segment exists, alongside the banking system, as : – A developed and freely operating corporate bond market may judge the intrinsic worth of investment demands better in view of the disciplinary role of free market forces; – The corporate bond market could exert a competitive pressure on commercial banks in the matter of lending to private business and thus help improve the efficiency of the capital market as a whole; and – The debt market must emerge as a stable source of finance to business when equity markets are volatile.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  61. 61. Deposits1. Bank Deposits: • Bank Savings Accounts: The simplest kind of short term (or cash) investment is a savings account. Returns are low compared to other investments, but returns are guaranteed by the supplier - so your investment wont drop in value in the short term like others might. You can withdraw part or all of your money whenever you want (total liquidity). • Bank fixed term investment : You keep a fixed lumpsum amount of money for a fixed period of time with the bank for a higher rate of interest. Good for short to medium term investment. Returns are high but is not very liquid.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  62. 62. Deposits2. Company Fixed Deposits: • Fixed deposits in companies that earn a fixed rate of return over a period of time are called Company Fixed Deposits. Financial institutions and Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) also accept such deposits. Deposits thus mobilised are governed by the Companies Act under Section 58A. These deposits are unsecured, i.e., if the company defaults, the investor cannot sell the company to recover his capital, thus making them a risky investment option. – NBFCs are small organisations, and have modest fixed and manpower costs. Therefore, they can pass on the benefits to the investor in the form of a higher rate of interest. – NBFCs suffer from a credibility crisis. So be absolutely sure to check the credit rating. AAA rating is the safest.According to latest RBI guidelines, NBFCs and comapnies cannot offer more than 14 per cent interest on public deposits.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  63. 63. Deposits• Investment Objectives: – A Company/NBFC Fixed Deposit provides for faster appreciation in the principal amount than bank fixed deposits and post-office schemes. However, the increase in the interest rate is essentially due to the fact that it entails more risk as compared to banks and post-office schemes. – Company/NBFC Fixed Deposits are suitable for regular income with the option to receive monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, and annual interest income. Moreover, the interest rates offered are higher than banks. – A Company/NBFC Fixed Deposit provides you with limited protection against inflation, with comparatively higher returns than other assured return options. – You can borrow against a Company/NBFC Fixed Deposit from banks, but it depends on the credit rating of the company you have invested in. Moreover, some NBFCs also offer a loan facility on the deposits you maintain with them. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  64. 64. Deposits• Investment Objectives: – Company Fixed Deposits are unsecured instruments, i.e., there are no assets backing them up. Therefore, in case the company/NBFC goes under, chances are that you may not get your principal sum back. It depends on the strength of the company and its ability to pay back your deposit at the time of its maturity. While investing in an NBFC, always remember to first check out its credit rating. Also, beware of NBFCs offering ridiculously high rates of interest. – Income is not at all secured. Some NBFCs have known to default on their interest and principal payments. You must check out the liquidity position and its revenue plan before investing in an NBFC.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  65. 65. Deposits• Investment Objectives: – If the Company/NBFC goes under, there is no assurance of your principal amount. Moreover, there is no guarantee of your receiving the regular-interval income from the company. Inflation and interest rate movements are one of the major factors affecting the decision to invest in a Company/NBFC Fixed Deposit. Also, you must keep the safety considerations and the company/NBFCs credit rating and credibility in mind before investing in one. – Company/NBFC Fixed Deposits are rated by credit rating agencies like CARE, CRISIL and ICRA. A company rated lower by credit rating agency is likely to offer a higher rate of interest and vice-versa. An AAA rating signifies highest safety, and D or FD means the company is in default.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  66. 66. Deposits• Some of the options available are: – Monthly income deposits, where interest is paid every month. – Quarterly income deposits, where interest is paid once every quarter. – Cumulative deposits, where interest is accumulated and paid along with the principal at the time of maturity. – Recurring deposits, similar to the recurring deposits of banks.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  67. 67. Insurance based investments • Three main characteristics of insurance based investments are Income Protection Capital Appreciation and Tax-deferred Savings. • There are two very common kinds of life insurance, these are "Term Life" and "Permanent Life". Term life insurance is usually for a relatively short period of time, whereas a permanent life policy is one that you pay into throughout your entire life. • Most life insurance policies carry relatively small risk because insurance companies are usually stable and are heavily regulated by government • The advantage is Insurance coverage and low risks. • The disadvantage is that your family will not get the full value of the funds in case you live long. Also Cash Value funds can fluctuate, based on market conditions.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  68. 68. Insurance based investments • Annuity: These offer- Capital Appreciation, Tax-Deferred Benefits and a safe investment options. • A series of fixed-amount payments paid at regular intervals over the specified period of the annuity. Most annuities are purchased through an insurance company. • Two types: – Fixed Annuity: the insurance company makes fixed rupee payments to the annuity holder for the term of the contract. This is usually until the annuitant dies. The insurance company guarantees both earnings and principal. – Variable Annuity: at the end of the accumulation stage the insurance company guarantees a minimum payment and the remaining income payments can vary depending on the performance of your annuity investment portfolio.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  69. 69. Insurance based investments • Annuities are advantageous because deferred annuities allow all interest, dividends, and capital gains to appreciate tax free until you decide to annuitize (start receiving payments) and the risk of losing your principal is very low, annuities are considered to be very safe. • However, fixed annuities are susceptible to inflation risk because there is no adjustment for runaway inflation. Variable annuities that invest in stocks or bonds provide some inflation protection and if you pass away early then you will not get back the full value of your investmentCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  70. 70. Insurance based investments • ULIP’s: • Combines insurance protection and a lucrative investment tool. • By selecting from amongst our financial funds, you choose your own investment strategy, which you can change during the course of the policy period depending on the status of the individual financial markets. • You have the option of drawing on some of your savings and the possibility of depositing additional money in the form of extraordinary premiums. • You can choose from our total of six financial funds. In this way you determine the level of risk and potential yields which are most acceptable for you.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  71. 71. Insurance based investments • ULIP’s: • Some of the Advantages are as follows: – You decide whether you are willing to take risks for the possibility of higher returns or if you want secure returns. – There is unparalleled flexibility with ULIPS. – Transparency in the product. – You are allowed to make partial withdrawals- better liquidity. – The sum assured can be altered as per your needs and requirements.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  72. 72. Mutual Funds • A mutual fund is nothing but money pooled in by a large group of people that is professionally managed. • A mutual fund manager proceeds to buy a number of stocks from various markets and industries. Depending on the amount you invest, you own a part of the overall fund. The advantages of mutual funds are as follows: – Professional Management & Convenient Administration. Also well regulated. – Diversification and good return potential. – Low costs and liquidity. – Transparency and flexibility. – Tax Benefits. – Wide choice of schemes.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  73. 73. History of Indian Mutual Fund Industry • First Phase- 1964 to 1987 – UTI was setup by the RBI in 1963. – In 1978 UTI was delinked from RBI – First scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. – By the end of 1988, UTI had Rs. 6700 crores of assets under management. • Second Phase- 1987 to 1993 – Market the entry of public sector in the mutual fund market with LIC, GIC and some Public Sector banks setting up mutual funds. – At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  74. 74. History of Indian Mutual Fund Industry • Third Phase- 1993 to 2003 – Marked the entry of Private sector in the mutual fund market. – Also, 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. – Kothari Pioneer was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993. – The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  75. 75. History of Indian Mutual Fund Industry • Fourth Phase – Since February 2003 – UTI was bifurcated into two separate entities. – One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under management of Rs.29,835 crores as at the end of January 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured return and certain other schemes – The second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. – As at the end of September, 2004, there were 29 funds, which manage assets of Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  76. 76. Growth in assets under managementCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  77. 77. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mutual Funds • Advantages • Disadvantages – Diversification, – Make tax planning professional management difficult. and convenience. – May be somewhat – Funds offer lower costs by difficult to track in terms virtue of their size of what they actually are – Spread many internal investing in. costs over a large – So called non-substantial shareholder base, allowing changes in the way the for economies of scale. funds are managed (such as manager switches) may not be disclosed to investors by fund companies in a timely manner.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  78. 78. Equity Shares • Common stock- these share in the ownership of the company. The share holders are entitled to a share in the profits of the company and voting rights. • Profits are paid in the form of dividends. • History has dictated that common stocks average 11-12% per year and outperform just about every other type of security including bonds and preferred shares. Stocks provide potential for capital appreciation, income, and protection again moderate inflation. • Risks associated with stocks can vary widely, and usually depends on the company. Purchasing stock in a well established and profitable company means there is much less risk youll lose your investment whereas by purchasing a penny stock your risks increase substantially.