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  • 1. Intro to Macro molecules
    Macromolecules
  • 2. Carbon
    The element of LIFE!
    Found in all living organisms!
    We are always looking for carbon based life forms
    Organic molecules: molecules that contain carbon
    C6H12O6, CO2, CH4
    Some molecules are made of just CARBON and HYDROGEN…we call these HYDROCARBONS
    These are important in FUEL (aka GASOLINE!!)
    Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components
    Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy
    Inorganic molecules: molecules that do not contain carbon
    H2O, NH3, O2
  • 3. LE 4-4
    Hydrogen
    (valence = 1)
    Oxygen
    (valence = 2)
    Nitrogen
    (valence = 3)
    Carbon
    (valence = 4)
  • 4. Structure of Carbon
    Structure
    Valence electrons: 4
    How many bonds can carbon make with other atoms?
    4: single, double, or triple…as long as it has 4 lines touching it
    This makes carbon a versatile atom…it can make long chains of carbons, branched carbon structures, even ring structures with itself
  • 5. LE 4-5
    Propane
    Ethane
    Length
    2-methylpropane
    (commonly called isobutane)
    Butane
    Branching
    1-Butene
    2-Butene
    Double bonds
    Cyclohexane
    Benzene
    Rings
  • 6. Some important words to know
    Molecule
    Group of covalently bonded atoms
    Macromolecule
    large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms
    Functional Groups
    Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in PREDICTABLE ways
    Polar, non-polar, acidic, basic, charged (+/-)
    Hydroxyl group
    Carbonyl group
    Carboxyl group
    Amino group
    Sulfhydryl group
    Phosphate group
  • 7. DNA (nucleotide)
    ATP
    Two REALLY Important
    Molecules with
    Phosphate Groups
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. LE 4-10aa
    STRUCTURE
    (may be written HO—)
    Ethanol, the alcohol present in
    alcoholic beverages
    NAME OF COMPOUNDS
    FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
    Is polar as a result of the
    electronegative oxygen atom
    drawing electrons toward itself.
    Alcohols (their specific names
    usually end in -ol)
    Attracts water molecules, helping
    dissolve organic compounds such
    as sugars (see Figure 5.3).
  • 11. LE 4-10ac
    EXAMPLE
    STRUCTURE
    Acetic acid, which gives vinegar
    its sour taste
    FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
    NAME OF COMPOUNDS
    Has acidic properties because it is
    a source of hydrogen ions.
    Carboxylic acids, or organic acids
    The covalent bond between
    oxygen and hydrogen is so polar
    that hydrogen ions (H+) tend to
    dissociate reversibly; for example,
    Acetic acid
    Acetate ion
    In cells, found in the ionic form,
    which is called a carboxylate group.
  • 12. LE 4-10ba
    EXAMPLE
    STRUCTURE
    Glycine
    Because it also has a carboxyl
    group, glycine is both an amine and
    a carboxylic acid; compounds with
    both groups are called amino acids.
    FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
    NAME OF COMPOUNDS
    Acts as a base; can pick up a
    proton from the surrounding
    solution:
    Amine
    (nonionized)
    (ionized)
    Ionized, with a charge of 1+,
    under cellular conditions
  • 13. LE 4-10bc
    EXAMPLE
    STRUCTURE
    Glycerol phosphate
    NAME OF COMPOUNDS
    FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
    Makes the molecule of which it
    is a part an anion (negatively
    charged ion).
    Organic phosphates
    Can transfer energy between
    organic molecules.
  • 14. What are macromolecules made of?
    • A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers
    • 15. Poly=many
    • 16. Mono=one
    • 17. Think of a beaded bracelet….
    • 18. each bead is a MONOMER
    • 19. The entire bracelet is a POLYMER
    • 20. Large variety of polymers but there are less than 50 monomers…kinda like the alphabet…lots of words, only 26 letters
    • 21. Polymerization: THE PROCESS OF MAKING A LARGER MOLECULE BY PUTTING TOGETHER SMALLER MOLECULES
    • 22. Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers:
    Carbohydrates
    Proteins
    Nucleic acids
    ***Lipids/fats are not polymers but they are still macromolecules
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Brief Overview of 4 Macromolecules
    Carbohydrates
    Monomer: monosaccharaides and disaccharides
    Polymer: polysaccharides aka complex carbohydrates (Starches)
    Proteins
    Monomer: Amino acids
    Polymer: Polypeptide Chain (PROTEINS)
    NucleicAcids
    Monomer: Nucleotide
    Polymer: Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
    Lipids, fats, oils and steroids
    Monomer: NONE
    Polymer: NONE
  • 26. How Would You Describe
    These People?
  • 27. Making and Breaking Polymers
    Polymerization:making polymers
    Dehydration Reaction
    Dehydrate means water loss
    When a water molecule (H-OH) is released to join a monomer to another monomer
    Hydrolysis
    Hydro- water
    Lysis- to break down
    Def: to break apart or disassemble a polymer by adding water (H-OH)
  • 28. LE 5-2
    Short polymer
    Unlinked monomer
    Dehydration removes a water
    molecule, forming a new bond
    Longer polymer
    Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer
    Hydrolysis adds a water
    molecule, breaking a bond
    Hydrolysis of a polymer
  • 29.
