Energy<br />SC.B.1.4.1 – The student understands how knowledge of energy is fundamental to all the scientific disciplines (e.g., the energy required for biological processes and the energy required for the building, erosion, and rebuilding of the earth). <br />
Types of Energy<br />Potential energy – Stored energy. <br />Has the potential to do something. <br />Kinetic energy – Energy due to motion. <br />Kinetics means movement. <br />
Types of Energy<br />Mechanical energy – the sum of an object’s potential and kinetic energy. <br />Thermal energy – The energy of an object based on heat. <br />The faster the particles move, the higher the object’s thermal energy. <br />
Types of Energy<br />Electrical energy – The transfer of electric charges.<br />Chemical energy – Stored electrical energy in chemical compounds. <br />Burning fossil fuels is an example of using chemical energy.<br />
Types of Energy<br />Nuclear energy – The stored energy that holds together the nucleus of an atom. <br />This has a huge amount of energy due to the attractive forces of the atom. <br />
Energy Conversions<br />Energy does not just exist in one form. It can undergo several changes to get to another form of energy. <br />Think about the energy produced by a dam. How does it work?<br /><ul><li>Water first flows down the dam (potential to kinetic) which turns the turbine (mechanical) which produces electricity (electrical)</li></li></ul><li>The Law of Conservation of Energy<br />Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It merely changes from one thing to another. <br />A good example of this is the energy you gain from eating a burger. Where did this energy come from?<br />
Biological Energy<br />The food we eat has stored energy. We measure the amount of energy in foods by measuring Calories. <br />Cells break down foods and release this energy through cellular respiration. <br />The equation: <br /> 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy<br />Means:<br />Oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + energy<br />
Chemical energy and atp<br />Living things use chemicals as fuels. <br />One of the principal chemicals used to store and release energy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP).<br /> ATP is made from an adenine group, a 5-carbon sugar (ribose) and 3 phosphate groups. <br />
Storing energy<br />Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a compound that looks like ATP except it has two phosphate groups instead of three. <br />A cell can store small amounts of energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP, creating ATP. <br />
Storing Energy<br />Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) – Function for structure and as energy sources. (Primary Source)<br />Lipids (fats, oils, steroids) – Secondary energy source. Used when all carbs are exhausted.<br />Proteins – Cell structure and function. Think strong, muscular. <br />
Releasing energy<br />Energy that is stored in ATP is released simply by breaking the bonds of the last phosphate group. <br />ATP has enough energy to power a variety of cellular activities, including active transport across cell membranes, protein synthesis, and muscle contraction.<br />It is the basic energy source of all cells. <br />
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