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  79. 79. Equity Shares • Advantages- – Easy to buy and sell – Very easy to locate reliable information on public companies. – There a thousands of companies to choose from. • Disadvantages- – Your original investment is not guaranteed. – Your stock is only as good as the company you invest in, if you invest in a poor company, you will suffer from poor stock performance.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  80. 80. Equity Shares • Shares- By investing in shares in a public company listed on a stock exchange you get the right to share in the future income and value of that company. • Your return can come in two ways: – Dividends paid out of the profits made by the company. – Capital gains made because youre able at some time to sell your shares for more than you paid. Gains may reflect the fact that the company has grown or improved its performance or that the investment community see that it has improved future prospects.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  81. 81. Direct Investment • You can invest directly in term deposits, bonds, shares and property or you can place your money in a superannuation scheme or managed fund and have full time specialists look after the investment decisions for you. • Direct investment in shares in specific companies or selected rental properties should only be undertaken if you have detailed knowledge or are prepared to pay for specialist advice. • If you want to invest directly in shares or property remember the importance of duration, risk, diversification, returns and liquidity.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  82. 82. Managed Funds • In a managed fund your money is pooled with other investors, and a professional fund manager invests it in a variety of investments • Managed funds come in many forms - different funds invest in different types of assets for different objectives. Some funds target all-out growth and invest more in high risk shares than others - they could rise dramatically or just as easily drop dramatically. • Other funds look for solid long term growth from a range of deposits, bonds, and shares - a better place for a lump sum intended for your retirement. Financial advisors, banks and insurance companies can all advise you on managed funds that match your investment needs. • Managed funds usually involve paying management and administration fees. These can vary a lot, so check to see what youd have to pay.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  83. 83. American Depository Receipt • Introduced to the financial markets in 1927, an American Depository Receipt (ADR) is a stock which trades in the United States but represents a specified number of shares in a foreign corporation. • ADRs are bought and sold on American stock markets just like regular stocks, and are issued/sponsored in the U.S. by a bank or brokerage. • The majority of ADRs range in price between $10 and $100 per share • The main objective of ADRs is to save individual investors money by reducing administration costs and avoiding duty on each transaction.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  84. 84. American Depository Receipt • Analyzing foreign companies involves more than just looking at the fundamentals as there are some different risks to consider such as: – Political Risk - Is the government in the home country of the ADR stable? – Exchange Rate Risk - Is the currency of the home country stable? ADRs track the shares in the home country, therefore if their currency is devalued it trickles down to your ADR and can result be a loss. – Inflationary Risk - This is an extension of the exchange rate risk. Inflation is a big blow to business, the currency of a country with high inflation becomes less and less valuable each day.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  85. 85. Closed End Investment Fund • An investment fund that issues a fixed number of shares in an actively managed portfolio of securities. • The shares are traded in the market just like a stock, but because closed-end funds represent a portfolio of securities they are very similar to a mutual fund. • Unlike a mutual fund, the market price of the shares are determined by supply and demand and not by net asset value. • Closed end funds are usually specialized in their investment focus • There are also "dual purpose" closed-end funds which simply mean that there are two classes of shareholders: preferred shareholders who receive mainly dividends as income, and common shareholders who profit from the capital appreciation of the funds share price.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  86. 86. Closed End Investment Fund • Advantages are: – funds are easy to buy and sell on financial markets, furthermore they are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. – the funds usually invest in hundreds of companies so offer good diversification in certain areas. – if bought in a tax deferred account closed-end funds are a great investment for long term capital appreciation. • Weaknesses are: – fixed interest payments are taxed at the same rate as income. – the price of the closed-end fund is not exclusively linked to the performance of the securities held by the fund. The funds share price depends on supply and demand in the open market.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  87. 