Energy efficiency and renewable energy gabriel rileyPresentation Transcript
Energy Efficiency andRenewable Energy Resources With Your Hosts, Gabriel The Studd Echeverria Amd Riley Tree Loving
Why Is Energy Efficiency an Important Energy Resource?• Here in the U.S, we could be saving as much as 43% of all the energy we use by improving energy efficiency. – Five widely used devices that waste energy: • Incandescent light bulb – 5% efficient • Fluorescent bulb - 20% efficient • Motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine – 27 mpg on average • Nuclear power plant • Coal-fired power plant
Net Energy Efficiency• Net energy efficiency Net Energy Gain (NEG) is a concept used in energy economics that refers to the difference between the energy expended to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest.
Comparison of the Net EnergyEfficiency for Two Types of Space Heating
We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry.• Combined Heat and Power System: – n such a system, two useful forms of energy (such as steam and electricity) are produced from the same fuel source.• Cogeneration: – Production of two useful forms of energy, such as high-temperature heat or steam and electricity, from the same fuel source.
• Replace energy-wasting electric motors• Recycling materials• Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting
Energy Efficient Cars• Superefficient and ultralight cars• Gasoline-electric hybrid car• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Ethanol• Ethanol converted to gasohol• United States: ethanol from corn – Reduce the need for oil imports – Slow global warming – Reduce air pollution
Energy Efficient Buildings Methods• Green architecture• Living or green roofs• Straw bale houses A Green or Living Roof in Chicago, IL (U.S.)
We Can Save Energy and Money in Existing Buildings• Heat water more efficiently• Use energy-efficient appliances• Use energy-efficient lighting
Attic Outside• Hang reflective foil near Plant deciduous trees toroof to reflect heat. block summer sun and let• Use house fan. in winter sunlight.• Be sure attic insulation isat least 30 centimeters(12 inches).Bathroom• Install water-savingtoilets, faucets, and Other roomsshower heads. • Use compact fluorescent• Repair water leaks lightbulbs or LEDs and avoidpromptly. using incandescent bulbs wherever possible.Kitchen • Turn off lights, computers, TV,• Use microwave rather and other electronic devicesthan stove or oven as much when they are not in use.as possible. • Use high efficiency windows;• Run only full loads in use insulating window coversdishwasher and use low- or and close them at night andno-heat drying. on sunny, hot days.• Clean refrigerator coils • Set thermostat as low as youregularly. can in winter and as high as you can in summer. • Weather-strip and caulk doors, Basement or utility room windows, light fixtures, and • Use front-loading clothes washer. If possible run only full loads with wall sockets. warm or cold water. • Keep heating and cooling • Hang clothes on racks for drying. vents free of obstructions. • Run only full loads in clothes dryer and use lower heat setting. • Keep fireplace damper closed • Set water heater at 140° if dishwasher is used and 120° or lower if when not in use. no dishwasher is used. • Use fans instead of, or along • Use water heater thermal blanket. with, air conditioning. • Insulate exposed hot water pipes. • Regularly clean or replace furnace filters. Fig. 16-9, p. 409
Solutions: Passive and Active Solar Heating for a Home• Active: System that uses solar collectors to capture energy from the sun and store it as heat for space heating and water heating.• Passive: System that, without the use of mechanical devices, captures sunlight directly within a structure and converts it into low- temperature heat for space heating or for heating water for domestic use.
Solar Energy• Energy derived from the sun in the form of solar radiation.• Photovoltaic Cell: Device that converts radiant (solar) energy directly into electrical energy. Also called a solar cell.• Solar Collector: Device forcollecting radiant energy from the sunand converting it into heat.
Wind Energy• Wind Power. – Captured by turbines – Converted into electrical energy• Second fastest-growing source of energy• Wind farms: Cluster of wind turbines in a windy area on land or at sea, built to capture wind energy and convert it into electrical energy
Wind Energy Is Booming but Still Faces Challenges• Advantages – Environmentally friendly energy – Efficient – Free (Once you finish paying off the turbine)• Drawbacks – Windy areas may be sparsely populated – Winds die down; need back-up energy – Storage of wind energy – Kills migratory birds
The most efficient solution to being more efficient isDecentralized Power System
Questions• The most common form of renewable energy used by citizens of developing countries is? – Solar – Coal – Wind – Biomass – Geothermal• Which island produces most of its energy from geothermal and hydroelectric sources? – Hawaii – Iceland – Madagascar – Japan – New Zealand
a) Ultravioletb) Infraredc) Visibled) X-rayse) Microwaves• The type of radiation with the least energy? – E, microwaves• The type of radiation with the most energy? – D, X-rays
• Biomass can be: I. solar energy converted to chemical energy. II. Derived from living or recently living organisms. III. Energy available for trophic levels. – I only – II only – III only – I and II only – I, II, and III• Some coal burning and nuclear power plants utilize the production of both steam and electricity from one fuel source. This process is known as? – Cogeneration – Internal combustion – Electric resistance heating – Fuel cells – Green architecture
• A switch from dependency from coal burning, used to generate electricity, to wind and solar energy would help alleviate all of the following EXCEPT – Carbon dioxide emissions – Mercury entering aquatic ecosystems – Industrial-based smog – Acid rain – Loss of stratospheric zone• Which of the following countries relies on geothermal energy to provide a large portion of its energy? – Iceland – Canada – India – Spain – Ireland
• Increasing in use in developing countries are large, reflective, parabolic dishes that are used to heat food and water. These solar cookers are a example of – Active solar heating – Solar cell energy – Passive solar heating – PV Cells (photovoltaic) – heliostats• Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with electrical production from hydroelectric dams? – Flooding of terrestrial lands that destroy or fragments wildlife habitats – Displacement of people along overpopulated waterway areas – Reduction of silt downstream from the dam – Interruption of migratory patterns of some fish species – Large output of thermal pollution from producing electricity.
• Hydroelectric power plants supple approximately 20% of the worlds electrical energy, and once they are built, these facilities provide energy that is virtually free. However, hydropower requires the construction of dams and water storage reservoirs that are expensive and dangerous to build. a. Identify and describe the series of energy transformations (conversions) that are used to generate electricity in a hydroelectric power plant. b. Explain why the energy provided by existing hydropower dams is virtually free. c. Identify ONE species whose numbers have diminished as the result of a hydropower project and describe how the project led to the decline in their population. d. Indentify ONE infectious desease that could spread more rapidly among people as a result of a hydropower project and explain how the project could lead to an increase in the spread of disease. e. Hydroelectric dams have a limited life time. Describe 2 natural processes that could lead to the end of the effective lifetime of a hydroelectric damn.