Macromolecule intro

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Macromolecule intro

  1. 1. Intro to Macro molecules<br />Macromolecules<br />
  2. 2. Carbon<br />The element of LIFE!<br />Found in all living organisms! <br />We are always looking for carbon based life forms<br />Organic molecules: molecules that contain carbon<br />C6H12O6, CO2, CH4<br />Some molecules are made of just CARBON and HYDROGEN…we call these HYDROCARBONS<br />These are important in FUEL (aka GASOLINE!!)<br />Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components<br />Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy<br />Inorganic molecules: molecules that do not contain carbon<br />H2O, NH3, O2<br />
  3. 3. LE 4-4<br />Hydrogen<br />(valence = 1)<br />Oxygen<br />(valence = 2)<br />Nitrogen<br />(valence = 3)<br />Carbon<br />(valence = 4)<br />
  4. 4. Structure of Carbon<br />Structure<br />Valence electrons: 4<br />How many bonds can carbon make with other atoms?<br />4: single, double, or triple…as long as it has 4 lines touching it<br />This makes carbon a versatile atom…it can make long chains of carbons, branched carbon structures, even ring structures with itself<br />
  5. 5. LE 4-5<br />Propane<br />Ethane<br />Length<br />2-methylpropane<br />(commonly called isobutane)<br />Butane<br />Branching<br />1-Butene<br />2-Butene<br />Double bonds<br />Cyclohexane<br />Benzene<br />Rings<br />
  6. 6. Some important words to know<br />Molecule<br />Group of covalently bonded atoms<br />Macromolecule<br />large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms<br />Functional Groups<br />Group of atoms within a molecule that interact in PREDICTABLE ways<br />Polar, non-polar, acidic, basic, charged (+/-)<br />Hydroxyl group<br />Carbonyl group <br />Carboxyl group<br />Amino group<br />Sulfhydryl group<br />Phosphate group<br />
  7. 7. DNA (nucleotide)<br />ATP<br />Two REALLY Important<br />Molecules with <br />Phosphate Groups<br />
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  10. 10. LE 4-10aa<br />STRUCTURE<br />(may be written HO—)<br />Ethanol, the alcohol present in<br />alcoholic beverages<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />Is polar as a result of the<br />electronegative oxygen atom<br />drawing electrons toward itself.<br />Alcohols (their specific names<br />usually end in -ol)<br />Attracts water molecules, helping<br />dissolve organic compounds such<br />as sugars (see Figure 5.3).<br />
  11. 11. LE 4-10ac<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Acetic acid, which gives vinegar<br />its sour taste<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />Has acidic properties because it is<br />a source of hydrogen ions.<br />Carboxylic acids, or organic acids<br />The covalent bond between<br />oxygen and hydrogen is so polar<br />that hydrogen ions (H+) tend to<br />dissociate reversibly; for example,<br />Acetic acid<br />Acetate ion<br />In cells, found in the ionic form,<br />which is called a carboxylate group.<br />
  12. 12. LE 4-10ba<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Glycine<br />Because it also has a carboxyl<br />group, glycine is both an amine and<br />a carboxylic acid; compounds with<br />both groups are called amino acids.<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />Acts as a base; can pick up a<br />proton from the surrounding<br />solution:<br />Amine<br />(nonionized)<br />(ionized)<br />Ionized, with a charge of 1+,<br />under cellular conditions<br />
  13. 13. LE 4-10bc<br />EXAMPLE<br />STRUCTURE<br />Glycerol phosphate<br />NAME OF COMPOUNDS<br />FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES<br />Makes the molecule of which it<br />is a part an anion (negatively<br />charged ion).<br />Organic phosphates<br />Can transfer energy between <br />organic molecules. <br />
  14. 14. What are macromolecules made of?<br /><ul><li>A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers
  15. 15. Poly=many
  16. 16. Mono=one
  17. 17. Think of a beaded bracelet….
  18. 18. each bead is a MONOMER
  19. 19. The entire bracelet is a POLYMER
  20. 20. Large variety of polymers but there are less than 50 monomers…kinda like the alphabet…lots of words, only 26 letters
  21. 21. Polymerization: THE PROCESS OF MAKING A LARGER MOLECULE BY PUTTING TOGETHER SMALLER MOLECULES
  22. 22. Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers:</li></ul>Carbohydrates<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic acids<br />***Lipids/fats are not polymers but they are still macromolecules<br />
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  25. 25. Brief Overview of 4 Macromolecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Monomer: monosaccharaides and disaccharides<br />Polymer: polysaccharides aka complex carbohydrates (Starches)<br />Proteins<br />Monomer: Amino acids<br />Polymer: Polypeptide Chain (PROTEINS)<br />NucleicAcids<br />Monomer: Nucleotide<br />Polymer: Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)<br />Lipids, fats, oils and steroids<br />Monomer: NONE<br />Polymer: NONE<br />
  26. 26. How Would You Describe <br />These People?<br />
  27. 27. Making and Breaking Polymers<br />Polymerization:making polymers<br />Dehydration Reaction<br />Dehydrate means water loss<br />When a water molecule (H-OH) is released to join a monomer to another monomer<br />Hydrolysis<br />Hydro- water<br />Lysis- to break down<br />Def: to break apart or disassemble a polymer by adding water (H-OH)<br />
  28. 28. LE 5-2<br />Short polymer<br />Unlinked monomer<br />Dehydration removes a water<br />molecule, forming a new bond<br />Longer polymer<br />Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer<br />Hydrolysis adds a water<br />molecule, breaking a bond<br />Hydrolysis of a polymer<br />
