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Medsurg.Integ.Mamche Medsurg.Integ.Mamche Presentation Transcript

  • MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING Integumentary System
  • Guessing Game WHO IS THIS ACTOR?
  • Skin Lesions
    • A skin lesion is a superficial growth or patch of the skin that does not resemble the area surrounding it
    • Skin lesions can be grouped into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary skin lesions are variations in color or texture that may be present at birth, such as moles or birthmarks, or that may be acquired during a person's lifetime, such as those associated with infectious diseases (e.g. warts, acne, or psoriasis), allergic reactions (e.g. hives or contact dermatitis), or environmental agents (e.g. sunburn, pressure, or temperature extremes). Secondary skin lesions are those changes in the skin that result from primary skin lesions, either as a natural progression or as a result of a person manipulating (e.g. scratching or picking at) a primary lesion.
  • Different Skin Lesions
  • Guessing Game JOHN CUSACK Pustule. A raised lesion filled with pus. A pustule is usually the result of an infection, such as acne, impetigo, or boils. Papule. A solid, raised lesion less than ⅖ in (1 cm) across. A patch of closely grouped papules more than ⅖ in (1 cm) across is called a plaque . Papules and plaques can be rough in texture and red, pink, or brown in color.
    • Macule . A small, circular, flat spot less than ⅖ in (1 cm) in diameter. The color of a macule is not the same as that of nearby skin. Macules come in a variety of shapes and are usually brown, white, or red. Examples of macules include freckles and flat moles. A macule more than ⅖ in (1 cm) in diameter is called a patch .
    • Vesicle . A raised lesion less than ⅕ in (5 mm) across and filled with a clear fluid. Vesicles that are more than ⅕ in (5 mm) across are called bullae or blisters. These lesions may may be the result of sunburns, insect bites, chemical irritation, or certain viral infections, such as herpes.
    Different Skin Lesions
  • Guessing Game
  • Different Skin Lesions
    • Nodule. A solid lesion that has distinct edges and that is usually more deeply rooted than a papule. Doctors often describe a nodule as "palpable," meaning that, when examined by touch, it can be felt as a hard mass distinct from the tissue surrounding it. A nodule more than 2 cm in diameter is called a tumor. Nodules are associated with, among other conditions, keratinous cysts, lipomas, fibromas, and some types of lymphomas.
    • Wheal. A skin elevation caused by swelling that can be itchy and usually disappears soon after erupting. Wheals are generally associated with an allergic reaction, such as to a drug or an insect bite.
    • Telangiectasia. Small, dilated blood vessels that appear close to the surface of the skin. Telangiectasia is often a symptom of such diseases as rosacea or scleroderma.
  • Secondary Skin Lesions
    • Ulcer. Lesion that involves loss of the upper portion of the skin (epidermis) and part of the lower portion (dermis). Ulcers can result from acute conditions such as bacterial infection or trauma, or from more chronic conditions, such as scleroderma or disorders involving peripheral veins and arteries. An ulcer that appears as a deep crack that extends to the dermis is called a fissure.
    • Scale. A dry, horny build-up of dead skin cells that often flakes off the surface of the skin. Diseases that promote scale include fungal infections, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.
  • Secondary Skin Lesions
    • Crust. A dried collection of blood, serum, or pus. Also called a scab, a crust is often part of the normal healing process of many infectious lesions.
    • Erosion. Lesion that involves loss of the epidermis.
    • Excoriation. A hollow, crusted area caused by scratching or picking at a primary lesion.
    • Scar. Discolored, fibrous tissue that permanently replaces normal skin after destruction of the dermis. A very thick and raised scar is called a keloid.
    • Lichenification. Rough, thick epidermis with exaggerated skin lines. This is often a characteristic of scratch dermatitis and atopic dermatitis.
    • Atrophy. An area of skin that has become very thin and wrinkled. Normally seen in older individuals and people who are using very strong topical corticosteroid medication
  • Skin Diseases Anywhere and can be sprinked randomly Red and/or itchy bumps on your skin Insect bite Around a cut, scrape or skin breach Red, tender and swollen areas of skin Cellulitis Anywhere Painful red bump or a cluster of painful red bumps Boil Around cheeks, chin, forehead or nose Flushed appearance or Redness Rosacea Face, Chest or Back Covered in small pus-filled sacs, blackheads, pimples or sore red bumps Acne Usual Area of Body Symptoms Skin Disease
  • Guessing Game
  • Skin Diseases Eyebrows, nose, edge of the scalp, point of contact with jewellery, perfume or clothing. Red, itchy, scaly or oily rash Irritant contact dermatitis Cover the head of a child Dry, scaly skin Cradle Cap Near glands Bumps and swelling Seborrheic dermatitis Anywhere but usually first noticed on face Bumps formed suddenly Hives Anywhere Irregular, raised or flat red sores that appeared after taking medicine/drugs or eating certain foods Allergic Reaction Usual Area of Body Symptoms Skin Disease
  • Anywhere Red, blotchy rash, with "target like" hives or sores. Erythema multiforme Elbows and knees White, Scaly rash over red, irritated skin Psoriasis Anywhere Large red bumps that seem to bruise and are tender to touch Erythema nodosum Elbows, knees, back or buttocks Intensely itchy rash with red bumps and blisters Dermatitis herpetiformis Chest and Abdomen Started with a single scaly, red and slightly itchy spot, and within a few days, did large numbers of smaller patches of the rash, some red and/or others tan Pityriasis Rosea Anywhere Small red dots on your skin, or larger, bruise-like spots that appeared after taking medicine Allergic purpura Anywhere that came in contact with the irritant either directly or via transfer (eg. from contaminated clothing.) Red, itchy, scaly or oily rash; can also be weeping or leathery. Allergic Contact Dermatitis caused by poison ivy , oak or sumac
  • Groin Red itchy rash Jock Itch , Yeast Infection or Diaper rash Palms of hands or soles of feet Rash that is red but not itchy Syphilis Anywhere Bald spot on your scalp or a ring of itchy red skin Ringworm Anywhere Soft bumps forming that don't itch and have no other symptoms Warts Cheeks Started as a fever and then developed a bright red rash Fifth Disease Anywhere Red Blisters that are very painful and may crust Shingles Usually starts first on the face, chest and back and spreads downward. Multiple blisters with a fever, cough, aches, tiredness and sore throat. Chickenpox Usually starts first on the forehead and face and spreads downward. Red Rash that is raised with a fever or sore throat. Measles
  • Skin, whites of eyes and mouth Yellowish Jaundice or sign of Hepatitis Forehead and cheeks A butterfly rash with achy joints Lupus Erythematosus Usually start on arms and legs including the hands and feet A fine rash with a fever and headache Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Usually start on hands or feet and spread everywhere Bite-like sores that itch and spread intensely Scabies Near nose or lip Crusted, tan-colored sores Impetigo Anywhere Light coloured patches Tinea versicolor
  • on the face of a baby Lots of white spots Milia Anywhere Soft or rubbery growth Lipoma Anywhere Scar that has grown larger than expected Keloid or Hypertrophic scar Face, scalp or on the backs or your hands Scaly, pink, gray or tan patches or bumps Actinic keratoses Anywhere Blue or black area after being hit Bruise