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# Scientific method and si units

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• 1. Scientific Method
• 2. Scientific Method
Systematic approach used in scientific studies
A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing a hypothesis, and formulating theories that are supported by data
• 3. Steps of the Scientific Method
• Observation
• Problem Statement
• Hypothesis Statement
• Experiment / Data Collection
• Conclusion Statement
• 4. Steps of the Scientific Method
• 5. Types of Observation
Qualitative Data and observations (QL)
Color, shape, odor, or other physical characteristics
Quantitative Data and observations (QN)
Numerical information such as temperature, pressure, volume, the quantity of a chemical formed
• 6.
• 7.
• 8.
• 9. (PS)
• 10. Variable
What does variable mean?
To change…
• 11. Variables
Independent Variable (IV)
aka manipulated variable
Only ONE!!!
The one the INDividual (YOU) physically change/manipulate
Dependent Variable (DV)
aka the responding variable
Only ONE!!!
The one that changes (or you hope will change) when you change the IV
The one you are collecting data about/measuring
Constant Variables
MANY of these
All the things you want to keep the SAME (do NOT change)
• 12. Variables
You should be able to identify the IV and DV from your PS!!!!
• 13.
• 14.
• 15. Formula:
If…(state what will be done to the IV), then…(state what is predicted to happen to the DV)
• 16. CLASS WORKName That Variable!Control (1):Constants(2) :Independent (1): Dependent (1):Hypotheses (1):
1. An experiment that tests how quickly different temperatures will dissolve sugar cubes.
2. An experiment that explores how different colors of light impact plant growth.
3. How does the temperature of a chemical reaction change over time?
• 17. Experiment
a planned way to test a hypothesis and find out the answer to the problem statement.
a way to collect data and determine the value of the DV.
compares the IV to the DV.
can only test one DV at a time and change one IV at a time
• 18. Experiment
Variables
Materials and Procedures
Data and Results Section
Include observations (QL and QN)
Pictures/tables/graphs/calculations
• 19. Why Do We Use Graphs?
Graphs help us visualize numerical data.
•There are several different types of graphs:
Bargraphs: compare multiple objects
Piegraphs: shows relationships of parts to a whole
Linegraphs: show the relationship between 2 variable
• 20. Types of Relationships (between variables)
Direct: as x increases y increases
Indirect: as x increases y decreases
Constant: as x increases y remains the same
• 21. Conclusion Statement
Do NOT use 1st person
Me, my, I, we, our, etc…
VERY Objective
a summarization that presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, and states if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated)
Restate PS
Restate HYP
Summarize M&P
Analyze and explain data/results (tables, observations, pictures)
State whether HYP was correct or not and EXPLAIN why
Explain possible errors
Explain ways to improve experiment/research
Explain APPLICATION to biology and society
• 22. After we accept a hypothesis, experiment, and draw a conclusion…
Many conclusions that support each other make up a THEORY
Explanation supported by many, many conclusions
Many conclusions that support each other over a period of time
Atomic Theory
Theory of Relativity
CAN be DISPROVEN
“The world is flat”
SCIENTIFIC LAW
A relationship in nature that is supported by many, many experiments
No exceptions
Law of Gravity
• 23. SI Units
In science, we need to speak the same language
1795
French scientists develop metric system
1960
International committee meets to update the system and names it the “Systeme Internationale d’Unites” aka SI
• 24.
• 25. SI Base Units
Seven SI base units
Base unit
A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world
• 26. SI Derived Units
Not all quantities can be measured with base units
More than one base unit can be used
Speed limit is measure in….
MPH
Miles per hour
Which is a combo of what base units?
Length and time
• 27. Derived Units
• 28. Common derived units we will use
Speed
Base unit of length and base unit of time
Meters/second
Volume
3 base units of length
Length x length x length
1 dm3 = 1 L
Density
Mass/volume
Ratio that compares mass of an object to its volume
g/cm3 or g/mL
• 29. Class Work!
Suppose a sample of aluminum is placed in a 25 mL- graduated cylinder containing 10.5 mL of water. The level of water rises 13.5 mL. Mass is 25 g. What is the density of the aluminum sample?
What is the volume of a sample that has a mass of 150 g and a density of 5 g/mL?
• 30. Prefixes Used with SI units
• 31.
• 32. Kids Hate Doing Math Dittos Christmas Morning
King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk
• 33. Temperature
SI unit?
Kelvin
Our thermometers measure Celsius
To convert from Celsius to Kelvin
0o C + 273 = 273 K
To convert from Kelvin to Celsius
373 K - 273 = 100o C