Albert J. Della Bitta, University of Rhode IslandKent B. Monroe, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityABSTRACT - This study attempts to expand the scope of previous research on consumers reactions to retailcomparative price advertising. A large factorial experiment with multiple response measures examined theinfluence of several variables on consumers perception of value from retail sale advertisements. The size of salediscount was found to have an interesting effect on consumers perceptions of value. Also, the method ofpresenting sale information significantly influenced perceptions.[ to cite ]:Albert J. Della Bitta and Kent B. Monroe (1981) ,"A Multivariate Analysis of the Perception of Value From RetailPrice Advertisements", in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 08, eds. Kent B. Monroe, Advances inConsumer Research Volume 08 : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 161-165. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8, 1981 Pages 161-165 A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE PERCEPTION OF VALUE FROM RETAIL PRICE ADVERTISEMENTS Albert J. Della Bitta, University of Rhode Island Kent B. Monroe, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ABSTRACT -This study attempts to expand the scope of previous research on consumers reactions to retail comparative priceadvertising. A large factorial experiment with multiple response measures examined the influence of severalvariables on consumers perception of value from retail sale advertisements. The size of sale discount was foundto have an interesting effect on consumers perceptions of value. Also, the method of presenting sale informationsignificantly influenced perceptions. INTRODUCTIONThe issue of consumers response to price has stimulated considerable research interest in the past decade(Monroe 1973, 1977; Olson 1977). However, much of this inquiry has been directed at the price/"quality"-perception question. Except for the concept of unit pricing, one area receiving relatively little attention is the issueof presenting price information to consumers. This is unfortunate since numerous alternatives exist for presentingprices, and such information is an integral component of much retail advertising. Consequently, research into theprice presentation area could have significant implications for managerial and regulatory decision-making.Several schemes are useful for conceptualizing the problem. Jacoby and Olson (1977) have viewed priceperception from the S-O-R perspective. Here stimulus variables (S) are the actual cues presented to theconsumer where organismic variables (O) include those factors internal to the individual influencing theacquisition, processing, and derivation of subjective meaning from objective stimuli. These O-variables couldinclude properties such as price awareness, subjective standards of reference and attitudes. The interaction ofacquired stimuli and organismic conditions leads to responses (R) by the individual.Clearly, presentation of an offered price qualifies as an S-variable which can significantly influence a consumersperception of the offer. However, it should also be clear that the consumers experiences and the context of anoffering can influence perception of the offered price. Thus, price experiences over tine and the prices of otherproducts may be internalized as an O-variable to influence price perceptions. To illustrate, adaptation-level theory
and empirical evidence suggest that the consumers price experience forms a specific and quantifiable standardof reference for judging subsequent prices (Della Bitta and Monroe 1974; Nwokoye 1975).In addition to such internalized influences, a variety of factors surrounding the price presentation (store setting,medium used to convey price information, etc.) form a context for judgment. Besides these general contextualvariables, a given price presentation may be comprised of a set of more specific contextual cues also capable ofinfluencing the meaning derived from the offered price. Walton and Berkowitz (1980) have classified these cuesinto comparison and semantic categories. Comparison cues are prices the advertiser references in order toprovide a basis for Judging the offered price. This may be a prevailing price in the market, the manufacturerssuggested selling price, or the retailers regular selling price. Semantic cues involve phrases describing the price("very low"), price reduction ("significantly reduced") or amount of savings involved ("super savings"). Of course,some semantic phrases are emotionally laden while others are more neutral.From a managerial and public policy viewpoint, a valid concern is how strongly price presentation formatsinfluence buyers. The managerial concern is to present price information in a favorable manner while hopefullynot misleading consumers about the nature of the offering. From a public policy perspective, the concern is overmisleading and/or deceptive practices. In fact, in 1958 and 1964 the FTC issued a set of guides for presentationof retail price information.Relevant ResearchWhet is significant to note is the paucity of directly applicable research evidence to guide managers and policymakers. However, the few relevant studies available do provide some perspective. Fry and McDougall (1974)investigated buyers perceptions of advertised sale and regular prices. Although the study probably suffered fromexperimental demand effects, the authors concluded that acceptance of advertised regular prices tended to varyinversely with the size of discounts. However, acceptance of the sale price as the "lowest price in town" varieddirectly with discount magnitude.Barnes (1975) varied price and semantic information in a simulated newspaper advertised "sale" for unbrandedproducts. Each presentation was ranked on a priori basis by Barnes in terms of the amount of its informationcontent. The ranking (high to low) was disclosure of: (1) both regular and sale price, (2) sale price and thediscount expressed in percentage terms and (3) only sale price. Newspaper and store type were also varied inthe experiment. Dependent measures were believability of the advertisement, perceived value for the money andmotivation to act. Results indicate a significant