87. Zero Coupon Securities • A zero coupon security, or a "stripped bond" is basically a regular coupon paying bond without the coupons. • The process of "stripping" or "zeroing" a bond is usually done by a brokerage or bank. The bank or broker stripping the bonds then registers and trades these zeros as individual securities. • After the bonds are stripped there are two parts, the principal and the coupons. • The interest payments are known as "coupons", and the final payment at maturity is known as the "residual" since it is what is left over after the coupons are stripped off. • Both coupons and residuals are bundled and referred to as zero coupon bonds or "zeros".Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  88. 88. Zero Coupon Securities • Advantages are: – zeros can be bought at huge discounts – once you buy a zero coupon security you essentially lock-in the yield to maturity. • Weaknesses are: – if the company issuing the zero goes bankrupt or defaults then you have everything to lose. Whereas with a regular coupon bond you may have at least gotten some interest payments out of the investment. – interest earned on the zero coupon bond is taxed as income (a higher rate) rather than a capital gain.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  89. 89. Convertible Securities • Convertibles, sometimes called CVs, are referring to either a convertible bond or a preferred stock convertible. A convertible bond is a bond which can be converted into the companys common stock. • Convertibles typically offer a lower yield than a regular bond because there is the option to convert the shares into stock and collect the capital gain. • But, should the company go bankrupt, convertibles are ranked the same as regular bonds so you have a better chance of getting some of your money back.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  90. 90. Convertible Securities • Advantages are: – Your original investment cannot go lower than the market value of the bond, it doesnt matter what the stock price does until you convert into stock. – Convertibles can be purchased through tax-deferred retirement accounts. – CVs gain popularity in times of uncertainty when interest rates are high and stock prices are low. This is the best time to buy a convertible. • Disadvantages are: – the return on the bond or preferred stock is usually quite low. – "forced conversion" means that the company can make you convert your bond into stock at virtually anytime, pay very close attention to the price at which the bonds are callable.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  91. 91. Futures Contract • Futures are contracts on commodities, currencies, and stock market indexes that attempt to predict the value of these securities at some date in the future. • They are a form of very high risk speculation. • A futures contract on a commodity is a commitment to deliver or receive a specific quantity and quality of a commodity during a designated month at a price determined by the futures market. • It is important to know that a very high portion of futures contracts trades never lead to delivery of the underlying asset, most contracts are "closed out" before the delivery date.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  92. 92. Futures Contract • Strengths: – Futures are extremely useful in reducing unwanted risk. – Futures markets are very active, so liquidating your contracts is usually easy. • Weaknesses: – Futures are considered to be one of the most risky investments in the financial markets, this is for professionals only. – Losing your original investment is very easy in volatile markets. – The extremely high amount of leverage can create enormous capital gains and losses, you must be fully aware of any tax consequences.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  93. 93. Treasuries • Also known as a Government Security, treasuries are a debt obligation of a local national government. • Because they are backed by the credit and taxing power of a country they are regarded as having little or no risk of default. • This includes short-term treasury bills, medium-term treasury notes and long-term treasury bonds. • One major advantage of treasuries is that they are exempt from state and municipal taxes, this is especially lucrative in states with high income tax rates. • Strengths: – Treasuries are considered to have almost no risk. – This low risk makes it fairly easy to borrow against the bonds. • Weaknesses: – Rates of return are not that great compared to other debt instruments.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  94. 94. The Money Market • The money market is a fixed income market, similar to the bond market. • The major difference is the money market is a securities market dealing in short-term debt and monetary instruments. • Money market instruments are forms of debt that mature in less than one year and are very liquid. • Money market securities trade in very high denominations, giving the individual investor limited access. • The easiest way for retail investors to gain access is through money market mutual funds or a money market bank account. • These accounts and funds pool together the assets of thousands of investors and buy money market securities.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  95. 95. The Money Market • Money market funds are low risk investments because they invest in short term government treasuries like T-bills and highly regarded corporations. • The one downside with money market funds is that they are not covered by the same federal securities insurance that bank accounts are, although some funds pursue insurance through private companies. • Advantages- gains on money market funds are usually tax exempt as they invest in G- Secs ,any dividends are taxable. Good Low risks investments used as defensive investments when the stock markets are declining. • Disadvantages- offer lower returns than equities/ bonds. Some securities can be very expensive and difficult to purchase.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  96. 