Plant Overview More than 400,000 different species of plants have been identified (and more are out there!) Plants evolved from an organism much like the multicellular ALGAE we see today What are some unique feature to a plant cell??? Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts How do plants obtain energy? Photosynthesis (to make their food) and then cellular respiration (to actually get ATP to do all those cool things living organisms do….) Grow and develop Reproduce Maintain Homeostasis Evolve Obtain and use resources
Plant characteristics Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Evolved from unicellular algae Multicellular Many cells organized into tissues organized into functioning organs to make a function organism Autotrophic They can make their own food…GLUCOSE!!! Use Photosynthesis to do so…
Two Major Groups of Plants VASCULAR Tissue is tissue that transports water and nutrients in an organism Plants Bryophytes Tracheophytes (non-vascular) (vascular)Lack specialized tissue Have specialized tissue that for H2O transport transports H2O and nutrients Seedless Non- Flowering plants flowering seed plants seed plants
Bryophytes Non-vascular No specialized tissue to carry H2O Absorb nutrients directly from surroundings osmosis Examples Mosses Liverworts Hornworts
Tracheophytes Vascular system Transport system between ORGANS of plant roots, stems and leaves Plants have different structure and arrangement of these organs to adapt to their environment Transport water and nutrients all over=LARGE sizes Examples: Seedless plants… FERNS GYMNOSPERMS: Non-flowering seeded plants PINE TREES ANGIOSPERMS: Flowering seeded plants DAISYS
Vascular Tissue VEINS of the plant (similar to our blood vessels) can move fluids through the body of a plant, even against the force of gravity XYLEM Carries water from the roots to the stem and leaves PHOLEM Transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates made by photosynthesis in the leaves to all the other parts of the plant
Major Organs of the Plants Roots Anchor and support plant Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil Store food and water Stem Transport materials between plants roots and its leaves and flowers Support leaves and flowers Some store food and water Leaves Main organs that carry out photosynthesis Many adaptations (size, shape, structure) to help plant survive Needles Flowers
Roots 2 types Taproots Single, large root that grows deep into soil Smaller roots branch off main root Good at storing food and water DICOT plants have taproots Examples: Carrots and beets Desert plants have very long taproots…why do you think? Fibrous roots Does NOT have single main root Many small, shallow roots branching from base of plant MONOCOT plants have fibrous roots Examples: Grasses
Stems Connect roots to leaves and flowers TRANSPORT Defense against predators and disease Storage of food and water POTATOES: modified stems that store lots of food in form of starch• WOODY plants (trunk is the stem) Trees and shrubs have HARD Stems Larger and long life spans• HERBACEOUS plants Plants with green, flexible stems Smaller, and shorter life spans
Leaves Location of Photosynthesis Three major structures of leaf Petiole- tube like structure that attaches leaf to stem Blade- broad, flat part of leaf Veins- tube-like structures that transport water to leave Stomata Small, pore-like openings on the underside of leaves Site of TRANSPIRATION water Site of Gas exchange (respiration) Carbon dioxide and oxygen Guard cells Tiny cells, that control the opening and closing of the stomata Adaptations
Leaf Adaptations Adaptations Pine Needles and Cacti: needle shaped leaves or microscopic leaves b/c they need to prevent water loss Rainforest plants: broad, flat leaves b/c they need to catch as much light as possible in shade Flowers: modified leaves for sexual reproduction
Major Plant Tissues Dermal tissue Outer covering of leaves made of epidermal cells Waxy “cuticle” and fuzzy appearance of leaves (from tiny projections called trichomes) On roots, this tissue is the roots hairs (increase surface area to increase water absorption) Vascular tissue Transport (xylem and phloem) Ground tissue Tissue made of the cells that lie between dermal and vascular tissue Made of cells with many central vacuoles In leaves, this tissue is made of cells with many chloroplasts Meristematic tissue Clusters of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plants lifetime “indeterminate Growth” Growth that produces new cells at the tips of a plants roots and stems throughout a plant’s lifetime Made of “undifferentiated” cells…a plants STEM CELLS Only part of the plant that produces new cells by mitosis
Cambiu Plants grow tall from APICAL MERISTEMS m How do they get wider??? Secondary Growth Method of growth where stem increase in WIDTH Conifers and Dicots Secondary growth takes place in: Vascular Cambium lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissue and increases thickness of stem (makes wood of a tree) Cork Cambium lateral meristematic tissue that produces outer covering of stems (makes bark of a tree)
I’m Sexy and You Know it! Most EVOLVED plants Flowering Plants Very Attractive! Smell good Look pretty There is a reason they are used in courtship Reproduce sexually Contain both MALE and FEMALE reproductive parts
Flowers Angiosperms Seed plant that produces a seed that is enclosed by a fruit Fruit develops inside the flower Surround by lots of yummy Glucose Flowers are Modified leaves Reproductive Organ of the Angiosperm Attractive color and smells to attract birds and bees to help them cross-pollinate = GENETIC DIEVRSITY!!!
