Mitosis<br />Why do cells need to divide?<br />
Recap…<br />Cell theory…<br />Cells are the basic structural unit of life<br />Cells are the functional units of life<br /...
Overview<br />Why do cells need to divide?<br />Repair, growth, development<br />Types of reproduction<br />Sexual<br />Ge...
DNA<br />Blueprint of life, nucleic acid<br />Chromatin<br />Granular genetic material, spread out in nucleus of non-divid...
Humans<br />46 chromosomes <br />46 sister chromatids<br />One from your mom, one from your dad<br />
Cell Cycle: Life of a Cell<br />
Cell Cycle<br />Interphase<br />90 % of cell’s life, non dividing<br />G1 phase<br />Grows, makes organelles<br />S phase<...
Cell Cycle<br />There are check points in G1, S, and G2<br />Make sure cell is ready to move onto the next phase (has all ...
Regulators of Cell Cycle<br />Cyclins<br />Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells<br />Le...
Regulators<br />Internal<br />Factors within the cell that control cell cycle<br />Cyclin and CDKs<br />Allow cell cycle t...
M-phase<br />Consists of mitosis and cytokinesis<br />Mitosis<br />Process by which the nucleus of a cell divides<br />One...
Depending on cell type…<br />Mitosis can take a few minutes or a few days<br />Muscle cells (non-dividing)<br />Nerve cell...
Life Span of Some Human Cells<br />
Easy way to remember M-Phase<br />PMAT <br />Pilates Make Annie Toned<br />Practice Makes Athletes Train<br />Prophase<br...
Prophase<br />50-60% of time<br />Chromosomes become visible<br />Centrioles develop in cytoplasm near nuclear envelope<br...
End of prophase<br />Chromosomes coil together tightly<br />Nucleolus disappears<br />Nuclear envelope breaks down<br />
Metaphase<br />Few minutes<br />Chromosomes line up in middle (M in metaphase MIDDLE)<br />Microtubules connect centromer...
Anaphase<br />Centromeres joining sister chromatids separate and become individual chromosomes<br />They are dragged by fi...
Telophase<br />Opposite of prophase<br />Condensed chromosomes disperse into tangle of material<br />Nuclear envelope refo...
Cytokinesis<br />Happens at the same time as Telophase<br />Division of cytoplasm<br />Animal Cells<br />Cell membrane dra...
Regulators of Cell Cycle<br />Cyclins<br />Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells<br />Le...
Regulators<br />Internal<br />Factors within the cell that control cell cycle<br />Cyclin and CDKs<br />Allow cell cycle t...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Mitosis part 1

842

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
842
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Mitosis part 1"

