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Chemistry and bio apes ppt chaper 2 Chemistry and bio apes ppt chaper 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 2
    Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy
  • Chapter Overview Questions
    What is science, and what do scientists do?
    What are major components and behaviors of complex systems?
    What are the basic forms of matter, and what makes matter useful as a resource?
    What types of changes can matter undergo and what scientific law governs matter?
  • Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d)
    What are the major forms of energy, and what makes energy useful as a resource?
    What are two scientific laws governing changes of energy from one form to another?
    How are the scientific laws governing changes of matter and energy from one form to another related to resource use, environmental degradation and sustainability?
  • Updates Online
    The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at the book companion website. Log in to the book’s e-resources page at www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.
    InfoTrac: Underwater Microscope Finds Biological Treasures in Subtropical Ocean. Ascribe Higher Education News Service, June 26, 2006.
    InfoTrac: In Bacterial Diversity, Amazon Is a 'Desert'; Desert Is an 'Amazon'. Ascribe Higher Education News Service, Jan 9, 2006.
    InfoTrac: Making MGP wastes beneficial. Bob Paulson. Pollution Engineering, June 2006 v38 i6 p20(5).
    NASA: Nitrogen Cycle
    Environmental Literacy Council: Phosphorous Cycle
    National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service: Nutrient Cycles
  • Video: The Throw Away Society
    This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local sales representative to order this volume, while supplies last.
  • Core Case Study: Environmental Lesson from Easter Island
    Thriving society
    15,000 people by 1400.
    Used resources faster than could be renewed
    By 1600 only a few trees remained.
    Civilization collapsed
    By 1722 only several hundred people left.
    Figure 2-1
  • THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
    What do scientists do?
    Collect data.
    Form hypotheses.
    Develop theories, models and laws about how nature works.
    Figure 2-2
  • Ask a question
    Do experiments
    and collect data
    Interpret data
    Well-tested and
    accepted patterns
    in data become
    scientific laws
    Formulate hypothesis
    to explain data
    Do more experiments
    to test hypothesis
    Revise hypothesis
    if necessary
    Well-tested and
    accepted hypotheses
    become
    scientific theories
    Fig. 2-2, p. 29
  • Ask a question
    Do experiments
    and collect data
    Interpret data
    Well-tested and
    accepted patterns
    In data become
    scientific laws
    Formulate hypothesis
    to explain data
    Do more experiments
    to test hypothesis
    Revise hypothesis
    if necessary
    Well-tested and
    accepted
    hypotheses
    become
    scientific theories
    Stepped Art
    Fig. 2-3, p. 30
  • Scientific Theories and Laws: The Most Important Results of Science
    Scientific Theory
    Widely tested and accepted hypothesis.
    Scientific Law
    What we find happening over and over again in nature.
    Figure 2-3
  • Research results
    Scientific paper
    Peer review by
    experts in field
    Paper
    rejected
    Paper accepted
    Paper published in
    scientific journal
    Research evaluated
    by scientific community
    Fig. 2-3, p. 30
  • Testing Hypotheses
    Scientists test hypotheses using controlled experiments and constructing mathematical models.
    Variables or factors influence natural processes
    Single-variable experiments involve a control and an experimental group.
    Most environmental phenomena are multivariable and are hard to control in an experiment.
    Models are used to analyze interactions of variables.
  • Scientific Reasoning and Creativity
    Inductive reasoning
    Involves using specific observations and measurements to arrive at a general conclusion or hypothesis.
    Bottom-up reasoning going from specific to general.
    Deductive reasoning
    Uses logic to arrive at a specific conclusion.
    Top-down approach that goes from general to specific.
  • Frontier Science, Sound Science, and Junk Science
    Frontier science has not been widely tested (starting point of peer-review).
    Sound science consists of data, theories and laws that are widely accepted by experts.
    Junk science is presented as sound science without going through the rigors of peer-review.
  • Limitations of Environmental Science
    Inadequate data and scientific understanding can limit and make some results controversial.
    Scientific testing is based on disproving rather than proving a hypothesis.
    Based on statistical probabilities.
  • MODELS AND BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEMS
    Usefulness of models
    Complex systems are predicted by developing a model of its inputs, throughputs (flows), and outputs of matter, energy and information.
