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Mutations final

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Transcript

  • 1. Mutations
  • 2.
  • 3. Mutations
    Occur when there is an error in DNA replication
    Def: Change in genetic material
    Mutagens
    Physical or chemical agents that cause mutations
    Ex: high energy radiation (x-ray or UV)
    Ex. Chemicals (that are similar to DNA but cause incorrect base pairing)
  • 4. Mutation
    Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
    Large or small
    2 Main types
    Base Substitutions (point mutations)
    Insertions or deletions
  • 5. Base Substitution
    • Replacement of one base or nucleotide with another
    • 6. Usually do not change amino acid
    • 7. Sometimes causes a change in the protein made
    • 8. Silent Mutation
    • 9. When a substitution does not cause a change in the protein expressed by a gene
    • 10. Remember some codons represent the same amino acid
    • 11. Example: GAA and GAG both code for Glu
  • Point MutationA point mutation is a simple change in one base of the gene sequence. This is equivalent to changing one letter in a sentence, such as this example, where we change the 'c' in cat to an 'h':
    Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat.
    Point Mutation: The fat hat ate the wee rat.
  • 12. Insertion or Deletion
    • Nucleotide is removed or added
    • 13. More disastrous
    • 14. mRNA is read as triplet codes
    • 15. Adding/removing bases changes these three letter codes
    • 16. Codons downstream from insertion/deletion will be regrouped and probably code for a non-working protein
    • 17. Result: FRAMESHIFT MUTATION
    • 18. Shift the “reading” frame of the genetic message
  • Frameshift mutation
    Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat.
    Frame Shift: The fat caa tet hew eer at.
  • 19. Chromosomal Mutations
    • Involve changes in the number or structure of the chromosome
    • 20. May change location of genes on chromosome
    • 21. Include:
    • 22. Deletions: loss of part of chromosome
    • 23. Duplications: produce extra copies of parts of chromosome
    • 24. Inversions: reverse direction of chromosome
    • 25. Translocation: when one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
  • 26. Mutations
    NOT always harmful
    Some alter a protein in a beneficial way that may help species in a specific environment
    If mutation is present in organisms gametes, it may be passed off to off-spring
    Mutations are the ULTIMATE source for GENETIC DIVERSITY!!!