information treatment effect, with presentation format (1) abovehaving the greatest influence on the dependent measures. Although this result is consistent with Barnes apriori ranking of information content, one should note that such a ranking may not be valid in all circumstances. Insome situations consumers may find an expression of the magnitude of the price reduction (e.g., percent off) tobe more useful than knowing the specific sale price.Keiser and Krum (1976) compared consumers reactions to sale advertisements of different forms. In one, onlysale price was shown while in a second condition both regular and sale prices were presented with the semanticphrase "one-half price sale." The authors report that the second condition influenced more subjects to perceive a"true price reduction" although the difference was not significant. Perceived truthfulness and willingness topurchase were also not significantly different between the two treatment groups. The possibility of confoundingeffects in this study should also be mentioned. In the presentation that disclosed both regular and sale prices, theformer was set artificially high to examine consumers reactions to overstated price savings. This element, not inthe other treatment condition, may have introduced a bias into the study.Sewall and Goldstein (1979) queried 114 catalog store shoppers about their understanding of comparison(reference) prices used by catalog showroom retailers. They found that the vast majority clearly understood themeaning of reference price information. Also, 58 percent of the respondents understood or were explicitlyskeptical (discounted the credibility) of such reference prices and regarded them as useful in their comparativeshopping activities. It should also be noted that subjects can be influenced by such comparative information morethan conscious responses to surveys might suggest.
Blair and Landon (1979) examined the effects of reference prices in retail advertisements for a TV and foodprocessor using adult women in a shopping mall setting. One condition contained only the offered price whileanother presented the offered price, suggested list price and claimed savings. Results indicate that withoutreference price information subjects generally estimated savings et between 10 to 12 percent. However,advertisements with reference prices (and discounts from 16 to 36 percent) produced significantly largerperceptions of savings. Also the perceived credibility of claimed savings varied inversely with the magnitude ofthe claim.Walton and Berkowitz (1980) reported a study of the effect of reference price, presentation format and severalother contextual variables on consumers price perceptions. Three products (aspirin, fan and camera) weretested at two discount levels (20% and 40%) and four information presentation formats: (1) "regular price"/"saleprice", (2) "total value"/"sale price", (3) "compare at"/"our price", and (4) "x percent off"/"now only". Severaldependent measures were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Two particularly interesting findingsare: (1) reference price effects varied across products, and (2) price information format was significant forcameras only. Here the "percent off" format (4) consistently received the lowest mean rating on all dependentmeasures.Although informative, the major problem with previous studies is the lack of consistent findings. For example,Barnes found the regular/sale price format to yield the greatest perception of value for the money. AlthoughWalton and Berkowitz did not find this to be the case, they did observe a significant difference between the"percent off" format and all others. The two studies also show a similar contrast regarding the influence ofinformation treatments on subjects willingness to purchase. In addition, while Blair and Landon found theregular/sale price format to influence perceived savings, Walton and Berkowitz were unable to distinguish thisinfluence from two other presentations. Discrepancies also appear between the findings of other studies.Differences in test conditions may explain some of these divergent findings. Studies have varied in terms of thediscount levels, information formats and dependent measures used. Further, they have tested different productclasses, branding conditions and price levels. Additional research that accounts for some of these contextualinfluences is warranted. THE STUDYThis study investigated the influence of specific price presentation formats on consumers perceptions. The focuswas on a sale situation that consumers might confront in a retail setting.Research MethodPrior to the experiment, content analysis of major metropolitan newspapers and catalog advertising revealed thefrequency with which various components of sale information were employed. Four components were chosen forinvestigation based on their frequency of occurrence: regular (non-sale) price, sale price, percentage pricereduction, and absolute dollar amount of price reduction. Because previous research suggests that the influenceof price presentation format could be effected by the price level and discount size, these factors were alsoincorporated.A 2 x 5x 8 factorial experimental design was used. The respective factors were comprised of two price levels, fivediscount levels (10% to 50% in 10 percentage point increments) and eight presentations of regular price (RP),sale price (SP), percent off (PO) and amount off (AD) information. The specific treatment levels are (1) SP; (2)RP, SP; (3) RP, AO; (4) RP, PO; (5) RP, SP, AO; (6) RP, SP, PO; (7) RP, AO, PO; (8) RP, SP, AO, PO.A calculator was used as the experimental product because of its familiarity and potential interest to collegestudents who were employed as subjects. Two specific models were used et regular suggested price levelsprevailing in the market at the time ($120 and $50). The 400 participating subjects were randomly assigned (fiveper cell) to the 80 treatment conditions. All subjects were instructed to assume that they sew the providedadvertisement which described the product and exposed then to the price presentation format. They were thenasked to read the advertisement and respond to a series of dependent measures and personalbackground/debriefing questions.