    Models are simplifications of “real-life”.
    Models can be used to predict if-then scenarios.
  • Feedback Loops: How Systems Respond to Change
    Outputs of matter, energy, or information fed back into a system can cause the system to do more or less of what it was doing.
    Positive feedback loop causes a system to change further in the same direction (e.g. erosion)
    Negative (corrective) feedback loop causes a system to change in the opposite direction (e.g. seeking shade from sun to reduce stress).
  • Feedback Loops:
    Negative feedback can take so long that a system reaches a threshold and changes.
    Prolonged delays may prevent a negative feedback loop from occurring.
    Processes and feedbacks in a system can (synergistically) interact to amplify the results.
    E.g. smoking exacerbates the effect of asbestos exposure on lung cancer.
  • TYPES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER
    Elements and Compounds
    Matter exists in chemical forms as elements and compounds.
    Elements (represented on the periodic table) are the distinctive building blocks of matter.
    Compounds: two or more different elements held together in fixed proportions by chemical bonds.
  • Atoms
    Figure 2-4
  • Ions
    An ion is an atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative electrical charges.
    The number of positive or negative charges on an ion is shown as a superscript after the symbol for an atom or group of atoms
    Hydrogen ions (H+), Hydroxide ions (OH-)
    Sodium ions (Na+), Chloride ions (Cl-)
  • The pH (potential of Hydrogen) is the concentration of hydrogen ions in one liter of solution.
    Figure 2-5
  • Compounds and Chemical Formulas
    Chemical formulas are shorthand ways to show the atoms and ions in a chemical compound.
    Combining Hydrogen ions (H+) and Hydroxide ions (OH-) makes the compound H2O (dihydrogen oxide, a.k.a. water).
    Combining Sodium ions (Na+) and Chloride ions (Cl-) makes the compound NaCl (sodium chloride a.k.a. salt).
  • Organic Compounds: Carbon Rules
    Organic compounds contain carbon atoms combined with one another and with various other atoms such as H+, N+, or Cl-.
    Contain at least two carbon atoms combined with each other and with atoms.
    Methane (CH4) is the only exception.
    All other compounds are inorganic.
  • Organic Compounds: Carbon Rules
    Hydrocarbons: compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms (e.g. methane (CH4)).
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons: compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine atoms (e.g. DDT (C14H9Cl5)).
    Simple carbohydrates: certain types of compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (e.g. glucose (C6H12O6)).
  • Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life
    Cells are the basic structural and functional units of all forms of life.
    Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) lack a distinct nucleus.
    Eukaryotic cells (plants and animals) have a distinct nucleus.
    Figure 2-6
  • (a) Prokaryotic Cell
    DNA(information storage, no nucleus)
    Cell membrane
    (transport of
    raw materials and
    finished products)
    Protein construction
    and energy conversion
    occur without specialized
    internal structures
    Fig. 2-6a, p. 37
  • (b) Eukaryotic Cell
    Energy conversion
    Nucleus
    (information
    storage)
    Protein
    construction
    Cell membrane
    (transport of raw
    materials and
    finished products)
    Packaging
    Fig. 2-6b, p. 37
  • Macromolecules, DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
    Large, complex organic molecules (macromolecules) make up the basic molecular units found in living organisms.
    Complex carbohydrates
    Proteins
    Nucleic acids
    Lipids
    Figure 2-7
  • A human body contains trillions of cells, each with an identical set of genes.
    There is a nucleus inside each human cell (except red blood cells).
    Each cell nucleus has an identical set of chromosomes, which are found in pairs.
    A specific pair of chromosomes contains one chromosome from each parent.
    Each chromosome contains a long DNA molecule in the form of a coiled double helix.
    Genes are segments of DNA on
    chromosomes that contain instructions
    to make proteins—the building blocks
    of life.
    The genes in each cell are coded by sequences of nucleotides in their DNA molecules.
    Fig. 2-7, p. 38
  • A human body contains trillions
    of cells, each with an identical
    set of genes.
    There is a nucleus inside each
    human cell (except red blood cells).
    Each cell nucleus has an identical
    set of chromosomes, which are
    found in pairs.