  • 30. Carbohydrates
    Monomer: Monosaccharide
    Polymer: Disaccharide or Polysaccharide
    Link between monomers is called: Glycosidic Linkage
    Formed by a dehydration reaction
    Always have Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygens
    CxH2xOx
    Common name: sugar
    End with suffix “-ose”
    Function: Energy/fuel, structure, storage
    GLUCOSE!!!!
    What all cells need for energy
  • 31. Carbs continued
    Monosaccharides
    Glucose
    fructose
    Disaccharides
    sucrose
    Polysaccharides
    Starch
    In plant cells; chain of glucose molecules coiled up like a phone cord
    Glycogen
    Excess sugar in animal cells is stored in this form; highly branched and more complex chain of glucose monomers
    Stored in muscle and liver cells
    When body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose
    Cellulose
    Found in plant cell walls; made of glucose monomer;
    building material;
    aka FIBER; humans do NOT have the enzyme to break this polysaccharide down
    Passes through digestive tract and keeps it healthy but NOT a nutrient
    Some animals (cows) have microorganisms that live in their digestive tract that help break down cellulose
    Carbs are hydrophilic because of hydroxl group (-OH)
    Dissolve in water making sugary solutions
    Large carbs (starches and cellulose) do not dissolve
    Think about your towels and clothes, duh!
  • 32. Proteins
    Monomer: amino acids
    20 amino acids
    Amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups attached to carbon
    Only thing different is side chain…R-group
    Polymer: polypeptide chains (proteins)
    Link between monomers is called: polypeptide bond
    Made by a dehydration reaction
    (between amine group of one aa and carboxyl group of another aa)
    STRUCTURE of A.A.
    Amino group on one end (-NH2)
    Carboxyl group on one end (COOH)
    Hydrogen
    R-group/side chain (changes)
    Function of Proteins:
    structural support
    Storage
    Transport
    cellular communications
    Movement
    defense against foreign substances
    Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells
  • 33.
  • 34. Protein Structure
    Primary structure 1’
    Order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
    Secondary structure 2’
    Polypeptide chain folds because of interactions between amino acids
    HYDROGEN BONDING
    Tertiary Structure 3’
    Gives proteins 3-D shape
    VERY IMPORTANT to function of protein
    Beta pleated sheets and alpha helices fold based on interactions between R-groups of a.a.
    Hydrogen bonds, polar/non-polar interactions, acid/base interactions, disulfide bonds, van der Waals forces
    Quaternary Structure 4’
    the association of the polypeptide chains
    some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain
    Each polypeptide chain in the protein is called a subunit
    Two or more subunits come together for a specific function
    HEMOGLOBIN
    On Red blood cells
    Its shape allows RBCs to carry oxygen all around your body!
  • 35. Denaturation
    Unraveling/unfolding of protein
    Why would this be a problem?
    When protein loses its 3-D shape and thus its specific function
    Caused by:
    Unfavorable changes in pH, temperature or other environmental condition
    Disrupts the interactions between side chains and causes loss of shape
    Examples:
    Frying an egg
    Straightening your hair
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. Fats/Lipids
    Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen…some oxygen
    Usually not soluble in water
    Not a polymer but is made of molecular units
    Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids= FAT
    Linkage is called ESTER linkage
    Dehydration reaction
    Function
    Energy storage
    Insulation
    waterproofing
  • 39. Types of Fats
    Saturated
    Solid at room temperature
    Animal fats
    All the carbons in the fatty acid chains contain the MAXIMUM # of hydrogen atoms around each atom
    SATURATED with hydrogen
    Only single bonds in fatty acid chain
    Unsaturated/polyunsaturated fats
    Liquid at room temperature
    Plant oils, fish oils
    One or more double bonded carbon atoms in fatty acid chain, then it is unsaturated
  • 40. Phospholipids
  • 41. Steroids
    Chemical messengers
    Structure
    4 fused carbon rings
    Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol
    Function
    structural component of mammalian cell membranes
    resilience and fluidity of human membranes
    mobilized for the synthesis of steroid hormones
    protecting the human skin against external irritants and for holding water content
    Improvement of water balance in human skin
    Enhanced barrier function for stratum
    Inhibition of aging of skin
    Water retention for hair
  • 42. Nucleic Acids
    Monomer: Nucleotide
    Structure of a Nucleotide
    Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base
    Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    Function
    DNA
    genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms
    Instructions to make RNA and proteins
    long-term storage of information
    NITROGENOUS BASES:
    Pyrimidines: cytosine and thymine
    Purines: guanine and adenine
    A binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNA
    RNA
    messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes
    essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis
    Three types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
    NITROGENOUS BASES:
    Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracil
    Purines: guanine and adenine
    A binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA