Human health alfredo and dalyn

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Human health alfredo and dalyn

  1. 1. Environmental Hazards and HumanHealth ; Solid and Hazardous Waste By: Dalyn Valentin & Alfredo Valdivia Period # 2 APES
  2. 2. Kinds of Waste• H a z a r d o u s W a s t e : Any waste that poses potential harm to human health due to its toxicity.• S o l i d W a s t e : Unwanted discarded products made by humans. – Municipal solid waste: trash or garbage that is thrown out by residential or commercial buildings. – Industrial solid waste: solid waste
  3. 3. Waste Disposal Methods• O p e n d u m p s : large fields or holes in the ground where garbage is often deposited and burned• S a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l s : specially prepared facilities that must meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act• B i o r e m e d i a t i o n : uses microorganisms or bacteria to remove contaminants from liquid or solid hazardous waste
  4. 4. Waste Disposal Methods Cont.• In c in e r a t io n – reduces volume by 90% – Can produce electrical energy – Waste is deposited into the waste bunker – The furnace is where it is burned – The ash conveyor carries ash for deposition into landfills – The boiler creates steam for electricity or heat – Scrubbers spray lime to neutralize acids and control pollution – Smoke stack to release
  5. 5. Types of Recycling• P r i m a r y / C l o s e d -L o o p R e c y c l i n g : materials are converted into new products of the same type.• S e c o n d a r y R e c y c lin g : materials are converted into different kinds of products.• C o m p o s t i n g : recycling that uses the natural role of decomposing bacteria and fungi to convert biodegradable waste into useable soil amendments.• Recycling’s usefulness is limited by the amount of energy needed to complete the process.
  6. 6. Radioactive Waste• Useless radioactive materials that are left after some laboratory or commercial process is completed. - H i g h L e v e l : Large amounts of radioactive radiation for a short time followed by small amounts for a very long time. - L o w L e v e l : Gives off small amounts of radiation. Storage time is 100-500 years.
  7. 7. Types of Major Hazards• B i o l o g i c a l : living organisms and viruses that can cause human disease.• C h e m i c a l : are in the air, soil, and water we drink and food we ingest. (e.g. heavy metals & asbestos)• P h y s i c a l : natural disasters like fires, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and etc.• C u l t u r a l : living in areas with high crime rates, working in unsafe conditions, and poverty.• L i f e s t y l e : choices humans make that pose a health concern. (e.g. unprotected sex, smoking, and drug use)
  8. 8. Biological Hazards• An i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e can be spread from person to person and is therefore called a contagious or communicable disease.• They can be transmitted from person to person through water, air, food, and bodily fluids.• Where you live and your level of poverty can increase the probability of catching some of these diseases.
  9. 9. Chemical Hazards• We are constantly exposed to insidious chemical compounds.• B i o m a g n i f i c a t i o n : certain compounds that accumulate in body tissues can be passed from one organism to another through the food chain.• I m m u n e s y s t e m : whose role is to produce antibodies to protect against infection and disease, if often weakened by exposure to these toxins.
  10. 10. Types of Chemical Hazards• C a r c i n o g e n : promote various types of cancer in the human body. (e.g. tobacco smoke & PCBs)• M u t a g e n : promotes mutations or changes in DNA.• Te r a t o g e n s : chemical hazards that cause birth defects to a fetus or embryo. (e.g. ethyl alcohol and PCBs)
  11. 11. Cultural & Lifestyle Hazards• The greatest risk that people in developing countries face today is poverty.• People in poor conditions also suffer from malnutrition, which increases their susceptibility to disease and death.• Avoid smoking, improve eating habits, getting adequate exercise, limit alcohol intake, and practice safer sex are ways to reduce their risk of death.
  12. 12. Multiple Choice Questions1. T h e m i n i m u m a m o u n t o f h a l f - l i v e s t h a t m u s t p a s s b e f o r e r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e i s r e d u c e d b y a f a c t o r o f 10 0 0 .A 1B 10C 100D 1,0000E 1,000,0002 . W h ic h o f t h e f o llo w in g b e s t e x p la in s t h e t r e n d in s o lid w a s t e p r o d u c t io n b e t w e e n 19 8 0 a n d 2 0 0 5 ?A Additional consumption leading to more waste productionB Increased awareness of air pollution problems associated with incineration that led to more waste being diverted to landfills.C Increased recycling including curbside pickup of mixed recyclables.D Additional exports of solid waste to developing countriesE Decreased consumption resulting in less production of consumables3 . In a r iv e r , w h ic h o f t h e f o llo w in g w ill o c c u r d o w n s t r e a m a s a r e s u lt o f t h e e f f lu e n t d is c h a r g e o f a p r im a r y s e w a g e t r e a t m e n t f a c ilit y ?A Increase in dissolved oxygen concentration of the river’s water.B Increase in biological demand of the river’s waterC Decrease in the turbidity of the waterD Decrease in the ph of the river’s water
  13. 13. 4 . T h e a c r o n y m t h a t r e s id e n t s m a y e m p lo y in t r y in g t o p r e v e n t a n e w la n d f ill f r o m b e in g p la c e d in t h e ir c o m m u n it y is :A NIMBYB PEMBTC NOPED DON’TE GOAWAY5 . W h ic h o f t h e f o llo w in g w a y s o f m a n a g in g e -w a s t e h a s t h e f e w e s t n e g a t iv e e n v ir o n m e n t a l a n d s o c ia l c o n s e q u e n c e s ?A Disposal in sanitary landfills or hazardous waste facilitiesB E-waste collection and local recyclingC E-waste collection and shipping to developing countries for recyclingD IncinerationE E-Waste collection by manufactures required to take back their products for recycling.6 . F u n d in g r e s e a r c h t o im p r o v e t r e a t m e n t o f w h ic h o f t h e f o llo w in g in f e c t io u s d is e a s e s w o u ld d e c r e a s e g lo b a l d e a t h ra te s the mo s t?A. Avian FluB. InfluenzaC. HIVD. MalariaE. SARs
  14. 14. 7 . F a r m e r s in t h e m id w e s t U n it e d S t a t e s h a v ed is c o v e r e d t h a t t h e lo c a l f r o g p o p u la t io n isd e c lin in g . S c ie n t is t s d e t e r m in e t h is is d u e t o m a lef r o g s ’ in a b ilit y t o p r o d u c e s p e r m . W h ic h o f t h ef o llo w in g is a lik e ly c a u s e ?A. Exposure to arsenic from local metal smelting plantsB. Inhalation of inorganic mercury from local power plant emissionsC. High levels of atrazine in the water from agricultural runoffD. Absorption of high levels of nitric acid through their skinE. Increasing UV radiation in the Midwest8 . A c la s s o f o r g a n ic c o m p o u n d s , g e n e r a t e d f r o mw a s t e in c in e r a t io n , t h a t b io a c c u m u la t e in t h e f a tt is s u e o f o r g a n is m s c a u s in g r e p r o d u c t iv e d a m a g ea n d c a n c e r isA. PCBsB. DioxinsC. MercuryD. CyanideE. Asbestos
  15. 15. 9 . L iv e r d is e a s e t h a t d e v e lo p s d u e t o lo n g -t im eu s e o f a lc o h o l a n d d r u g s w o u ld b e a n e x a m p le o fa (n)A. Chronic effectB. Synergistic effectC. Acute effectD. Additive effectE. Cumulative Effect10 . E c o l o g i s t s h a v e b e e n s t u d y i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i nt r o p ic a l r e g io n s t o d e t e r m in e t h e e f f e c t s o f D D To n a q u a t ic s y s t e m s . W h ic h p o p u la t io n w o u ld y o ue x p e c t to s ho w the m o s t e ffe c ts ?A. PhytoplanktonB. Small benthic fishC. ZooplanktonD. Larger schooling fish like tunaE. Predatory birds like pelicans
  16. 16. Free Response Question
  17. 17. Multiple Choice Answers1. B .2. C .3. B.4 . A.5. E.6. B.7. C .8. B.9 . A.10 . E .
  18. 18. Free Response Question Answer

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