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Community interactions and sucession revised

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  • 1. Community Interactions
  • 2. Quick Review
    • What is community?
    • 3. What is population?
  • Community Interactions
    Powerfully affect an ecosystem
    Include:
    Competition
    Predation
    Symbiosis
  • 4. Competition
    When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time
    Resource any necessity to life
    Plants and animals compete
    Winner and losers
  • 5. Interspecific competition
    Competition between same two species
    When 2 or more species rely on same limited resource in a community
    Ex. African savannah
  • 6.
  • 7. Niche
    Each species unique living arrangement in a community
    “Role”
    Think about a specific position player on a team i.e. pitcher on a baseball team
    Ex. Lizards in a rainforest
    Includes:
    Habitat
    Food sources
    Time of day organism is most active
  • 8. Rules, rules, rules
    Fundamental rule in ecology
    Competitive Exclusion Principle
    Russian biologist G.F. Gause
    Paramecium caudatum vs. Paramecium aurelia
    Separately, both thrive in a culture
    P. aurelia could gather food more quickly than the P. caudatum, therefore, if they are grown together, P. aurelia will thrive while P. caudatum will die out
    2 species so similar in requirements that the same resource limits both population’s growth, and one species may succeed over another
    No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat and the same time
    Prevents un necessary competition
  • 9. 9
    Competitive Exclusion:The Ciliate Paramecium over 24 d
    Grown inSeparateFlasks
    Grown inthe SameFlask
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Predation
    Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism
    Predator
    Organism that does the killing and eating
    Prey
    Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim)
  • 16. Predator Adaptations
    Speed
    Agility
    Coloring/camouflage to ambush prey
    Packs/teams
    Ex. Wolves
    Acute senses
    Ex. Rattle snake heat sensor organs
    Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison
  • 17. 17
    Camouflage Assists Predators
    (b)
    (a)
    Frogfish
    Cheetah
  • 18. 18
    Camouflage by Blending in
    Nightjar (bird)
    Sand dab (fish)
  • 19. 19
    Camouflage
    To avoid detection by predators, some animals have evolved to resemble objects such as bird droppings, leaves, or thorns
  • 20. Chapter 27
    20
    A Plant That Mimics a Rock
    Cactus
  • 21. Prey adaptations
    Safe locations
    Flee
    Coloring/camouflage to hide
    Defensive coloration
    “warning coloration”
    Mimicry
    Organisms imitate dangerous organisms by appearance and actions
    Hawk moth larva
    Plants
    Thorns, spines, poisonous chemicals
  • 22. Chapter 27
    22
    Camouflage byResembling Specific Objects
    Moth
    Leafy Sea Dragon-sea leaves/weed
    droppings
    Treehoppers- leaves
  • 23. Chapter 27
    23
    Warning Coloration
  • 24.
  • 25. Chapter 27
    25
  • 26. 26
    Protection Through Mimicry
    Snowberry flies avoid by jumping spider predation by mimicking them both visually and behaviorally
  • 27. 27
    Visual and Behavioral Mimicry
    (b)
    (a)
  • 28. 28
    Protection Through Mimicry
    Some animals deter predators by employing startle coloration
    Have spots that resemble eyes of a large predator
  • 29. Chapter 27
    29
    Startle Coloration
    Peacock moth
    Swallowtail butterfly caterpillar
  • 30. 30
    Chemical Warfare
    Both predators and prey have evolved toxic chemicals for attack and defense
    Spiders and poisonous snakes use venom to paralyze their prey and deter predators
    Many plants have evolved chemicals to deter herbivores
    Bombardier beetle sprays hot chemicals from its abdomen
  • 31. 31
    Chemical Warfare
  • 32. 32
    Coevolutionary Adaptations
    Plants have evolved a variety of chemicals to deter herbivores
    Example: the toxic and distasteful chemicals in milkweed
    Some animals evolve ways to detoxify these chemicals, allowing them to eat the plants
    Plants may then evolve other toxic substances
  • 33. Chapter 27
    33
    The monarch butterfly uses deterrent chemicals of milkweed, acquired by a feeding caterpillar, to make itself distasteful to its predators
  • 34. Symbiosis
    Any relationship where two species live closely together
    Symbiosis literally means “living together”
    3 main types
    Parasitism
    Mutualism
    commensalism
  • 35. What type of relationship is this?
    Who is helping who?
  • 36. Mutualism
    Both species benefit from the relationship
    A Happy couple
    Flowers and bees
    Flowers need bees for pollination, bees need flowers nectar
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. What type of relation ship is going on here?
    • Who is helping who?
  • Commensalism
    One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped
    One-sided
    Rare in nature
    Food or shelter
    Barnacles on whale
    Seaweed on back of crab
  • 41. What type of interaction is going on here?
  • 42. Parasitism
    One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
    Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism
    Host
    Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite
    Parasite
    Organism that gets its nutrients from the host
    Do they want to kill their host?
    No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. Chapter 27
    48
    Symbiosis
  • 48. Recap
    What are the three types of interactions in a community?
    Competition
    Predation
    Symbiosis
    What types do we have?
    Mutualism
    Commensalism
    Parasitism
  • 49. Ecological Succession
    Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time?
    What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems?
    Natural and unnatural
    Quickly and slowly
  • 50. Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances.
    As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change
  • 51. Ecological Succession
    Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
    Physical environment
    Natural disturbance
    Human disturbance
  • 52. Primary Succession
    Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
    Volcanic eruptions
    Glaciers melting
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. Stages of Primary Succession
    Start with no soil, just ash and rock
    First species to populate this area
    “pioneer species”
    For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz)
    Lichens made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock
    When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow
  • 56. Secondary Succession
    Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
    Natural
    hurricane
    fires
    Human disturbances
    Farming
    Forest clearing
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62. Succession in Marine Ecosystems
    Deep and dark
    Can succession happen?
    1987 dead whale off of California
    Unique community of organisms living in remains
    Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem
    Whale-fall community
  • 63.
  • 64. Whale-Fall Succession
    Begins when large whale dies
    Sinks to barren ocean floor
    Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community
    Amphipods
    Hagfish
    sharks
    After a year, most tissues have been eaten
    Now, second small community of organisms live here
    Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water
    Small fishes
    Crabs
    Snails
    worms
    Only skeleton remains…
    Third community moves in
    Heterotrophic bacteria
    Decompose oil in bones release of chemical compounds
    Who uses these chemical compounds?
    Chemoosynthetic autotrophs
    In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria
  • 65. Human Activity and Species Diversity
    Land clearing
    Farmland
    Diverse forest replaced with single crop
    Decreases species diversity
    Introduced species
    Humans move a species from its native land to a new location, intentionally or accidentally
  • 66. Study Intro to Ecology and Community Interactions
    Teacher,

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