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Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
Training adaptations
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Training adaptations

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  • 1. Physiological Responses to Exercise
    There are physiological changes that occur to your body in response to the demands of exercise.
    Acute effects are those responses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period.
    Chronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur.
  • 2. Acute responces of exercise on the body (Immediate)
    Increased Heart Rate
    Increased Respiration Rate
    Increased Stroke Volume
    Increased Cardiac Output-Q
    Increased VO2
    Increased Tidal Volume
    Increased Systolic Blood Pressure
    Increased Blood to working muscles
  • 3. Increased Heart Rate
    When you exercise your heart rate (beats per minute) goes up to increase the supply of oxygen to your working muscles.
  • 4. Increased Respiration Rate
    Respiratory rate is the number of breaths taken in one minute. During exercise amounts of carbon dioxide increases as it is a waste product and the respiratory rate goes up to increase oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide.
  • 5. Increased Stroke Volume
    Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of your left ventricle with each beat of the heart. This goes up to increase oxygen supply to working muscles.
  • 6. Increased Cardiac Output-Q
    Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in 1 minute.
    Q=stroke volume x heart rate.
    Q=SV x HR
  • 7. Increased VO2
    Oxygen uptake (VO2) is the amount of oxygen that is taken up and used by the body to produce energy.
  • 8. Increased Tidal Volume
    Tidal volume is the size of each breath and this increases with exercise as the body tries to increase oxygen flow to the blood.
  • 9. Increased Systolic Blood Pressure
    Systolic blood pressure is the pressure as the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. Diastolic is the pressure in the arteries. Only the systolic pressure increases during exercise.
  • 10. Increased Blood to working muscles
    Due to increased need for O2 during exercise blood is distributed more where it is required in working muscles.
  • 11. Fitness
    Generally:
    “Fitness is a measure of the body’s ability to complete activities necessary for everyday life effectively and efficiently” (Hodgson, 2001)
    In the Sporting Context:
    “ … is a person’s physiological capability to perform a specific physical task or set of tasks”(Sherriff, 2001)
  • 12. Who is fit?
  • 13. Who is fit?
  • 14. Who is fit?
  • 15. Adaptation
    Physiological gain will occur only with regular exercise
    Adaptation depends on challenging the physical capability beyond a minimum threshold level (Overload)
  • 16. Physiological effects to Exercise
    There are physiological changes that occur to your body in response to the demands of exercise.
    Acute effects are those responses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period.
    Chronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur.
  • 17. Chronic effects of exercise on the body - Adaptations
    Increased O2 carrying capacity of blood
    Increased blood supply as increased capillaries
    Increased number of blood vessels
    Lungs can take in and distribute more O2
    Increased heart size (Cardiac hypertrophy)
    Decreased resting heart rate
    Increased Stroke volume at rest
    More glycogen stored in muscle
    Increased muscle size and strength
  • 18. Increased O2 carrying capacity of blood
    This is due to the increase in plasma, haemoglobin as well as increases in blood vessels etc…and overall greater efficiency.
  • 19. Increased number of blood vessels
    Efficiency is also improved as the number of blood vessels is increased. Particularly the capillaries where gaseous exchange takes place.
  • 20. Lungs can take in and distribute more O2
    Increased VO2 Max. This occurs due to increased tidal volume as well as improved ability to attract O2 from the alveoli onto the red blood cells.
  • 21. Increased heart size (Cardiac hypertrophy)
    The size of the heart increases. For endurance the chambers get larger (particularly the left ventricle) and for non endurance the thickness of the ventricle walls increases.
  • 22. Decreased resting heart rate
    Your resting heart rate decreases with fitness due to greater efficiency of systems.
  • 23. Increased Stroke (SV) Volume at rest
    The heart develops larger chambers and/or thicker walls and improved efficiency. Therefore the stroke volume increases and this relates to the decrease in resting heart rate.
    Increased Cardiac Output (Q)
    Q = SV x HR
  • 24. More glycogen stored in muscle
    Greater amounts of fuel are stored for use in endurance events. (For non-endurance ATP and CP stores are increased.
  • 25. Increased muscle size and strength
    In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, in endurance athletes, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments.

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