    A specific pair of chromosomes
    contains one chromosome from
    each parent.
    Each chromosome contains a long
    DNA molecule in the form of a coiled
    double helix.
    Genes are segments of DNA on
    chromosomes that contain instructions
    to make proteins—the building blocks
    of life.
    The genes in each cell are coded
    by sequences of nucleotides in
    their DNA molecules.
    Stepped Art
    Fig. 2-7, p. 38
  • States of Matter
    The atoms, ions, and molecules that make up matter are found in three physical states:
    solid, liquid, gaseous.
    A fourth state, plasma, is a high energy mixture of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.
    The sun and stars consist mostly of plasma.
    Scientists have made artificial plasma (used in TV screens, gas discharge lasers, florescent light).
  • Matter Quality
    Matter can be classified as having high or low quality depending on how useful it is to us as a resource.
    High quality matter is concentrated and easily extracted.
    low quality matter is more widely dispersed and more difficult to extract.
    Figure 2-8
  • Matter Quality
    It is the measure of how useful a form of matter is as a resource
    Based on AVAILABILITY and CONCENTRATION
    High Quality
    Easy to extract
    Found near earth’s surface
    Great potential for use as a material resource
    Low Quality
    Dilute
    Usually deep underground or dispersed in the ocean or atmosphere
    Has little potential for use as material resource
  • Aluminum Can
    A more concentrated, Higher Quality matter than aluminum ore that contains the same amount of aluminum
    Less energy, water and energy to recycle an aluminum can compared to making a brand new aluminum can
  • High Quality
    Low Quality
    Solid
    Gas
    Solution of salt in water
    Salt
    Coal
    Coal-fired power plant emissions
    Gasoline
    Automobile emissions
    Aluminum can
    Aluminum ore
    Fig. 2-8, p. 39
  • CHANGES IN MATTER
    Matter can change from one physical form to another or change its chemical composition.
    When a physical or chemical change occurs, no atoms are created or destroyed.
    Law of conservation of matter.
    Physical change maintains original chemical composition.
    Different spatial arrangement
    Chemical change involves a chemical reaction which changes the arrangement of the elements or compounds involved.
    Chemical equations are used to represent the reaction.
    Rearrangement of atoms
  • Chemical Change
    Energy is given off during the reaction as a product.
  • Reactant(s)
    Product(s)
    energy
    carbon dioxide
    carbon
    +
    oxygen
    +
    energy
    +
    O2
    C
    CO2
    +
    energy
    +
    +
    black solid
    colorless gas
    colorless gas
    p. 39
  • Types of Pollutants
    Factors that determine the severity of a pollutant’s effects:
    Chemical nature
    Concentration
    ppm-parts per million…
    One part pollutant to a million parts of liquid, gas, or solid mixture it is part of
    Persistence
    How long it stays in water, air, soil, body
    Pollutants are classified based on their persistence:
    Degradable pollutants
    Biodegradable pollutants
    Slowly degradable pollutants
    Nondegradable pollutants
  • Types of Pollutants
    Degradable pollutants
    Non - persistent
    Can be broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical or biological processes
    Biodegradable pollutants
    Complex chemicals that specialized living organisms (certain bacteria) can break down into simpler chemicals (ie human sewage)
    Slowly degradable pollutants
    Persistent pollutant that last for a decade or longer (ie DDT pesticide)
    Nondegradable pollutants
    Chemical that cannot be broken down by natural processes (lead, mercury, arsenic)
  • ENERGY
    Energy is the ability to do work and transfer heat.
    Kinetic energy – energy in motion
    heat, electromagnetic radiation
    Potential energy – stored for possible use
    batteries, glucose molecules
  • 3 Ways Heat Can Be Transferred
    Convection
    When warmer particles rise and the fall as then cool down
    Conduction
    Particles move and transfer energy to particles around them, until they are all heated to the point where they are moving so fast they are too hot to touch
    Radiation
    When heat from the hot/heated material radiates to the surrounding air
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
    Many different forms of electromagnetic radiation exist, each having a different wavelength and energy content.
