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Scientific method and si units
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Scientific method and si units

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  • 1. Scientific Method
  • 2. Scientific Method
    Systematic approach used in scientific studies
    A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing a hypothesis, and formulating theories that are supported by data
  • 3. Steps of the Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Problem Statement
    • Hypothesis Statement
    • Experiment / Data Collection
    • Conclusion Statement
  • 4. Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 5. Types of Observation
    Qualitative Data and observations (QL)
    Color, shape, odor, or other physical characteristics
    Quantitative Data and observations (QN)
    Numerical information such as temperature, pressure, volume, the quantity of a chemical formed
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. (PS)
  • 10. Variable
    What does variable mean?
    To change…
  • 11. Variables
    Independent Variable (IV)
    aka manipulated variable
    Only ONE!!!
    The one the INDividual (YOU) physically change/manipulate
    Dependent Variable (DV)
    aka the responding variable
    Only ONE!!!
    The one that changes (or you hope will change) when you change the IV
    The one you are collecting data about/measuring
    Constant Variables
    MANY of these
    All the things you want to keep the SAME (do NOT change)
  • 12. Variables
    You should be able to identify the IV and DV from your PS!!!!
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Formula:
    If…(state what will be done to the IV), then…(state what is predicted to happen to the DV)
  • 16. CLASS WORKName That Variable!Control (1):Constants(2) :Independent (1): Dependent (1):Hypotheses (1):
    1. An experiment that tests how quickly different temperatures will dissolve sugar cubes.
    2. An experiment that explores how different colors of light impact plant growth.
    3. How does the temperature of a chemical reaction change over time?
  • 17. Experiment
    a planned way to test a hypothesis and find out the answer to the problem statement.
    a way to collect data and determine the value of the DV.
    compares the IV to the DV.
    can only test one DV at a time and change one IV at a time
  • 18. Experiment
    Variables
    Materials and Procedures
    Data and Results Section
    Include observations (QL and QN)
    Pictures/tables/graphs/calculations
  • 19. Why Do We Use Graphs?
    Graphs help us visualize numerical data.
    •There are several different types of graphs:
    Bargraphs: compare multiple objects
    Piegraphs: shows relationships of parts to a whole
    Linegraphs: show the relationship between 2 variable
  • 20. Types of Relationships (between variables)
    Direct: as x increases y increases
    Indirect: as x increases y decreases
    Constant: as x increases y remains the same
  • 21. Conclusion Statement
    Do NOT use 1st person
    Me, my, I, we, our, etc…
    VERY Objective
    a summarization that presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, and states if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated)
    Restate PS
    Restate HYP
    Summarize M&P
    Analyze and explain data/results (tables, observations, pictures)
    State whether HYP was correct or not and EXPLAIN why
    Explain possible errors
    Explain ways to improve experiment/research
    Explain APPLICATION to biology and society
  • 22. After we accept a hypothesis, experiment, and draw a conclusion…
    Many conclusions that support each other make up a THEORY
    Explanation supported by many, many conclusions
    Many conclusions that support each other over a period of time
    Atomic Theory
    Theory of Relativity
    CAN be DISPROVEN
    “The world is flat”
    SCIENTIFIC LAW
    A relationship in nature that is supported by many, many experiments
    No exceptions
    Law of Gravity
  • 23. SI Units
    In science, we need to speak the same language
    1795
    French scientists develop metric system
    1960
    International committee meets to update the system and names it the “Systeme Internationale d’Unites” aka SI
  • 24.
  • 25. SI Base Units
    Seven SI base units
    Base unit
    A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world
  • 26. SI Derived Units
    Not all quantities can be measured with base units
    More than one base unit can be used
    Speed limit is measure in….
    MPH
    Miles per hour
    Which is a combo of what base units?
    Length and time
  • 27. Derived Units
  • 28. Common derived units we will use
    Speed
    Base unit of length and base unit of time
    Meters/second
    Volume
    3 base units of length
    Length x length x length
    1 dm3 = 1 L
    Density
    Mass/volume
    Ratio that compares mass of an object to its volume
    g/cm3 or g/mL
  • 29. Class Work!
    Suppose a sample of aluminum is placed in a 25 mL- graduated cylinder containing 10.5 mL of water. The level of water rises 13.5 mL. Mass is 25 g. What is the density of the aluminum sample?
    What is the volume of a sample that has a mass of 150 g and a density of 5 g/mL?
  • 30. Prefixes Used with SI units
  • 31.
  • 32. Kids Hate Doing Math Dittos Christmas Morning
    King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk
  • 33. Temperature
    SI unit?
    Kelvin
    Our thermometers measure Celsius
    To convert from Celsius to Kelvin
    0o C + 273 = 273 K
    To convert from Kelvin to Celsius
    373 K - 273 = 100o C