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#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development
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#2 villalobos brain, heart, reproductive syste and embryo development

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  • 1. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2. TWO MAJOR DIVISIONS• The Central Nervous System (CNS)• Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • 3. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMControls the center of the body;• relays messages•processes information•analyzes information
  • 4. PARTS THAT MAKE UP THE CNS• Cerebrum: largest most prominent region of the human brain (front of the brain). Responsible for the voluntary or conscious, activity of the body. Site of intelligence, learning and judgment.• Cerebellum: second largest region of the brain. Coordinates and balances the actions of the muscles. (back of the brain)• Thalamus: receives messages from all the sensory receptors throughout the body and then relays information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing.
  • 5. THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM• Nerves stimulate regions of the head and neck, spinal nerves, and ganglia.• It can be divided into the sensory division and the motor division• Sensory division: transmits impulses from sense organs to central nervous system.• Motor division: transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands.
  • 6. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM : COMMUNICATION•A.  Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmitinformation1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions2. Dendrites – shorter, more numerous, receiveinformation3. Axons – single, long “fiber” which conducts impulseaway from the cell body, sends information
  • 7. BASIC DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 8. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • 9. HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM• Systemic Circulation – delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste• Pulmonary Circulation – eliminates carbon dioxide and oxygenates blood (lung pathway)
  • 10. STRUCTURE OF THE HEART• Heart Size: (size of a fist) approximately 14 cm x 9 cm• Located in the mediastinum (space between lungs, backbone, sternum), between the 2nd rib and the 5th intercostal space.• The distal end of the heart is called the apex
  • 11. WALLS OF THE HEART• Epicardium – outer layer, reduces friction• Myocardium – middle layer, mostly cardiac muscle• Endocardium – thin inner lining, within chambers of the heart
  • 12. HEART CHAMBERS & VALVES• Heart has 4 chambers: • 2 Atria – thin upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart through veins.. Right and Left Atrium • 2 Ventricles – thick, muscular lower chambers. Receive blood from the atria above them. Force (pump) blood out of the heart through arteries. Right and left ventricle.• Septum – separates the right and left sides of the heart
  • 13. Valves of the Heart – allow one-way flow of blood• 4 total (2 Atrioventricular • Pulmonary Semilunar, or Valves (AV) & 2 Semilunar just pulmonary valve. valves) Between the left ventricle• Left Atrioventricular valve and the aorta – also called the bicuspid valve or mitral valve. Between left atrium and ventricle• Right Atrioventricular valve – also called the tricuspid valve. Between right atrium and ventricle• Aortic Semilunar – or just aortic valve. Between the left ventricle and the aorta
  • 14. BLOOD VESSELS•Blood Vessels:  arteries, veins, capillaries•ARTERIES :  strong elastic vessels which carry bloodmoving away from the heart.   Smallest ones arearterioles which connect to capillaries.•VEINS - Thinner, less muscular vessels carrying bloodtoward the heart. •Smallest ones are called venules which connect tocapillaries.  Contain valves.
  • 15. CAPILLARIESPenetrate nearly alltissues.  Walls arecomposed of a singlelayer of squamouscells – very thin. Critical function:allows exchange ofmaterials (oxygen,nutrients) betweenblood and tissues.
  • 16. MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS• Aorta  -  Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, Descending Aorta, Abdominal Aorta.  The aorta is the largest artery. (leaves  left ventricle)  • Pulmonary Trunk – splits into left and right, both lead to the lungs (leaves left ventricle)  • Pulmonary Veins – return blood from the lungs to the heart (connects to left atrium)•   • Superior and Inferior Vena Cava – return blood from the head and body to the heart (connects to right atrium)
  • 17. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMMajor Structures: testes, vas deferens, prostate, penis
  • 18. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• Function: Produces and delivers sperm• Parts: scrotum, seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, testes, urethra, penis
  • 19. PARTS• Scrotum: where testes • Vas deferens: the tube remain outside the that carries sperm from body cavity. the epididymis to the Temperature 37°C. urethra.• Seminiferous tubules: • Urethra: tube that located in the testis are carries urine from the clusters of hundreds of bladder and releases it tiny tubules. from the body.• Epididymis: where fully • Penis: contain a matured sperm are tube(urethra) that stored. leads to the outside of• Testes: makes sperms, the body. produces testosterone.
  • 20. FEMALE REPRODUCTIONMain Structures•Ovary•Uterus•Fallopian Tubes•Vagina•Cervix
  • 21. FEMALE REPRODUCTION• OVARY  - this is where the eggs are produced through cell division (MEIOSIS)• - each ovary takes turns releasing eggs every month, twins occur if two eggs are released• Ovaries secrete both estrogen and progesterone. • Estrogen is responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics of females • Progesterone regulates menstruation
  • 22. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT • An egg is usually a few days old before it implants in the uterus. At this point, it has already divided several times and is called a blastula.
  • 23. Uterus• The uterus consists of a body and a cervix. The cervix protrudes into the vagina. • The uterus maintains an environment for accepting a fertilized egg.  • The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, attaches to a wall of the uterus, creates a placenta, and develops into a fetus (gestates) until childbirth.  • If no fertilized egg reaches the uterus, the lining is shed monthly in a process known as menstruation
  • 24. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Cervix • Fallopian Tubes • Vagina • Ovary • Uterus
  • 25. REVIEW QUESTIONSQuestions:2. Name the stage of development the embryo is a hollow ball of identical cells:3. Name the part of the female reproductive system the egg cells are released:3. Name the structure specialized for taking blood away from the heart:4. Which part of the brain is responsible for the voluntary or conscious, activity of the body?5. List the four different lobes of the brain:6. which structure transports deoxygenated blood back to the heart?
  • 26. REVIEW ANSWERSQuestions:1. Name the stage of development the embryo is a hollow ball of identical cells:(blastula)2. Name the part of the female reproductive system the egg cells are released:(ovaries)3. Name the structure specialized for taking blood away from the heart:(arteries)4. Which part of the brain is responsible for the voluntary or conscious, activity of the body? (cerebrum)5. List the four different lobes of the brain: (parietal lobe, occipital lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe)6. which structure transports deoxygenated blood back to the heart? (pulmonary artery)•  

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