96. Options • Options are a privilege sold by one party to another that offers the buyer the right to buy (call) or sell (put) a security at an agreed-upon price during a certain period of time or on a specific date. • A call gives the holder the right to buy an asset (usually stocks) at a certain price within a specific period of time. Buyers of calls hope that the stock will increase substantially before the option expires, so that they can then buy and quickly resell the amount of stock specified in the contract, or merely be paid the difference in the stock price, when they go to exercise the option. • A put gives the holder the right to sell an asset (usually stocks) at a certain price within a specific period of time • Buyers of puts are betting that the price of the stock will fall before the option expires, thus enabling them to sell it at a price higher than its current market value and reap an instant profit.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  97. 97. Options • Speculators simply buy an option because they think the stock will either go up or down over the next little while. Hedgers use options strategies such as a "covered call" that allows them to reduce their risk and essentially lock-in the current market price of a security. Using options (and futures) is popular with institutional investors because it allows them to control the amount of risk they are exposed to. • Advantages- Allows you to drastically increase your leverage in stock. Options in shares will actually cost you lesser than purchasing shares. Can be used as a useful hedging tool. • Disadvantages- Highly complex, requires a close watch, high risk tolerance and in- depth information of the stock market. You may lose a lot of moneyCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  98. 98. Preferred Stock • Represents ownership in a company but usually don’t have voting rights. • Usually get a fixed dividend, throughout and enjoy better position in case of liquidation of the company. • Preferred stock may also be callable, meaning that the company has the option to purchase the shares from shareholders at anytime, and usually for a premium. • The major objective of a preferred stock is to provide a much higher dividend. These are not as volatile or risky as common stock. • Advantages- Higher dividend, lesser risk, better benefits in case of liquidation. • Disadvantages- Higher dividend means higher taxes. Also the returns offered are the same as corporate bonds, which are less risky.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  99. 99. Derivatives • These are financial instruments that “derive” their value from the underlying, which can be a commodity, a stock or stock index or even a complex parameter like the interest rate. • It has no independent value. • Include forwards, futures or option contract of predetermined fixed duration, linked for the purpose of contract fulfillment to the value of specified contracts underlying. • Derivative markets can be classified into commodity and financial derivative markets, which each have various sub- branches.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  100. 100. Derivatives Futures- • “Forwards” trading in commodities emerged the commodity “Futures”. • The development of futures trading is an advancement over forward trading • Futures trading represent a more efficient way of hedging risk. • A Futures contract just like a forward agreement to buy or sell an asset at a certain future time for a certain price. However, unlike a Forward, Futures are traded on the exchange.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  101. 101. Forwards V/S Futures Feature Forward contracts Futures contracts Operational Traded directly between two parties Traded on the exchange mechanism and not the exchanges Contract Differ from trade to trade. Standardised specifications Flexibility to structure the contract price, quantity, quality (in case of Flexibility commodities), delivery time and place of delivery Assumed by the clearing house, which becomes the counter-party to Counter-party risk Exists all the trades or unconditionally guarantees their settlement. Low, as contracts are tailor made High, as contracts are standardized Liquidity contracts. exchange traded contracts. Low liquidity hampers price High liquidity enables price Price discovery discovery discovery Index, Stock and Commodity Examples Currency market in India FuturesCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  102. 102. Terminologies• Spot price: The price at which an asset • Forwards: A forward contract is a trades in the cash market. customized contract between two entities,• Futures price: The price at which the futures where settlement takes place on a specific contract trades in the futures market. date in the future at today’s pre-agreed price.• Contract maturity: The period over which a • Futures: A futures contract is an agreement contract trades. The maturity is 1, 2, 3 months between two parties to buy or sell an asset at in India. a certain time in the future at a certain price.• Expiry date: The last trading day of the Futures contracts are special types of contract. forward contracts which are standardized exchange-traded contracts.• Contract size: The notional value of the • Options: Options are of two types - calls and contract worked out as Futures Price puts. Calls give the buyer the right but not the multiplied by the volume of units. obligation to buy a given quantity of the• Basis: Spot Price - Futures Price. Basis underlying asset, at a given price on or should theoretically be negative. before a given future date. Puts give the• Cost of carry: Though the term originated buyer the right, but not the obligation to sell a from Commodity Futures for financial futures it given quantity of the underlying asset at a reflects the relationship between futures and given price on or before a given date. spot. It can be summarized in terms of an • Warrants: Options generally have life of upto interest cost the futures buyer is paying over one year, the majority of options traded on the spot price today. options exchanges having a maximum• Initial margin: Upfront amount that must be maturity of nine months. Longer-dated deposited in the margin account prior to options are called warrants and are generally trading. traded over-the-counter.