Macromolecule scramble intro


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Macromolecule scramble intro

  1. 1. Macromolecule Scramble F. Fats/lipids and steroids  Dragon fly book p.46  Eyeball book p. 98-99  For monomers: list molecules that come together to make macromolecule P. Proteins  Dragon fly book 47-48  Eyeball book 100-102 N. Nucleic acids  Dragon fly book 47  Eyeball book 229-231 C. Carbohydrates  Dragon fly book 45  Eyeball book 95-97 1) Definition 2) Alternate names 3) Monomer is______ A. diagram 4) Polymer is _______ A. diagram 5) Reaction that produces macromolecule 6) Bond that forms 7) Different types and their role 8) Function at…  Cellular level  Organism level 9) Important Factoids about molecule (should have at least 3 other important facts)
  2. 2. Mono mer and diagra m Polyme r and diagra m Commo n Names Func tion Link that forms betwee n mono mers Role in the cell Role in organi sm Differe nt types 3 or more importan t facts Other relevant info Proteins Carbohydrate s Nucleic Acids N/A Lipids/fat s Steroids General structure
  3. 3. Intro to Macro molecules Macromolecules
  4. 4. Carbon  The element of LIFE!  Found in all living organisms!  We are always looking for carbon based life forms  Organic molecules: molecules that contain carbon  C6H12O6, CO2, CH4  Some molecules are made of just CARBON and HYDROGEN…we call these HYDROCARBONS  These are important in FUEL (aka GASOLINE!!)  Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components  Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy  Inorganic molecules: molecules that do not contain carbon  H2O, NH3, O2
  5. 5. LE 4-4 Hydrogen (valence = 1) Oxygen (valence = 2) Nitrogen (valence = 3) Carbon (valence = 4)
  6. 6. Structure of Carbon  Structure  Valence electrons: 4  How many bonds can carbon make with other atoms?  4: single, double, or triple…as long as it has 4 lines touching it  This makes carbon a versatile atom…it can make long chains of carbons, branched carbon structures, even ring structures with itself
  7. 7. LE 4-5 Length Ethane Propane Butane 2-methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) Branching Double bonds Rings 1-Butene 2-Butene Cyclohexane Benzene
  8. 8. Some important words to know  Molecule  Group of covalently bonded atoms  Macromolecule  large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms  Functional Groups  Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in PREDICTABLE ways  Polar, non-polar, acidic, basic, charged (+/-)  Hydroxyl group  Carbonyl group  Carboxyl group  Amino group  Sulfhydryl group  Phosphate group
  9. 9. LE 4-10aa STRUCTURE (may be written HO—) NAME OF COMPOUNDS Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol) Ethanol, the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES Is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself. Attracts water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars (see Figure 5.3).
  10. 10. LE 4-10ac STRUCTURE NAME OF COMPOUNDS Carboxylic acids, or organic acids EXAMPLE Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions. Acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions (H+) tend to dissociate reversibly; for example, Acetic acid Acetate ion In cells, found in the ionic form, which is called a carboxylate group.
  11. 11. LE 4-10ba STRUCTURE NAME OF COMPOUNDS Amine EXAMPLE Because it also has a carboxyl group, glycine is both an amine and a carboxylic acid; compounds with both groups are called amino acids. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES Acts as a base; can pick up a proton from the surrounding solution: (nonionized) Ionized, with a charge of 1+, under cellular conditions Glycine (ionized)
  12. 12. LE 4-10bc STRUCTURE NAME OF COMPOUNDS Organic phosphates EXAMPLE Glycerol phosphate FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES Makes the molecule of which it is a part an anion (negatively charged ion). Can transfer energy between organic molecules.
  13. 13. What are macromolecules made of? • A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers • Poly=many • Mono=one • Think of a beaded bracelet…. • each bead is a MONOMER • The entire bracelet is a POLYMER • Large variety of polymers but there are less than 50 monomers…kinda like the alphabet…lots of words, only 26 letters • Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers:  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Nucleic acids ***Lipids/fats are not polymers but they are still macromolecules
  14. 14. Making and Breaking Polymers  Polymerization: making polymers  Dehydration Reaction  Dehydrate means water loss  When a water molecule (H-OH) is released to join a monomer to another monomer  Hydrolysis  Hydro- water  Lysis- to break down  Def: to break apart or disassemble a polymer by adding water (H-OH)
  15. 15. LE 5-2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer Longer polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer
  16. 16. Carbohydrates  Monomer: Monosaccharide  Polymer: Disaccharide or Polysaccharide  Link between monomers is called: Glycosidic Linkage  Formed by a dehydration reaction  Always have Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygens  CxH2xOx  Common name: sugar  End with suffix “-ose”  Function: Energy/fuel, structure, storage  GLUCOSE!!!!  What all cells need for energy
  17. 17. Carbs continued  Monosaccharides  Glucose  fructose  Disaccharides  sucrose  Polysaccharides  Starch  In plant cells; chain of glucose molecules coiled up like a phone cord  Glycogen  Excess sugar in animal cells is stored in this form; highly branched and more complex chain of glucose monomers  Stored in muscle and liver cells  When body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose  Cellulose  Found in plant cell walls; made of glucose monomer;  building material;  aka FIBER; humans do NOT have the enzyme to break this polysaccharide down  Passes through digestive tract and keeps it healthy but NOT a nutrient  Some animals (cows) have microorganisms that live in their digestive tract that help break down cellulose  Carbs are hydrophilic because of hydroxl group (-OH)  Dissolve in water making sugary solutions  Large carbs (starches and cellulose) do not dissolve  Think about your towels and clothes, duh!