    Figure 2-11
  • Sun
    Nonionizing radiation
    Ionizing radiation
    Near
    infrared
    waves
    Far
    infrared
    waves
    Near
    ultra-
    violet
    waves
    Far
    ultra-
    violet
    waves
    Cosmic
    rays
    Gamma
    Rays
    Visible
    Waves
    TV
    waves
    Radio
    Waves
    X rays
    Micro-
    waves
    High energy, short
    Wavelength
    Wavelength in meters
    (not to scale)
    Low energy, long
    Wavelength
    Fig. 2-11, p. 43
  • EM Spectrum
    Ionizing radiation
    Cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, UV rays
    Contain enough energy to knock electrons off of atoms and create positively charged particles
    Result is highly reactive electrons and ions…DANGEROUS!
    Genetic damage
    Cause disruptions in DNA that is passed down to offspring
    Somatic damage
    Causes damage to tissue structure
    Burns, miscarriages, cataracts, cancers
    Nonionizing radiation
    Not enough energy to knock off electrons and create ions
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
    Organisms vary in their ability to sense different parts of the spectrum.
    Figure 2-12
  • Energy emitted from sun (kcal/cm2/min)
    Visible
    Infrared
    Ultraviolet
    Wavelength (micrometers)
    Fig. 2-12, p. 43
  • Relative
    Energy Quality
    (usefulness)
    Source of Energy
    Energy Tasks
    Electricity
    Very high temperature heat
    (greater than 2,500°C)
    Nuclear fission (uranium)
    Nuclear fusion (deuterium)
    Concentrated sunlight
    High-velocity wind
    Very high-temperature heat (greater than 2,500°C) for industrial processes and producing electricity to run electrical devices (lights, motors)
    High-temperature heat
    (1,000–2,500°C)
    Hydrogen gas
    Natural gas
    Gasoline
    Coal
    Food
    Mechanical motion to move
    vehicles and other things)
    High-temperature heat
    (1,000–2,500°C) for
    industrial processes and
    producing electricity
    Normal sunlight
    Moderate-velocity wind
    High-velocity water flow
    Concentrated geothermal energy
    Moderate-temperature heat
    (100–1,000°C)
    Wood and crop wastes
    Moderate-temperature heat
    (100–1,000°C) for
    industrial processes, cooking, producing
    steam, electricity, and
    hot water
    Dispersed geothermal energy
    Low-temperature heat
    (100°C or lower)
    Low-temperature heat
    (100°C or less) for
    space heating
    Fig. 2-13, p. 44
  • ENERGY LAWS: TWO RULES WE CANNOT BREAK
    The first law of thermodynamics: we cannot create or destroy energy.
    We can change energy from one form to another.
    The second law of thermodynamics: energy quality always decreases.
    When energy changes from one form to another, it is always degraded to a more dispersed form.
    Energy efficiency is a measure of how much useful work is accomplished before it changes to its next form.
  • Laws of Thermodynamics
    Cannot create or destroy energy, only transfer or change form
    When energy changes form, some energy is always degraded to lower quality, more dispersed, less useful forms of energy (more useful to less useful)
  • Mechanicalenergy(moving,thinking,living)
    Chemical
    energy
    (photosynthesis)
    Chemical
    energy
    (food)
    Solar
    energy
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Fig. 2-14, p. 45
  • ISOTOPES!
    Atoms with the same atomic number but with different atomic masses are called isotopes
    Changing the # of neutrons in an atom will affect the…
    MASS NUMBER= protons + neutrons
    Isotopes of an element have the same # of p+ and e-…so they behave the same CHEMICALLY
    The average of all the mass #s of the isotopes of an element give us that decimal on the periodic table (Average Atomic Mass)
  • Radioactive Isotopes
    As the difference b/t p+ and n. in the nucleus increases, the nucleus becomes more unstable
    When p=n , nucleus is stable…
    When n>p or n<p, nucleus is unstable
    Nucleus will give off tiny amounts of energy to become stable (protons or neutrons)
    Radiation=energy
    Radioactive=when something gives off energy
  • Isotopes of the Element Potassium with a Known Natural Abundance
    Mass # Natural Abundance Half-life
    39 93.2581% Stable
    40 0.0117% 1.265×10+9 years
    41 6.7302% Stable
  • Isotopes continued
    Radiation can be dangerous in large amounts but in small amounts it can be useful in science
    Geology-determine age of fossils and rocks
    Medicine-treat cancer and detect cell processes (tracers)
    PET scans, CT scans, MRI
    Commercial-kill bacteria that spoils certain foods
  • Nuclear Changes: Radioactive Decay
    Natural radioactive decay: unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast moving chunks of matter (alphaorbeta particles), high-energy radiation (gamma rays), or both at a fixed rate.
