Mitosis part 1
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Mitosis part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mitosis
    Why do cells need to divide?
  • 2.
  • 3. Recap…
    Cell theory…
    Cells are the basic structural unit of life
    Cells are the functional units of life
    Cells come from pre-existing cells
  • 4. Overview
    Why do cells need to divide?
    Repair, growth, development
    Types of reproduction
    Sexual
    Genetically different
    2 parents
    Takes time to develop, better chance of survival
    asexual
    Genetically identical
    One parent
    Many offspring very quickly
  • 5. DNA
    Blueprint of life, nucleic acid
    Chromatin
    Granular genetic material, spread out in nucleus of non-dividing cells
    Chromosomes
    Condensed genetic material, in dividing cells
    Sister chromatids
    Identical copies of Chromosomes joined by a centromere (“centro-” middle)
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Humans
    46 chromosomes
    46 sister chromatids
    One from your mom, one from your dad
  • 9. Cell Cycle: Life of a Cell
  • 10. Cell Cycle
    Interphase
    90 % of cell’s life, non dividing
    G1 phase
    Grows, makes organelles
    S phase
    DNA Synthesis…DNA replicates
    G2 phase
    Cell prepares to divide, makes sure it has all important organelles for division
    M phase
    When the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell divides
  • 11. Cell Cycle
    There are check points in G1, S, and G2
    Make sure cell is ready to move onto the next phase (has all necessary organelles, copied DNA, etc.)
    Once the cell has past the G1 checkpoint, it will complete the cell cycle
    Some cells stay in the G1 phase all their life (muscle cell, brain cells)
  • 12. Regulators of Cell Cycle
    Cyclins
    Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
    Levels of cyclins rise and fall throughout the cell cycle
    Cyclin-dependent Kinases (cdks)
    Enzymes that are activated when they bind with cyclin and they make the cell cycle continue
  • 13.
  • 14. Regulators
    Internal
    Factors within the cell that control cell cycle
    Cyclin and CDKs
    Allow cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have occurred
    Replication of chromosomes
    Chromosome Attachment to spindle before anaphase
    External
    Factors Outside the cell
    Growth factorsmolecules that bind to cell surface that signal cell to divide
    Similar cells have molecules that have opposite effect so that when it becomes to crowded, cells stop dividing
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. M-phase
    Consists of mitosis and cytokinesis
    Mitosis
    Process by which the nucleus of a cell divides
    One parent cell makes two identical daughter cells
    This is how organisms repair tissue and grow and develop
    Cytokinesis-division of the cytoplasm
  • 20. Depending on cell type…
    Mitosis can take a few minutes or a few days
    Muscle cells (non-dividing)
    Nerve cells (non-dividing)
    Skin cells (divide all the time)
    Digestive Tract cells (divide all the time)
  • 21. Life Span of Some Human Cells
  • 22. Easy way to remember M-Phase
    PMAT
    Pilates Make Annie Toned
    Practice Makes Athletes Train
    Prophase
    Metaphase
    Anaphase
    Telophase
  • 23. Prophase
    50-60% of time
    Chromosomes become visible
    Centrioles develop in cytoplasm near nuclear envelope
    Centrioles separate and migrate to opposite ends of nuc. Env.
    Centrosome
    Region where Centrioles are found
    Organize the “spindle”
    Fan like microtubule structure that helps separate chromosomes
    Plants do NOT have Centrioles
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. End of prophase
    Chromosomes coil together tightly
    Nucleolus disappears
    Nuclear envelope breaks down
  • 27. Metaphase
    Few minutes
    Chromosomes line up in middle (M in metaphase MIDDLE)
    Microtubules connect centromere of each chromosome to the 2 poles of spindle
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. Anaphase
    Centromeres joining sister chromatids separate and become individual chromosomes
    They are dragged by fibers to opposite poles
    Ends when chromosomes stop moving
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Telophase
    Opposite of prophase
    Condensed chromosomes disperse into tangle of material
    Nuclear envelope reforms
    Spindle breaks apart
    Nucleolus becomes visible
    At the end 2 identical nuclei in one cell
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Cytokinesis
    Happens at the same time as Telophase
    Division of cytoplasm
    Animal Cells
    Cell membrane drawn inward until it pinches off and forms 2 id daughter cells
    Plant Cells
    Cell plate forms between nuclei
    Cell Plate develops into separate membrane
    Cell wall appears
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. Regulators of Cell Cycle
    Cyclins
    Protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
    Levels of cyclins rise and fall throughout the cell cycle
    Cyclin-dependent Kinases (cdks)
    Enzymes that are activated when they bind with cyclin and they make the cell cycle continue
  • 46. Regulators
    Internal
    Factors within the cell that control cell cycle
    Cyclin and CDKs
    Allow cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have occurred
    Replication of chromosomes
    Chromosome Attachment to spindle before anaphase
    External
    Factors Outside the cell
    Growth factorsmolecules that bind to cell surface that signal cell to divide
    Similar cells have molecules that have opposite effect so that when it becomes to crowded, cells stop dividing