The Briefing That Follows <ul><li>Was an invited presentation at the New York State Geospatial Summit 2011 </li></ul><ul><...
Last Night, did the bed in your hotel room - <ul><li>Have these sheets? </li></ul>
Then, You Need To Know About <ul><li>Crowdsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>AKA </li></ul><ul><li>VGI </li></ul>
Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Today, I hope to cover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why crowdsourcing should be of interest to builders of ...
Besides its many  benefits <ul><li>Crowdsourcing is, unfortunately, a form of disintermediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And ...
Map Errors <ul><li>It used to be that  most errors on maps were the result of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilation/edit error...
How We Doing?
Common Map Errors
Common Map Errors
New Types Of Map Errors <ul><li>Now we have map errors resulting from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database synchronization error...
blog.telemapics.com [email_address]
Common Map Errors
Common Map Errors
Map Updating V.1
Map Updating V. 2
Map Updating V. 2a
Common Map Errors
Common Map Errors
Common Map Errors
Okay – You Get The Point <ul><li>How do we fix this? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend more money (more than you can say) </li><...
Social Networking Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
Crowdsourcing Provides <ul><li>Content that is produced and voluntarily contributed by users of web sites and digital medi...
Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>Architecture of participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shar...
The Crowd Part <ul><li>As Linus Torvald of Linux fame said of “open software” efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ With more ey...
Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Based on the wisdom of crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding a way to discover the knowledge that a g...
Crowdsourcing <ul><li>What makes a crowd wise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indep...
Crowdsourcing <ul><li>The wisdom of crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a group satisfies these conditions, its judgment is li...
Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>Data quality in this type of system is influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “law” of large nu...
Okay <ul><li>If that is how crowdsourcing systems are supposed to work, how well have we done using it for the compilation...
Crowdsourcing And Maps
Crowdsourcing And Maps
Crowdsourcing And Maps
Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 1. How many people will contribute? ...
Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 2. Where are contributors located? b...
Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 3. How long does it take to get qual...
Comparison Meridian 2 OSM 03/08 OSM 03/09 OSM 10/09 Total Length (m) 261,678,924 169,608,142, 267,950,190 324,127,812 Tota...
What Does This Tell Us About Crowdsourcing And Maps? <ul><li>Crowdsourcing may not effectively harness the wisdom of crowd...
So What Do We Do?
Crowdsourcing Is Better When  Hybridized <ul><li>Like Oreos and Milk </li></ul><ul><li>But what you need to mix with it wi...
Best Model <ul><li>Augment existing government or commercial database with user generated content and supplement these upd...
Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of crowdsourcing as part of an ensemble of ma...
Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is...
Active Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I...
Passive Crowdsourcing
Relative Accuracy Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
Google’s Build Approach
Google’s Revise Approach
 
Google’s Approach
The Benefits of Products/Services/Purpose in Map Updating
Google’s Approach <ul><li>Isn’t always as elegant as it might be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often suffers from lack of local kn...
Use Map Maker – Learn Languages
Conclusion <ul><li>Google does not yet have it quite right, but they have put together most of the critical elements requi...
Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Pure crowdsourcing will not be the successor to producers of navigation databases. </li></ul><ul><li...
So what do we need to do? <ul><li>Embrace technology and adapt crowdsourcing to fit within an authoritative model. </li></ul>
Find A Way to Merge These Situations <ul><li>Government/Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Training in compilation </li></ul><ul...
Make this model work
So what else do we need to do? <ul><li>Innovate in a manner that produces systems where more of the crowd contributes Loca...
Solicit the Crowd to Solve Your Problems
Use Social Networking Tools Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
Use Dilithium Crystals
And Get Details
And Addresses
Provide Powerful Technology For Field Agents
Can we do it? <ul><li>I suspect you will have to do it, but it will be a big challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the odd...
Consider this <ul><li>Odds are irrelevant </li></ul>
Yeah, Right.
For More  <ul><li>See our blog  Exploring Local </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.telemapics.com </li></ul>blog.telemapics.com...
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Presentation by Dr. Mike Dobson of TeleMapics LLC on Crowdsourcing and Map Compilation. This invited presentation was delivered at the New York Geospatial Summit on June 16, 2011 in Skaneateles, New York.

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  • Description of presentation, venue, support
  • Yep, this was my room at Finger Lakes Lodging – just kidding !
  • So pay attention if you want to see those sheets on your bed.
  • Outline of presentation
  • One more thing.
  • Way back in the last century---
  • But even today, we continue to screw up our map data. A bridge to Cozumel? Great idea but today it does not exist.
  • Wow, look at the beautiful Alpsee across from Crazy Ludwig’s Castle - Oh, it’s not shown on the map.
  • The roads I am driving on must be imaginary ones, as they are not shown on the TomTom PND.