Seeds Reproductive structure of plant that contains a plant embryo Part of embryo will develop into stem, leaves and roots of new plant In flowering plants, seed also contains food (glucose=sugar) and protective coat (ie. banana peel) Seed of Angiosperm may have one or two baby leaves (called cotyledons) 1 cotyledon= monocot (grasses/grains) 2 cotyledons= dicot (beans)
Fruits• Pollination transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil• When pollen gets into style, Fertilization of the eggs in the ovary of the flower occur• After fertilization, more seeds develop in ovary• Ovary develops into a protective FRUIT providing developing seeds with lots of yummy GLUCOSE!
Angiosperms are classified in Two Categories Monocots………………..……Dicots
Cones UNLIKE seeds of flowering plants NO protective coating of the embryo More sexiness AKA reproduction! Gymnosperms Conifers (Pine trees) do NOT have flowers but they do have CONES Male Pollen cones…pollen carried by wind Female Ovules under scales
Plant structure and processes1. Jenny is comparing the reproductive structures of different species in the plant kingdom. Which structures would most useful for determining angiosperms from gymnosperms?A. Fruits and conesB. Anthers and pistilsC. Xylem and phloemD. Needles and pollen
Plant structure and processes2. For which important process in the plant physiology do openings on the undersides of leaves need to be open?A. PhotosynthesisB. PhototropismC. ReproductionD. Respiration
Plant structure and processes3. The leaf cells of green plants usually contain thylakoids. The root cells of green plants do not usually contain these structures, or contain fewer of them. Which statement best explains why?A. Root cells eject organelles to make space for water and nutrients to pass through the roots.B. Roots cells are simpler and do not need energy to perform their specialized functions.C. Leaf cells are large enough to contain thylakoids, but the root cells are not.D. Leaf cells are the primary site for light-dependent chemical reactions.
Plant structure and processes4. Which of the following events indicates that a plant’s reproductive system has successfully carried out its function?A. A seed forms.B. A flower opens.C. A root system expands.D. A sprout grows to maturity.
Plant structure and processes5. Which type of dermal cell has more chloroplasts than other dermal cells because it has greater energy needs?A. CuticleB. Guard cellsC. Lower epidermal cellsD. Upper epidermal cells
Plant structure and processes6. What type of cell is indicated by label B?A. An epidermal cellB. A guard cell AC. A stomataD. A nucleus C B
Plant structure and processes7.What is one of the main advantages of asexual reproduction?A. It occurs more slowly than sexual reproduction.B. There is a smaller chance of mutation.C. The offspring varies from the parent.D. It creates more genetic variety.
Plant structure and processes8.Which fact about the apical meristem makes this a good suggestion? (NNED DIAGRAM)A. Enzymes in the apical meristem carry out DNA replication.B. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of green plant cells.C. Auxins produced in the meristem inhibit the growth of lateral buds.D. The apical meristem uses triphosphate (ATP) as its energy source.