Hist1302 Week 02
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  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • Working class neighborhoods were places employers did not go.  They were also places where Group Identity (where one came from) was more important than  Individualism.  While women socialized on their front porches and children played in the streets of ethnic neighborhoods,  the men congregated in the local saloon, which as a reading in your text points out was the premier working class "Social Institution."  Lest I mislead you to believe that the saloon was the only social institution for men, it is important to note that other opportunities for male sociability also arose through the observance of religious ritual and in many other ways that were focused on the centrality of the ethnic community.   <br />
  • In the countryside, Barn Raisings were central events in the lives of men, women and children. Urban Ethinic Enclaves were crucibles of  <br /> Nationalism, as the regional subcultures of Europe nations unified in the streets of America at the same time as nationalism swept the European scene. <br /> The Story of William Turner in your text illustrates the benefits of ethnic solidarity as he rose with the help of extended family to become a skilled iron worker. <br />
  • At this time, women worked both at Home and Outside of the Home.  In terms of household work they performed in their own homes, new inventions like the sewing machine and the cast iron stove were certainly more efficient, but they did not necessarily relieve women of the burdens of work.  For instance, the cast iron stove was better at heating a home and cooking food but it also meant  <br /> "More Work for Mother" as a woman needed to haul coal for the stove and water to cook and clean. <br /> On the Frontiers, cut off from family and other support networks, women dealt with a great deal of isolation and loneliness. In  Urban Centers, the burdens of life were often lightened by the ethnic communities in immigrant neighborhoods. <br /> The working class home was by no means the only place working class women labored.  Women also worked outside the home, and in the homes of others.  A chart and an illustration in your text help illustrate women&apos;s working patterns and some of the challenges they faced in the world of work.   <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this chart from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What kind of other work were women doing at this time outside the home? <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about gender equality in labor unions? <br />
  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • By 1890, 6 in 10 Churches in America were Protestant. These various Protestants groups, though diverse, were united in their dislike of Mormons, Catholics and what they called Moral Decay.  They believed all three were related. <br /> Reform groups like the Women&apos;s Christian Temperance Union, the YMCA, and the Salvation Army strove to improve the lot of the poor immigrants while at the same saving them from "Rum and Romanism"  the later being a reference to Roman Catholicism. <br /> Examples of the fruits of reform efforts include the 1873 Comstock Act, which prevented the sending of "Obscenity" in the Mail.  <br /> The commercial side of evangelical Protestantism at the time is captured in the figure of preacher and commercial pitch man Henry Ward Beecher, who as this soap avertisement shows stumped both for God and for Pear&apos;s Soap. <br /> Pointers to more information about Henry Ward Beecher are available on the Wikipedia site. <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Saloons were the focus of  sociability for working men in the late 19th Century.  Groups like the Women&apos;s Christian Temperence Union, led by Frances Willard, pointed out rightly that many man drank up their wages and left their families in want.   <br /> With a fire and combative style, the women of the temperence union took their battles against drink to to the political front, working both in working class neighborhoods at the grass roots and attempting to get legislation passed to curb or ban drinking all together. <br /> Pointers to more information about ... can be found on the wikipedia site. <br /> A map and an illustration from your book provide some background to the temperence struggle. <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this map from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • Your text explores at great length the relationship between Local Community & Craft Unions.  As we have seen Patriarchy or the rule of the father as head of household defined Gender Roles in Unions and women  who worked outside the home did so at lower rates to enable the male head of household to ear The "Family Wage."  