  • Gee – new ways to screw up maps!
  • This is an example of some recent field work in determining locations. The maps are from the Starbucks corporate website. We assumed that Starbucks would know the addresses of their shops and they did. In addition, their addresses provided the nearest cross street. The mapping (and geocoding). is by Microsoft, while I added additional information . The squat green placard is where Starbucks and Microsoft say the shops are located and was on the original graphic. I added two other pins to the same display. The red pin shows the actual location of the shop (I recorded a GPS coordinate at the door of each shop). The green pin shows the location of the cross street provided in the listing. In the limited sample of 8 shops, 6 were incorrectly located and the average errors was .6 miles. (see our blog for more information). If Starbucks can’t help you find its own shop, what can we find using third-parties who have less information to help determine where businesses are located.
  • How about that, Google has located the coastal town of Imperial Beach, CA in the inland town on Lemon Grove, CA
  • Poor Nokia and OVI, they can’t even find Providence, Rhode Island.
  • Navteq shows traffic flowing on a portion of I-195 that was closed months earlier and no traffic on the new route if I-195. How is it possible
  • Look, having fixed the problem once, Navteq, at a later date, even showed route signs on the closed highway and traffic still flowing at normal speeds.
  • Of course, due to the use of out-of-date imagery, it looks like traffic is flowing on the roads. Unfortunately, the Rhode Island DOT has been deconstruction the road and, at the date this screen shot was captured the overpasses no longer linked the road segments.
  • How many East Kikbride Expressways are there in the UK. Actually, there is only one.
  • And this is it- multi-lane, median, looks like an expressway should
  • Hmmmm. This is another East Kilbride Expressway reputed to be in the Orkney Islands. Just doesn’t look quite like an expressway, does it.
  • Spending money will not solve this problem – and there is little money to spend. So, why not try crowdsourcing?
  • Contrast social search and local-social search
  • Definition
  • What it is and isn’t
  • Well, this isn’t quite true either - You don’t get enough eyes and you specifically may not get enough local eyes. So let’s see why this is incorrect. And WHY YOU NEED LOCAL EYES.
  • .” Suroweicki p 278 2004,2005
  • Suroweicki 2004,2005 , various
  • Data quality considerations
  • Well, has it worked?
  • Source Muki Haklay 2009- UK data - It appears that approximately 50% of the data in the OSM United Kingdom database were contributed by less than 30 of the contributors, raising questions on whether OSM is a good example of the notions behind crowdsourcing. (Graph from Haklay 2009)
  • The OSM experience at other locations (source Budhathoki 2010). Hmm, a lot of one-time contributors and a few workhorses thea contribute over 100,000 nodes. Are these workhorses contributing local knowledge, or merely digitizing satellite images?
  • Budhathoki et al. Hmmm. Looks like this is male dominated activity, with participants below 40, who have a lot of education and little GIS experience.
  • Here are some issues related to reliance on crowdsources data for map compilation.
  • From Haklay and Ellul (2010). OSM has lots of cells digitized but, as of the dates shown, has made less progress in attributing these data.
  • Ouch
  • We need to mix crowdsourcing with other compilation techniques,
  • In my opinion, this is the “gold standard”
  • Ingredients
  • Active and Passive Input
  • Active input from TomTom users through MapShare
  • Passive input
  • TomTom as of 2010 had collected approximately three trillion GPS points using Passive Community Input. Tele Atlas claims that the miles of GPS traces it receives in the United States in one day are equivalent to the total miles of roads in the United States and the data collected in Europe represent four times the total kilometers of road in Europe.
  • Relative accuracy using these techniques - C = standard map compilation D = Driving roads/streets A = Active UGC P= Passive UGC Using the Hybrid model (CDPA) will generate more robust and relevant databases for navigation, advertisings (better pois and locations) than other alternatives.
  • How Google likely approaches the hybrid problem. Satellite and other aerial imagery drive the process.
  • But in Google’s revision process, User Generated Content (crowdsourcing) drives the process.
  • How Google’s tools work together in an attempt at increasing data accuracy
  • Notice that Google’s Tower of Power benefits from business input. Google is an advertising agency and its maps benefit its Adwords program and benefit from it.
  • Mapping systems need external format and there is nothing like a customer to shape that interaction into critical inputs for improvement. Systems like OSM that do not have direct customers may not be as successful as its commercial competitors who can benefit from their distribution channel and customer base.
  • Google’s approach is potentially market leading, but it is not quite “prime time”.
  • When you use the Google Map Maker tools, they can sometimes help you learn a new language. The gift that keeps on giving!
  • Future roles for UGC in map updating will likely be limited, but very important nontheless.
  • Both classes of benefits need to be integrated to produce the best maps
  • We need to find a way to make this model work.