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  30. 30. Carbohydrates<br />Monomer: Monosaccharide<br />Polymer: Disaccharide or Polysaccharide<br />Link between monomers is called: Glycosidic Linkage<br />Formed by a dehydration reaction<br />Always have Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygens<br />CxH2xOx<br />Common name: sugar<br />End with suffix “-ose”<br />Function: Energy/fuel, structure, storage<br />GLUCOSE!!!! <br />What all cells need for energy<br />
  31. 31. Carbs continued<br />Monosaccharides<br />Glucose<br />fructose<br />Disaccharides<br />sucrose<br />Polysaccharides<br />Starch<br />In plant cells; chain of glucose molecules coiled up like a phone cord<br />Glycogen<br />Excess sugar in animal cells is stored in this form; highly branched and more complex chain of glucose monomers<br />Stored in muscle and liver cells<br />When body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose <br />Cellulose<br />Found in plant cell walls; made of glucose monomer; <br />building material; <br />aka FIBER; humans do NOT have the enzyme to break this polysaccharide down<br />Passes through digestive tract and keeps it healthy but NOT a nutrient<br />Some animals (cows) have microorganisms that live in their digestive tract that help break down cellulose<br />Carbs are hydrophilic because of hydroxl group (-OH)<br />Dissolve in water making sugary solutions<br />Large carbs (starches and cellulose) do not dissolve <br />Think about your towels and clothes, duh!<br />
  32. 32. Proteins<br />Monomer: amino acids<br />20 amino acids<br />Amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups attached to carbon<br />Only thing different is side chain…R-group<br />Polymer: polypeptide chains (proteins)<br />Link between monomers is called: polypeptide bond <br />Made by a dehydration reaction <br />(between amine group of one aa and carboxyl group of another aa)<br />STRUCTURE of A.A.<br />Amino group on one end (-NH2)<br />Carboxyl group on one end (COOH)<br />Hydrogen<br />R-group/side chain (changes)<br />Function of Proteins:<br />structural support<br />Storage<br />Transport<br />cellular communications<br />Movement<br />defense against foreign substances<br />Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells<br />
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  34. 34. Protein Structure<br />Primary structure 1’<br />Order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain<br />Secondary structure 2’<br />Polypeptide chain folds because of interactions between amino acids<br />HYDROGEN BONDING<br />Tertiary Structure 3’<br />Gives proteins 3-D shape<br />VERY IMPORTANT to function of protein<br />Beta pleated sheets and alpha helices fold based on interactions between R-groups of a.a.<br />Hydrogen bonds, polar/non-polar interactions, acid/base interactions, disulfide bonds, van der Waals forces<br />Quaternary Structure 4’<br />the association of the polypeptide chains<br />some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain<br />Each polypeptide chain in the protein is called a subunit<br />Two or more subunits come together for a specific function<br />HEMOGLOBIN<br />On Red blood cells<br />Its shape allows RBCs to carry oxygen all around your body!<br />
  35. 35. Denaturation<br />Unraveling/unfolding of protein<br />Why would this be a problem?<br />When protein loses its 3-D shape and thus its specific function<br />Caused by:<br />Unfavorable changes in pH, temperature or other environmental condition<br />Disrupts the interactions between side chains and causes loss of shape<br />Examples:<br />Frying an egg<br />Straightening your hair<br />
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  38. 38. Fats/Lipids<br />Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen…some oxygen<br />Usually not soluble in water<br />Not a polymer but is made of molecular units<br />Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids= FAT<br />Linkage is called ESTER linkage<br />Dehydration reaction<br />Function<br />Energy storage<br />Insulation<br />waterproofing<br />
  39. 39. Types of Fats<br />Saturated<br />Solid at room temperature<br />Animal fats<br />All the carbons in the fatty acid chains contain the MAXIMUM # of hydrogen atoms around each atom<br />SATURATED with hydrogen<br />Only single bonds in fatty acid chain<br />Unsaturated/polyunsaturated fats<br />Liquid at room temperature<br />Plant oils, fish oils<br />One or more double bonded carbon atoms in fatty acid chain, then it is unsaturated<br />
  40. 40. Phospholipids<br />
  41. 41. Steroids<br />Chemical messengers<br />Structure<br />4 fused carbon rings<br />Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol<br />Function<br />structural component of mammalian cell membranes<br />resilience and fluidity of human membranes<br />mobilized for the synthesis of steroid hormones<br />protecting the human skin against external irritants and for holding water content<br />Improvement of water balance in human skin <br />Enhanced barrier function for stratum <br />Inhibition of aging of skin <br />Water retention for hair <br />
  42. 42. Nucleic Acids<br />Monomer: Nucleotide<br />Structure of a Nucleotide<br />Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base <br />Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)<br />Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)<br />Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)<br />Function<br />DNA<br />genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms<br />Instructions to make RNA and proteins<br />long-term storage of information <br />NITROGENOUS BASES: <br />Pyrimidines: cytosine and thymine<br />Purines: guanine and adenine<br />A binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNA<br />RNA<br />messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes<br />essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis<br />Three types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA<br />NITROGENOUS BASES: <br />Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracil<br />Purines: guanine and adenine<br />A binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA<br />

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