  1. 1. Mitosis<br />Why do cells need to divide?<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Recap…<br />Cell theory…<br />Cells are the basic structural unit of life<br />Cells are the functional units of life<br />Cells come from pre-existing cells<br />
  4. 4. Overview<br />Why do cells need to divide?<br />Repair, growth, development<br />Types of reproduction<br />Sexual<br />Genetically different<br />2 parents<br />Takes time to develop, better chance of survival <br />asexual<br />Genetically identical<br />One parent<br />Many offspring very quickly<br />
  5. 5. DNA<br />Blueprint of life, nucleic acid<br />Chromatin<br />Granular genetic material, spread out in nucleus of non-dividing cells<br />Chromosomes<br />Condensed genetic material, in dividing cells<br />Sister chromatids<br />Identical copies of Chromosomes joined by a centromere (“centro-” middle)<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Humans<br />46 chromosomes <br />46 sister chromatids<br />One from your mom, one from your dad<br />
  9. 9. Cell Cycle: Life of a Cell<br />
  10. 10. Cell Cycle<br />Interphase<br />90 % of cell’s life, non dividing<br />G1 phase<br />Grows, makes organelles<br />S phase<br />DNA Synthesis…DNA replicates<br />G2 phase<br />Cell prepares to divide, makes sure it has all important organelles for division<br />M phase<br />When the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell divides<br />
  11. 11. Cell Cycle<br />There are check points in G1, S, and G2<br />Make sure cell is ready to move onto the next phase (has all necessary organelles, copied DNA, etc.)<br />Once the cell has past the G1 checkpoint, it will complete the cell cycle<br />Some cells stay in the G1 phase all their life (muscle cell, brain cells)<br />
  12. 12. Regulators of Cell Cycle<br />Cyclins<br />Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells<br />Levels of cyclins rise and fall throughout the cell cycle<br />Cyclin-dependent Kinases (cdks)<br />Enzymes that are activated when they bind with cyclin and they make the cell cycle continue<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Regulators<br />Internal<br />Factors within the cell that control cell cycle<br />Cyclin and CDKs<br />Allow cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have occurred<br />Replication of chromosomes<br />Chromosome Attachment to spindle before anaphase <br />External<br />Factors Outside the cell<br />Growth factorsmolecules that bind to cell surface that signal cell to divide<br />Similar cells have molecules that have opposite effect so that when it becomes to crowded, cells stop dividing<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. M-phase<br />Consists of mitosis and cytokinesis<br />Mitosis<br />Process by which the nucleus of a cell divides<br />One parent cell makes two identical daughter cells<br />This is how organisms repair tissue and grow and develop<br />Cytokinesis-division of the cytoplasm<br />
  20. 20. Depending on cell type…<br />Mitosis can take a few minutes or a few days<br />Muscle cells (non-dividing)<br />Nerve cells (non-dividing)<br />Skin cells (divide all the time)<br />Digestive Tract cells (divide all the time)<br />
  21. 21. Life Span of Some Human Cells<br />
  22. 22. Easy way to remember M-Phase<br />PMAT <br />Pilates Make Annie Toned<br />Practice Makes Athletes Train<br />Prophase<br />Metaphase<br />Anaphase<br />Telophase<br />
  23. 23. Prophase<br />50-60% of time<br />Chromosomes become visible<br />Centrioles develop in cytoplasm near nuclear envelope<br />Centrioles separate and migrate to opposite ends of nuc. Env.<br />Centrosome<br />Region where Centrioles are found<br />Organize the “spindle”<br />Fan like microtubule structure that helps separate chromosomes<br />Plants do NOT have Centrioles<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. End of prophase<br />Chromosomes coil together tightly<br />Nucleolus disappears<br />Nuclear envelope breaks down<br />
  27. 27. Metaphase<br />Few minutes<br />Chromosomes line up in middle (M in metaphase MIDDLE)<br />Microtubules connect centromere of each chromosome to the 2 poles of spindle<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Anaphase<br />Centromeres joining sister chromatids separate and become individual chromosomes<br />They are dragged by fibers to opposite poles<br />Ends when chromosomes stop moving<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Telophase<br />Opposite of prophase<br />Condensed chromosomes disperse into tangle of material<br />Nuclear envelope reforms<br />Spindle breaks apart<br />Nucleolus becomes visible<br />At the end 2 identical nuclei in one cell<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Cytokinesis<br />Happens at the same time as Telophase<br />Division of cytoplasm<br />Animal Cells<br />Cell membrane drawn inward until it pinches off and forms 2 id daughter cells<br />Plant Cells<br />Cell plate forms between nuclei<br />Cell Plate develops into separate membrane <br />Cell wall appears<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Regulators of Cell Cycle<br />Cyclins<br />Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells<br />Levels of cyclins rise and fall throughout the cell cycle<br />Cyclin-dependent Kinases (cdks)<br />Enzymes that are activated when they bind with cyclin and they make the cell cycle continue<br />
  46. 46. Regulators<br />Internal<br />Factors within the cell that control cell cycle<br />Cyclin and CDKs<br />Allow cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have occurred<br />Replication of chromosomes<br />Chromosome Attachment to spindle before anaphase <br />External<br />Factors Outside the cell<br />Growth factorsmolecules that bind to cell surface that signal cell to divide<br />Similar cells have molecules that have opposite effect so that when it becomes to crowded, cells stop dividing<br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×