  • Here are other tasks on which we need to focus.
  • We spoke to this concept earlier, but here is it is in graphics. If the data and processes do not line up (oh my gosh, it looks like a syzygy), the search will not provide authoritative results. More importantly, you need to mine all of these areas to discover the information that can help make you maps and their function better than they are today.
  • The various tools used to comb data from social networks are ones we should be using in map compilation.
  • Yep, we need road-side imaging in addition to crowdsourcing.
  • This is from a $1.99 app for an iPhone called Theodolite Pro. The photo can be automatically sent to Google Maps for geocoding and display. In the image, you can see the address, its coordinates, its elevation and several other pieces of useful information. We need to explore the capability of these devices for augmenting field data collection – possibly by our customers or intended audience.
  • Yes, we can……ooops
  • If I told you that there was a fellow with a wrecking ball up the hill a mile away tearing down a library and that at 4:32 PM the wrecking ball would snap its chain, roll down the hill and end up in your trunk. You would say with some disdain “Yeah, right.” Well, take a look at the next image.
  • So much for the odds. You can use crowdsourcing to your advantage when building spatial databases.
  • Thanks for being here.
  • Dobson presentation nys geo summit for slideshare

    1. 1. The Briefing That Follows <ul><li>Was an invited presentation at the New York State Geospatial Summit 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in Skaneateles, New York </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation by Dr. Mike Dobson, TeleMapics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I appreciated the invitation to speak and the assistance provided by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Johnson (Deputy Director, Office of Cyber Security , NYS Division of Homeland Security & Emergency Services (DHSES)) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Last Night, did the bed in your hotel room - <ul><li>Have these sheets? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Then, You Need To Know About <ul><li>Crowdsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>AKA </li></ul><ul><li>VGI </li></ul>
    4. 4. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Today, I hope to cover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why crowdsourcing should be of interest to builders of spatial databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is accomplished by adapting crowdsourcing as a tool in database compilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues related to using crowdsourcing in map database compilation </li></ul></ul>Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    5. 5. Besides its many benefits <ul><li>Crowdsourcing is, unfortunately, a form of disintermediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And Mapping/GIS Professional may be the ones disintermediated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may want to pay attention to this topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So you can tell your boss what he or she doesn’t know that you do (or will by the end of this talk) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Map Errors <ul><li>It used to be that most errors on maps were the result of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilation/edit errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yep, maps used to be printed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guess we showed those lithography and printing press guys. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. How We Doing?
    8. 8. Common Map Errors
    9. 9. Common Map Errors
    10. 10. New Types Of Map Errors <ul><li>Now we have map errors resulting from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database synchronization error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflation errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-reliance on sophisticated software systems that do not yet have all the capabilities of expert systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of course, there are few mapping experts left, so this problem may never be resolved </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. blog.telemapics.com [email_address]
    12. 12. Common Map Errors
    13. 13. Common Map Errors
    14. 14. Map Updating V.1
    15. 15. Map Updating V. 2
    16. 16. Map Updating V. 2a
    17. 17. Common Map Errors
    18. 18. Common Map Errors
    19. 19. Common Map Errors
    20. 20. Okay – You Get The Point <ul><li>How do we fix this? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend more money (more than you can say) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not likely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ crowdsourcing to harness the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom of crowds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Media </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Social Networking Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    22. 22. Crowdsourcing Provides <ul><li>Content that is produced and voluntarily contributed by users of web sites and digital media </li></ul>Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    23. 23. Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>Architecture of participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not based on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operational budgets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overarching business structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific use cases </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Crowd Part <ul><li>As Linus Torvald of Linux fame said of “open software” efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ With more eyes all bugs become shallow” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let’s recast this and say that in crowdsourced map compilation efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ With enough eyes all map errors become noticeable and candidates for correction” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If, that is, the eyes belong to locals who know the details of the geography in question </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Based on the wisdom of crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding a way to discover the knowledge that a group has about geographical space </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>What makes a crowd wise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation (finding a way to help people work together) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>The wisdom of crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a group satisfies these conditions, its judgment is likely to be accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person’s guess, you might say, has two components: information and error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can subtract the error, and you’re left with the information </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>Data quality in this type of system is influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “law” of large numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“… With more eyes, map errors become shallow” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “always editable” status of the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presumption that the database is self-healing over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tension between “openess” in collection and “standardization of requirements for data entry and attributes </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Okay <ul><li>If that is how crowdsourcing systems are supposed to work, how well have we done using it for the compilation of map databases? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Crowdsourcing And Maps
    31. 31. Crowdsourcing And Maps
    32. 32. Crowdsourcing And Maps
    33. 33. Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 1. How many people will contribute? b. How many collaborators are capable of contributing valid data? c. Not enough credible data gathers to validate the data.