Unions based on the craft skill of male workers were the majority of union, but women also organized to defend their wages.  In <br /> Galveston, TX Domestic Workers went on Strike 1877.  Labor, Culture and Religion were closely intertwined as the worker&apos;s version of Christian virtue colored their view of <br /> Scabs (non-Union workers) hired by companies to break strikes.  Union Workers also used Boycotts, which the courts called  Criminal Conspiracies in 1866. <br /> An Illustration from your text on "Boycott Fever" <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • One union stands out in the period.  The knights of Labor fashioned itself as a Union for All <br /> Founded in 1869 by 9 Tailors in Philadelphia, its most prominent leader in this period was Terrence Powderly whoe ecomes "Grand Master Workman" in 1879.  His attack on Wage System is captured in the Labor Catechism (on p. 95 in your text).  He led the Knights in1880s to Key Victories Against Jay Gould (Southwestern RR). <br /> Pointers to more information about ... can be found on the wikipedia site. <br /> Two maps from your text illustrate the pattern of strikes and of membership in the Knights of Labor.   <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this map from your text labelled "A Striking Map" -- Number of Strikes per State in 1880.  <br /> your text notes that ... <br /> How do you account for this pattern? <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to another map from your text labelled "Where the Knights Roamed: Map of KoL Membership by County (1883)" <br /> ... your text notes that ... <br /> What do you think explains this pattern? <br />
  • A key element of the Knights was their inclusiveness.  The Knights of Labor in  <br /> Fort Worth, TX  included European, African-American and Mexican-American Workers in Same Union.  Women, at first excluded, were later to assume major leadership roles in the KoL (Reading on p. 98).  The Knights also included proprietors who treated workers fairly as the illustration of   <br /> Sept. 1st - Labor Day - “Great Labor Parade" 1884 shows a proprietor closing his shop in solidarity with the knights. <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • 1886 came to be known as The Year of Labor Uprising. On May 1st of that year the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions Called For Nationwide Strike in Support of 8 Hour Day <br /> 1/3 of All Workers Demonstrated. 200,000 Went on Strike. The KoL National Leadership Opposed Strike, but  <br /> Albert Parsons (a leading radical union organizer who had lived in Waco, TX and later moved to Chicago, IL) <br /> , led a large group of strikers in support of the 8 hour day at the McCormick Reaper Works.   <br /> Pointers to more information about ... can be found on the wikipedia site. <br />
  • Later when a  Bomb exploded in a sparsely attended follow-on demonstration at Haymarket Square, a police officer were killed. Although no evidence connected him to the bombing, Parsons was convicted and executed for the murder. <br /> KoL Stood By and Did Nothing ... <br />
  • The events at Haymarket Galvenized Employers, who proceeded to pit ethnicities against each other in the workplace, using a strategy of Divide and Conquer on Ethnic Lines,  The Use of Blacklists and Spies (Pinkerton Detective Agency) became common place in attacking suspected radicals. <br /> In the pursuit of law and order police departments began Photographing Criminals and implementing Surveillance -- out of these efforts grew a new  "Science" of Criminology which purported to be able to identify the  <br /> "Typical" Anarchist <br /> On May 4th 1886, KoL Cancels 8 Hr Strike,  <br /> Followed by Series of KoL-led Strikes with less lofty goals. <br /> By the end of 1886 KoL Membership Cut in Half. <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • YouTube has from time to time hosted useful resources on the Haymarket Massacre.  This preview of a PBS Documentary is one such example. <br />
  • Try the link embedded in this video to explore further. <br />
