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Aquatic Ecosystems

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Aquatic Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Presentation Transcript

  • Aquatic Ecosystems
  • What type of Freshwater ecosystem are these?
  • Flowing Water
  • Streams and Rivers
    Rivers change from source point to end point (where they empty out, usually ocean)
    Source: usually cold (water is from springs), low in nutrients and clear
    shallow and narrow
    few phytoplankton
    major producers are algae on rocks in river bed
    Arthropods in benthic zone that feed on algae and leaves
    Common fish is trout
    Downstream from source
    Wider and deeper
    Marshes and other wetlands
    Warmer and murkier water
    Phytoplankton
    Frogs, catfish, insect larvae
  • Organisms adapt
  • What type of fresh water ecosystem is this?
  • Standing Water Ecosystem
  • Ponds and Lakes
    Water bodies with very little dissolved salt
    Standing water
    Photic zone: surface of water
    Phytoplankton and water plants that use photosynthesis
    Aphotic zone: no light/little light
    Light levels too low to support photosynthesis
    Benthic zone
    Rock, sand, sediment
    Floor
  • Plankton
    Phytoplankton
    Unicellular algae
    cyanobacteria
    Zooplankton
    Planktonic animals that feed on phytoplankton
  • Name this marine ecosystem…
  • Fresh water Wetlands
  • Wetlands
    Aquatic ecosystem where water covers the soil or is present near the surface of soil for at least part of the year
    Water may be flowing or standing, salty, or brackish
    Very productive ecosystem
    Four types
  • Small depressions where water collects
    Lots of mosses
    Bogs
  • Marsh
  • Marsh
    Shallow wetlands along rivers
    Grass-like plants in water
    Looks like river of grass
  • Swamp
  • Swamp
    Water is slowly flowing through these wetlands
    Looks like a flooded forest
  • Name this ecosystem(hint: unique to Florida)
    • Covers much of south florida
    • Unique
    • Water from Lake Okeechobee flows to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic
    • Wet season (May to October)
    • Dry season (November to April)
    • Unique Wildlife
    • Endangered species
    Everglades
  • Estuary
    • Wetlands where rivers meet ocean
    • Mix of fresh and salt water (brackish)
    • Affected by rise and fall of ocean tides
    • Many are shallow
    • Photosynthesis plays a major role even in benthic zone
    • Primary producers are plants and bacteria, who use both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
    • Estuary food webs differ from other ecosystems because primary production is not consumed by herbivores
    • Most organic material enters food web as detritus
    • Detritus: made of tiny pieces of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of the estuary food web
    • Clams, worms, and sponges feed on this
    • Support large biomass
    • Fewer species than fresh water ecosystems
    • 2 types
  • Salt Marsh
    Salt tolerant plants above low tide line
    Sea grasses underwater
    Found along eastern North America (Maine to Georgia)Chesapeake Bay in Maryland
  • Coastal estuaries found in tropical regions
    Hawaii and Florida
    Salt tolerant trees (mangroves)
    Sea grasses
    Prevalent in Everglades
    Mangrove Swamp
  • Marine Ecosystems
  • Zones of Marine ecosystems
    2 Main Divisions Based on Light
    Photic
    200 m
    photosynthesis
    Aphotic
    Permanent darkness
    chemosynthesis
    Depth/Distance Divisions
    Intertidal Zone
    Rocky
    zonation
    Coastal Ocean (neritic zone)
    Low tide mark to outer edge of continental shelf
    Open Ocean (pelagic zone)
    Edge of continental shelf and outward
    500m to 11000m
    Largest division
    Benthic Zone
    Ocean floor
    Attached organisms…
  • Name this Marine Ecosystem
  • Intertidal Zone
  • ZONATIONprominent horizontal banding of organisms in particular habitat
  • Coastal ocean (Neritic)
  • Kelp Forests
    Pacific Ocean
    Cold, nutrient rich water
    Support many organisms
    Grow up to 50 feet tall!
  • Open Ocean Ecosystem (largest)(Oceanic/Pelagic)
    Phytoplankton drifting in photic layer
    Zooplankton-feed off phytoplankton
    Whales, squid, dolphins
  • Benthic Zone
  • Depth of 2,500 meters
    Spots on the ocean floor where hot gases and minerals spew out of Earth’s crust from its interior
    No sunlight (aphotic)
    Producers are prokaryotes that use chemosynthesis to make hydrogen and sulfur containing compounds into carbohydrates they can use
    Tube worms (up to 3m long!) and clams feed on these prokaryotes
    Hydrothermal Vents
  • Coral Reefs
  • Coral Reefs
    Biologically diverse
    Equivalent to the tropical rainforest but the watery version
    All invertebrates are found here
    Sponges, sea anemones, worms, star fish, mollusks, sea urchins
    Vertebrates also roam the reefs
    Sea turtles and tropical fish
    Reefs are formed from colonies of coral polyps
    Animals in the Phylum Cnidarian (Jellyfish phylum)
    These organisms secrete hard exoskeletons made of calcium bicarbonate that make up the hard, stone like base of the reef
    This is the home to many coral polyps, sponges and algae
    Coral polyps use photosynthesis During the day to make their own food
    Coral polyps also have stinging tentacles to help them capture zooplankton
  • Zones of Marine ecosystems
    2 Main Divisions Based on Light
    Photic
    200 m
    photosynthesis
    Aphotic
    Permanent darkness
    chemosynthesis
    Depth/Distance Divisions
    Intertidal Zone
    Rocky
    zonation
    Coastal Ocean/neritic
    Low tide mark to outer edge of continental shelf
    Open Ocean/pelagic
    Edge of continental shelf and outward
    500m to 11000m
    Largest division
    Benthic Zone
    Ocean floor
    Attached organisms…