Community interactions and sucession revised
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  • 1. Community Interactions
  • 2. QUICK REVIEW•What is community?•What is population?
  • 3. Community Interactions• Powerfully affect an ecosystem• Include: – Competition – Predation – Symbiosis
  • 4. Competition• When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time – Resource any necessity to life – Plants and animals compete – Winner and losers
  • 5. • Interspecific competition – Competition between two or more species – When 2 or more species rely on same limited resource in a community – Ex. Garden plants and weeds – Ex. Grasshoppers and bison – Ex. Lynx and foxes – Ex. African savannah
  • 6. Niche• Each species unique living arrangement in a community• “Role” – Think about a specific position player on a team i.e. pitcher on a baseball team• Ex. Lizards in a rainforest• Includes: – Habitat – Food sources – Time of day organism is most active
  • 7. Rules, rules, rules• Fundamental rule in ecology – Competitive Exclusion Principle • Russian biologist G.F. Gause – Paramecium caudatum vs. Paramecium aurelia – Separately, both thrive in a culture – P. aurelia could gather food more quickly than the P. caudatum, therefore, if they are grown together, P. aurelia will thrive while P. caudatum will die out • 2 species so similar in requirements that the same resource limits both population’s growth, and one species may succeed over another • No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat and the same time • Prevents un necessary competition
  • 8. Competitive Exclusion:The Ciliate Paramecium over 24 dGrown inSeparateFlasksGrown inthe SameFlask 9
  • 9. Predation• Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism• Predator – Organism that does the killing and eating• Prey – Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim)
  • 10. Predator Adaptations• Speed• Agility• Coloring/camouflage to ambush prey• Packs/teams – Ex. Wolves• Acute senses – Ex. Rattle snake heat sensor organs• Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison
  • 11. Camouflage Assists Predators(a) Frogfish (b) Cheetah 17
  • 12. Cryptic Coloration (Camouflage)• To avoid detection by predators, some animals have evolved to resemble objects such as bird droppings, leaves, or thorns 18
  • 13. Camouflage by Blending in Nightjar (bird)Sand dab (fish) 19
  • 14. A Plant That Mimics a Rock CactusChapter 27 20
  • 15. Prey adaptations• Safe locations• Flee• Coloring/camouflage to hide• Defensive coloration (Cryptic coloration and Aposematic coloration) – “warning coloration”• Mimicry (Batesian and Mullerian) – Organisms imitate dangerous organisms by appearance and actions • Hawk moth larva• Plants – Thorns, spines, poisonous chemicals
  • 16. Cryptic Coloration: Camouflage by Resembling Specific ObjectsMoth Leafy Sea droppings Dragon-sea leaves/weed Treehoppers- leaves 22
  • 17. Aposematic coloration:Warning Coloration-many organisms that are poisonous develop brightcoloration-predators tend to avoid things with bright colors 23
  • 18. Mullerian mimicry• Two distasteful/unpalatable animals resemble each other
  • 19. Batesian Mimicry: Protection Through Mimicry• Harmless organism mimics behavior or appearance of a more intimidating/harmful/distasteful organism• Snowberry flies avoid jumping spider predation by mimicking them both visually and behaviorally 25
  • 20. Visual and Behavioral Mimicry(a) (b) 26
  • 21. Chapter 27 27
  • 22. Protection Through Mimicry• Some animals deter predators by employing startle coloration – Have spots that resemble eyes of a large predator 28
  • 23. Startle Coloration Peacock mothChapter 27 Swallowtail butterfly caterpillar 29
  • 24. Chemical Warfare• Both predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense• Spiders and poisonous snakes use venom to paralyze their prey and deter predators• Many plants have evolved chemicals to deter herbivores• Bombardier beetle sprays hot chemicals from its abdomen 30
  • 25. Chemical Warfare 31
  • 26. Coevolutionary Adaptations• Plants have evolved a variety of chemicals to deter herbivores – Example: the toxic and distasteful chemicals in milkweed• Some animals evolve ways to detoxify these chemicals, allowing them to eat the plants – Plants may then evolve other toxic substances 32
  • 27. The monarch butterflyuses deterrent chemicalsof milkweed, acquired by afeeding caterpillar, to makeitself distasteful to itspredators Chapter 27 33
  • 28. Symbiosis• Any relationship where two species live closely together• Symbiosis literally means “living together”• 3 main types – Parasitism – Mutualism – commensalism
  • 29. What type of relationship is this?• Who is helping who?
  • 30. Mutualism• Both species benefit from the relationship• A Happy couple• Flowers and bees – Flowers need bees for pollination, bees need flowers nectar
  • 31. What type of relation ship is going on here?•Who is helping who?
  • 32. Commensalism• One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped• One-sided• Rare in nature• Food or shelter• Barnacles on whale• Seaweed on back of crab
  • 33. What type of interaction is going on here?
  • 34. Parasitism• One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it• Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism• Host – Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite• Parasite – Organism that gets its nutrients from the host• Do they want to kill their host? – No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way
  • 35. SymbiosisChapter 27 48
  • 36. Recap• What are the three types of interactions in a community? – Competition – Predation – Symbiosis • What types do we have? – Mutualism – Commensalism – Parasitism
  • 37. Ecological Succession• Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time?• What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems? – Natural and unnatural – Quickly and slowly
  • 38. • Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances.• As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change
  • 39. Ecological Succession• Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time – Physical environment – Natural disturbance – Human disturbance• Pioneer species – Any of the first species to move into a devastated area• Climax community – Fairly stable community that marks the end of succession
  • 40. Primary Succession• Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists – Volcanic eruptions – Glaciers melting
  • 41. Stages of Primary Succession• Start with no soil, just ash and rock• First species to populate this area – “pioneer species” – For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz) • Lichens made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock • When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow
  • 42. Secondary Succession• Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil• Natural – hurricane – fires• Human disturbances – Farming – Forest clearing
  • 43. Succession in Marine Ecosystems• Deep and dark• Can succession happen?• 1987 dead whale off of California – Unique community of organisms living in remains – Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem – Whale-fall community
  • 44. Whale-Fall Succession• Begins when large whale dies – Sinks to barren ocean floor – Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community • Amphipods • Hagfish • sharks• After a year, most tissues have been eaten – Now, second small community of organisms live here – Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water • Small fishes • Crabs • Snails • worms• Only skeleton remains… – Third community moves in • Heterotrophic bacteria • Decompose oil in bones release of chemical compounds • Who uses these chemical compounds? – Chemoosynthetic autotrophs • In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria
  • 45. Human Activity and Species Diversity• Land clearing – Farmland – Diverse forest replaced with single crop – Decreases species diversity• Introduced species – Humans move a species from its native land to a new location, intentionally or accidentally
  • 46. Study Intro to Ecology and Community InteractionsTeacher,