  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • Workingmen took up the Revolutionary Ideology of Republicanism in the Gilded Era in what became a Battle for Nation&apos;s "Political Soul." <br /> In 1886 Labor Reformers Took on "Machine" Politics Through Third Party Candidates like Henry George in the NY Mayoral Race (Reading on p. 109).  The Catholic Church Hierarchy Attacked George, but many working Catholics supported him.  Although George lost the race, he did get more votes than Teddy Roosevelt.  Though diminished, KoL continued to be a force in Local Politics.  Let&apos;s have a look at a couple of illustrations from your test. <br /> Illustrations: "Who Stole the People&apos;s Money?" and "Workingman Between Two Fires" <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • In 1886  widening gulf developed Between Craft Workers and KoL, with defections from the Knights fueling the Rise of American Federation of Labor under Samuel Gompers.   The AF of L was firmly in the craft labor camp.  Black Workers Gravitate to KoL and United Mine Workers of America also remained a Knights stronghold (as the Reading on 114 attests) <br /> With the AFL came the Rise of "Business Unionism," a belief that labor and capital could work together as two blocs representing differing but reconcilable interest.s  The Story of Patrick Henry McCarthy (Building Trades Union in Fan Francisco) in your text illustrates the rise of one such business unionist.   <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • Pause and count to 5 <br />
  • In the week 2 virtual classroom we focus on ... <br /> For this mini-lecture our topics will be  ... <br />
  • In the American South African Americans Fought  Back Against "Redemption,"  joined by like-minded whites the Readjusters in VA Elected the First Black Congressman in  1888. <br /> In the west Issues of Credit & Land Usage Rights were urgent and personal. <br /> Groups like the Las Gorras Blancas in new New Mexico fought for the rights of traditional common grazing against large ranchers. Juan Jose Herrerra, <br /> Sam Bass, and Jesse James were seen as champions of the small farmer and rancher against large holdings and cattle barons. <br />
  • Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick were Owners of  Homestead Steel Works. On  <br /> July 2, 1892 Frick Locked Out Striking Workers, Announces Non-Union Replacements, and the  <br /> Amalgamated Association Took Over Town. <br /> July 6, 1892 - Battle Between Pinkertons and Strikers (Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers) broke out. <br />
  • IT took Four Months and the intervention of the PA Militia to End Strike (November 1892). <br /> Similar strikes took place in Coeur d&apos;Alene, Idaho among Silver Miners. Owners Again Brought in the Militia.  The KoL Defeat in TN Coal Mines illustrated this  <br /> Trend of Company Alignment with Governors against Labor Alignment with Alderman and Mayors. <br />
  • Let me draw your attention to this image from your text labelled ... your text notes that ... <br /> What does this say about ... <br />
  • YouTube has from time to time hosted useful resources on the Homestead Strike.  This dramatization entitled The Masses and The Millionaires: The Homestead Strike" is one such example. <br /> Try the link embedded in this video to explore further. <br />

Hist1302 Week 02 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey Mini-Lectures 1865 to the Present
  • 2. Week 2 Virtual Classroom Working People and Their Communities Mini-Lecture 1: Neighborhood Cultures; Working Women at Home
  • 3. Neighborhood Cultures
  • 4. Neighborhood Cultures
  • 5. Working Women at Home
  • 6. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey 1865 to the Present
  • 7. Week 2 Virtual Classroom Working People and Their Communities Mini-Lecture 2: Religion and Community; The Saloon and Its Enemies
  • 8. Henry Ward Beecher Religion and Community
  • 9. Frances Willard The Workingman’s Hour
  • 10. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey 1865 to the Present
  • 11. Week 2 Virtual Classroom The Workingman’s Hour Mini-Lecture 3: The Labor Community; “Union for All”: The Knights of Labor
  • 12. The Labor Community
  • 13. Terrence Powderly The Knights of Labor
  • 14. The Knights of Labor (Cont.)
  • 15. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey 1865 to the Present
  • 16. Week 2 Virtual Classroom The Workingman’s Hour Mini-Lecture 4: 1886: The Eight-Hour Movement and Haymarket Square; The Decline of the Knights
  • 17. Albert Parsons 1886: The 8-Hour Day
  • 18. 1886: The Eight-Hour Movement and Haymarket Square
  • 19. The Decline of the Knights
  • 20. PBS Documentary Haymarket Massacre Pt. 1
  • 21. PBS Documentary Haymarket Massacre Pt. 2
  • 22. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey 1865 to the Present
  • 23. Week 2 Virtual Classroom Labor Politics and Conflict Mini-Lecture 5: Politics and the Workingman; The Rise of the AFL
  • 24. Politics and the Workingman
  • 25. The Rise of the AFL
  • 26. Gilded Era Community & Conflict 1877 to 1893 US History Survey 1865 to the Present
  • 27. Week 2 Virtual Classroom Labor Politics and Conflict Mini-Lecture 6: Class Conflict in the Country; Bloody Battles at Homestead
  • 28. Class Conflict in the Country
  • 29. Bloody Battles at Homestead
  • 30. Bloody Battles at Homestead (Cont.)
  • 31. The Masses and The Millionaires: The Homestead Strike (clip)