    Radiation is commonly used in energy production and medical applications.
    The rate of decay is expressed as a half-life (the time needed for one-half of the nuclei to decay to form a different isotope).
  • Half-life (HL)
    Time needed for one-half of the nuclei to decay to form a different isotope
    Emits radiation to form different isotope
    Decay continues until stable nuclei is produced…forms various radioactive isotopes
    Each radioactive isotope has a characteristic HL
    HL cannot be changed by temperature, pressure, chemical rxns, or other known factors
  • Half Life continued
    Use HL to estimate how long a sample radioactive isotope must be stored in a safe container before it decays to what is considered a safe level
    General rule: takes about 10 half-lives to reach this “safe” level
    Radioactive Iodine-131
    Concentrated in thyroid gland
    HL= 8 days
    How long to reach a safe level?
    10 x 8 days = 80 days
    Radioactive Plutonium-239
    Produced in nuclear reactors and used as explosive in nuclear weapons
    HL= 24,000 years
    How long to reach a safe level?
    10 x 24,000= 240,000 years
  • Nuclear Changes: Fission
    Nuclear fission: nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are split apart into lighter nuclei when struck by neutrons.
    Figure 2-9
  • Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Energy
    Fission
    Fragment
    Uranium-235
    n
    n
    Neutron
    n
    n
    Uranium-235
    Energy
    Energy
    n
    n
    Uranium-235
    Fission
    Fragment
    Uranium-235
    Energy
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Fig. 2-9, p. 41
  • Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Energy
    Fission
    fragment
    Uranium-235
    n
    n
    n
    Neutron
    n
    Energy
    Energy
    Uranium-235
    n
    Uranium-235
    n
    Fission
    fragment
    Uranium-235
    Energy
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Uranium-235
    Stepped Art
    Fig. 2-6, p. 28
  • Nuclear Changes: Fusion
    Nuclear fusion: two isotopes of light elements are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus.
    Figure 2-10
  • Reaction
    Conditions
    Products
    Fuel
    Proton
    Neutron
    Energy
    Hydrogen-2
    (deuterium nucleus)
    +
    100
    million °C
    +
    Helium-4 nucleus
    +
    +
    Hydrogen-3
    (tritium nucleus)
    Neutron
    Fig. 2-10, p. 42
  • SUSTAINABILITY AND MATTER AND ENERGY LAWS
    Unsustainable High-Throughput Economies: Working in Straight Lines
    Converts resources to goods in a manner that promotes waste and pollution.
    Figure 2-15
  • System
    Throughputs
    Inputs
    (from environment)
    Outputs
    (into environment)
    Unsustainable
    high-waste
    economy
    High-quality energy
    Low-quality energy (heat)
    Matter
    Waste and pollution
    Fig. 2-15, p. 46
  • Sustainable Low-Throughput Economies: Learning from Nature
    Matter-Recycling-and-Reuse Economies: Working in Circles
    Mimics nature by recycling and reusing, thus reducing pollutants and waste.
    It is not sustainable for growing populations.
  • Mechanicalenergy(moving,thinking,living)
    Chemical
    energy
    (photosynthesis)
    Chemical
    energy
    (food)
    Solar
    energy
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Waste
    Heat
    Fig. 2-14, p. 45
  • Inputs
    (from environment)
    System
    Throughputs
    Outputs
    (into environment)
    Energy
    conservation
    Low-quality
    Energy
    (heat)
    Energy
    Sustainable
    low-waste
    economy
    Waste
    and
    pollution
    Waste
    and
    pollution
    Pollution
    control
    Matter
    Recycle
    and
    reuse
    Matter
    Feedback
    Energy Feedback
    Fig. 2-16, p. 47