• Marking-to-market: The process of • LEAPS: The acronym LEAPS means Long - Revaluing each investors positions generally Term Equity Anticipation Securities. These at the end of each trading day and computing are options having a maturity of upto three the profit or loss on the positions accordingly. years. LEAPS are not currently available in India. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  103. 103. Terminologies• Baskets: Basket options are options on portfolios of underlying assets. The underlying asset is usually a moving average or a basket of assets. Equity index options are a form of basket options.• Swaps: Swaps are private agreements between two parties to exchange cash flows in the future according to a prearranged formula. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward contracts. The two commonly used swaps are interest rate swaps: These entail swapping only the interest related cash flows between the parties in the same currency. Currency swaps: These entail swapping both principal and interest between the parties with the cashflows in one direction being in a different currency than those in the opposite direction.• Swaption: Swaption are options to buy or sell a swap that will become operative at the expiry of the options. Thus a Swaption is an option on a forward swap. Rather than have calls and puts, the Swaption market has receiver Swaption and payer Swaption. A receiver Swaption is an option to receive fixed and pay floating interest. A payer Swaption is an option to pay fixed and receives floating interest.. Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  104. 104. Option • Option is a security that represents the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a specified amount of an underlying security (stock, bond, futures contract, etc.) at a specified price within a specified time. • Option Holder is the buyer of either a call or put option. Option Writer is the seller of either a call or put option. • Options unlike futures are also concerned with speed of the trend and not just the underlying trend. They are more complex. • Directional strategies can be implemented using Options • Options can be categorized as call and put options. The option, which gives the buyer a right to buy the underlying asset, is called Call option and the option, which gives the buyer a right to sell the underlying asset, is called Put option.Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  105. 105. Four Basic Positions• Calls: A call represents the right, but not the obligation, to buy an underlying instrument at a fixed price (E), within a fixed period of time (T). A simple way to understand options is to observe the cash flows for the option considered i.e. what is an inflow and whats an outflow. Now in the following case, a long call option, strike and premium is what goes out (a cash outflow) and spot price i.e. the price of the underlying comes in (a cash inflow).For the Buyer (Long)Risk Limited to premium (P) paidReward UnlimitedBreakeven Price Exercise price (E) + Premium (P)Profit or Loss (P/L) Intrinsic Value (I) - Premium (P)at expirationIntrinsic Value Spot price (S) - Exercise price (E) Long Call Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  106. 106. Four Basic PositionsFor the Seller (Short) Limited by zero to Ex. priceRisk (E) - Premium (P) Limited to the premium (P)Reward received Exercise price (E) - PremiumBreakeven Price (P) Short CallProfit or Loss (P/L0 at Premium (P) - Intrinsic Valueexpiration (I)Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  107. 107. Four Basic PositionsFor the Buyer (Long) Limited to premium (P)Risk Paid Limited by zero to Ex.Reward price (E) - Premium (P) Exercise price (E) -Breakeven Price Premium (P) Long PutProfit or Loss (P/L0 at Intrinsic Value (I) - expiration Premium (P)Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  108. 108. Four Basic PositionsFor the Seller (Short) Limited by zero to Ex.Risk price (E) - Premium (P) Limited to premium (P)Reward received Exercise price (E) - Short CallBreakeven Price Premium (P)Profit or Loss (P/L0 Premium (P) - Intrinsicat expiration Value (I)Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  109. 109. Options Options Options are deferred settlement contracts Settlement i.e. delivery and payment takes place in the future Give the buyer the right and no obligation Give the seller the obligation and no right To buy or sell (call or put options). A specific asset (called underlying and outrightly defined). At a specific price (strike or exercise price). On/on or before a specific date (European/American options).Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  110. 110. Components of Option Value Options Premium = Intrinsic value + Time Value• Intrinsic value is the value which you can get back if you exercise the option.. – For calls, it is stock price – exercise price. – For puts, it is exercise price – stock price.• Time Value = The price (premium) of an option less its intrinsic value. Time value is made up of two components: insurance value and interest value.• Insurance value is the premium component of time value based on the probability of the underlying reaching the exercise price. Interest value is the interest component of time value based on the carrying cost of the underlying. Interest value can be positive (calls) or negative (puts). Option premium (price) = Intrinsic value + Time value = Intrinsic value + (Insurance value + Interest Value) Certified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
  111. 111. Intrinsic value versus time value for a call optionCertified Financial Planner Module 4: Investment Planning
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