  18. 18. Proteins  Monomer: amino acids  20 amino acids  Amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups attached to carbon  Only thing different is side chain…R-group  Polymer: polypeptide chains (proteins)  Link between monomers is called: polypeptide bond  Made by a dehydration reaction  (between amine group of one aa and carboxyl group of another aa)  STRUCTURE of A.A.  Amino group on one end (-NH2)  Carboxyl group on one end (COOH)  Hydrogen  R-group/side chain (changes)  Function of Proteins:  structural support  Storage  Transport  cellular communications  Movement  defense against foreign substances  Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of
  19. 19. Protein Structure  Primary structure 1’  Order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain  Secondary structure 2’  Polypeptide chain folds because of interactions between amino acids  HYDROGEN BONDING  Tertiary Structure 3’  Gives proteins 3-D shape  VERY IMPORTANT to function of protein  Beta pleated sheets and alpha helices fold based on interactions between R- groups of a.a.  Hydrogen bonds, polar/non-polar interactions, acid/base interactions, disulfide bonds, van der Waals forces  Quaternary Structure 4’  the association of the polypeptide chains  some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain  Each polypeptide chain in the protein is called a subunit  Two or more subunits come together for a specific function  HEMOGLOBIN  On Red blood cells
  20. 20. Denaturation  Unraveling/unfolding of protein  Why would this be a problem?  When protein loses its 3-D shape and thus its specific function  Caused by:  Unfavorable changes in pH, temperature or other environmental condition  Disrupts the interactions between side chains and causes loss of shape  Examples:  Frying an egg  Straightening your hair
  21. 21. Classification of Proteins According to biological function. Type: Example: Enzymes- Catalyze biological reactions ß-galactosidase Transport and Storage Hemoglobin Movement Actin And Myosin in muscles Immune Protection Immunoglobulins (antibodies) Regulatory Function within cells Transeription Factors Hormones Insulin Estrogen Structural Collagen
  22. 22. Fats/Lipids  Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen…some oxygen  Usually not soluble in water  Not a polymer but is made of molecular units  Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids= FAT  Linkage is called ESTER linkage  Dehydration reaction  Function
  23. 23. Types of Fats  Saturated  Solid at room temperature  Animal fats  All the carbons in the fatty acid chains contain the MAXIMUM # of hydrogen atoms around each atom  SATURATED with hydrogen  Only single bonds in fatty acid chain  Unsaturated/polyunsaturated fats  Liquid at room temperature  Plant oils, fish oils  One or more double bonded carbon atoms in fatty acid chain, then it is unsaturated
  24. 24. Steroids  Chemical messengers  Structure  4 fused carbon rings  Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol  Function  structural component of mammalian cell membranes  resilience and fluidity of human membranes  mobilized for the synthesis of steroid hormones  protecting the human skin against external irritants and for holding water content  Improvement of water balance in human skin  Enhanced barrier function for stratum  Inhibition of aging of skin  Water retention for hair
  25. 25. Nucleic Acids  Monomer: Nucleotide  Structure of a Nucleotide  Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base  Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)  Function  DNA  genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms  Instructions to make RNA and proteins  long-term storage of information  NITROGENOUS BASES:  Pyrimidines: cytosine and thymine  Purines: guanine and adenine  A binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNA  RNA  messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes  essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis  Three types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA  NITROGENOUS BASES:  Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracil  Purines: guanine and adenine  A binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA
  26. 26. Gizmo: Identifying Nutrients  Title: Lab #2 Identifying Nutrients  Purpose:  Background:  Summary of Macromolecules  Vocabulary (from exploration guide)  Prior Knowledge Questions 1 and 2  Gizmo Warm Up  Answers to 1 and 2 (compete sentence answers)  Gizmo Activity A  Answer questions 1-6, COMPLETE SENTENCE ANSWERS  Example: #1 Sample A does contain monosaccharides because when the Benedict test was utilized, there was a pink color change, which is an indication of monosaccharides.  Gizmo Activity B (Results and Data)  Copy Table 1 into Lab notebook  Complete Table 1 (label)  Answer Question 2 parts A, B, and C in complete sentences  Answer question 3 (Conclusion of activity B) Complete sentences  Copy Table 4 into lab notebook  Complete Table 2 (label)  Conclusion  Summarize the what nutrients are and why they are important as well as the tests and procedures you used  Answer questions 5 and 6
  27. 27. MACROMOLECULE Assessment Choose One of the Following To Complete  Must Include:  Each of the Macromolecules  Their Structure  Their Function  Monomers and Polymers  Diagram  Be Neat AND Creative  Macromolecule Comic Cards  Macromolecule Song/Rap  Macromolecule Children’s book  Macromolecule Poem  Macromolecule Advertisement/Billboard/Pamphlet