    34. 34. Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 2. Where are contributors located? b. How does this distribution match the desired map coverage? c. Not enough distribution/coverage to meet the need for comprehensive, current data. No reliable way to redirect their spatial focus
    35. 35. Structural Problems With Crowdsourcing Issues for Crowdsoucring Sub-Issues Weaknesses 3. How long does it take to get quality results over large areas of coverage? b. Number and distribution of contributors not manageable. c. Unknown, but lack of progress will become a significant problem for contributors. Even when you get the data, the lack of standards and effective quality control is a significant problem.
    36. 36. Comparison Meridian 2 OSM 03/08 OSM 03/09 OSM 10/09 Total Length (m) 261,678,924 169,608,142, 267,950,190 324,127,812 Total Length With Attributes 205,621,010 54,581,704 95,332,646 123,632,213 Number of “complete cells 112,385 30,702 57,622 73,092 Number of ‘complete” cells with attributes 92,467 6,670 13,595 19,719 Haklay and Ellul 2010
    37. 37. What Does This Tell Us About Crowdsourcing And Maps? <ul><li>Crowdsourcing may not effectively harness the wisdom of crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lack independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lack decentralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lack local knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. So What Do We Do?
    39. 39. Crowdsourcing Is Better When Hybridized <ul><li>Like Oreos and Milk </li></ul><ul><li>But what you need to mix with it with is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority/Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification/editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted or observed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Best Model <ul><li>Augment existing government or commercial database with user generated content and supplement these updates with professionally compiled data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Swiss Topo, Google, Navteq, TomTom, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of crowdsourcing as part of an ensemble of map data compilation tools that normally includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field work/observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of imagery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data editing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data QC/QA </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a change to a map database made by a contributor as the result of a process in which they must take the initiative to identify the desired change and take purposeful action to convey the change to the provider of the spatial database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best example of this method would be TomTom’s map share software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Active Crowdsourcing
    44. 44. Crowdsourcing/VGI <ul><li>The hybrid form may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a term generally denoting the use of GPS devices to collect what is known as floating path or probe data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In essence, the PND or GPS receiver used by the contributor tracks their paths of movement (usually vehicular) during their daily journeys and automatically reports the data back to a repository </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Passive Crowdsourcing
    46. 46. Relative Accuracy Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    47. 47. Google’s Build Approach
    48. 48. Google’s Revise Approach
    49. 50. Google’s Approach
    50. 51. The Benefits of Products/Services/Purpose in Map Updating
    51. 52. Google’s Approach <ul><li>Isn’t always as elegant as it might be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often suffers from lack of local knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in respect to attribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data editing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software blunders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market Driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Editing authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Google editors are not local ( at least not in U.S.) and this is a major weakness of the system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 53. Use Map Maker – Learn Languages
    53. 54. Conclusion <ul><li>Google does not yet have it quite right, but they have put together most of the critical elements required to hybridize crowdsourcing. </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, Crowdsourcing is not without its limitations. </li></ul>
    54. 55. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Pure crowdsourcing will not be the successor to producers of navigation databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Crowdsourcing will be of advantage when it is used as a supplementary method in map database creation. </li></ul>Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    55. 56. So what do we need to do? <ul><li>Embrace technology and adapt crowdsourcing to fit within an authoritative model. </li></ul>
    56. 57. Find A Way to Merge These Situations <ul><li>Government/Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Training in compilation </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Staff size limited </li></ul><ul><li>Research budget limited </li></ul><ul><li>Salaried </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourced </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selection </li></ul><ul><li>Local experience (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution pool potentially unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Research hours limited to free time </li></ul><ul><li>Avocation – contributing is the reward </li></ul>
    57. 58. Make this model work
    58. 59. So what else do we need to do? <ul><li>Innovate in a manner that produces systems where more of the crowd contributes Local Knowledge rather than labor (digitizing imagery) </li></ul><ul><li>Further leverage the potential strengths of mining the crowd’s behavior </li></ul>
    59. 60. Solicit the Crowd to Solve Your Problems
    60. 61. Use Social Networking Tools Blog.telemapics.com @TeleMapics LLC
    61. 62. Use Dilithium Crystals
    62. 63. And Get Details
    63. 64. And Addresses
    64. 65. Provide Powerful Technology For Field Agents
    65. 66. Can we do it? <ul><li>I suspect you will have to do it, but it will be a big challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the odds? </li></ul>
    66. 67. Consider this <ul><li>Odds are irrelevant </li></ul>
    67. 68. Yeah, Right.
    68. 69. For More <ul><li>See our blog Exploring Local </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.telemapics.com </li></ul>blog.telemapics.com [email_address]

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