The majority of price investigations have only examined s single dimension of buyers response to price.However, since price presentations have potential for affecting a variety of buyer reactions, single variablestudies forego opportunities to explore the potential richness of buyers multidimensional responses to pricepresentations (Engel, Blackwell and Kollat 1978; Jacoby 1978; Wind and Denny 1974). This study focused onthree response variates: perceived savings, perceived value for money at the sales price and perceivedacceptability of the offer. These variables were selected because of a desire to concentrate attention on theperceived worth construct identified in other work (Szybillo and Jacoby 1974; Walton and Berkowitz 1980) andthe attention given to the three variables in over nine previous investigations. Each of the three dependentvariables was measured on a seven-point equal-interval scale anchored by descriptive phrases appropriate to thevariable involved.Analysis and ResultsPreliminary analysis revealed that the three dependent variables exhibited substantial intercorrelations (r > .58).The three variables were also evaluated for internal consistency using Cronbachs (1951) alpha criterion. Theresulting alpha value of 0.81 is quite large for this type of basic research (Nunnally 1967), suggesting highconsistency among the response variates.In cases where multiple response measures are correlated, separate univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA)runs on each dependent variate can lead to incomplete and/or inappropriate conclusions (Green 1978; Tatsouka1971; Wind & Denny 1974). For this reason a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedure assummarized in Table 1 was selected. Wilks Lambda is an appropriate statistic for examining differences amonggroup centroids when two or more dependant measures serve as the joint set of evaluation criteria, Thedistribution of the F-statistic is proportional to the distribution of Lambda and is employed as the test statistic.A first point of interest in Table 1 is that all interaction terms are nonsignificant. This allows direct assessment ofmain treatment effects as opposed to examining the influence of treatments at individual values of the otherfactors. TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF MANOVA RESULTSAs shown in Table l, price level treatments did not produce a significant difference in subjects perceptions.However, examination of the group centroids suggests some tendency for subjects to perceive leas value for themoney in the more expensive model of the test product.Table 1 also reveals that discount size and information treatments generated significant differences in subjectsperceptions. For these situations it is appropriate to engage in further analysis to isolate the nature of thedifferences. While a variety of techniques can assist in this exploration (Green 1978; Hair et. al. 1979; Tatsuoka1971) these data were further analyzed using a simultaneous confidence interval approach to multiplecomparison rests (Mortises 1976). This approach to follow-up tasting for a MANOVA is highly conservative sinceit holds a maximum alpha level for all possible comparisons of a given type. Therefore, the actual alpha level on agiven test can be quite small, requiring a considerably large value for the computed test statistic. For this reason,and the exploratory nature of the research, differences that approached significance at the five percent probabilitylevel are discussed along with those that actually achieved significance. FIGURE 1 MEAN RESPONSES TO DISCOUNT TREATMENTSAs can be seen in Figure 1, the general pattern of the three dependence variables is to increase as themagnitude of the discount increases. Significantly higher savings were perceived at the 50, 40 and 30 percentdiscount levels than at the 10 percent level. The 50 percent level also produced significantly higher perceptions ofsavings than the 20 percent treatment condition.
Larger discounts also increased the general level of perceived offer accept, ability and value for money at thesales price. As Figure 1 shows, the one exception is at the 20 percent discount level where, relative to the 10percent level, perceived offer acceptability and value for the money dropped slightly. In fact, the only groupdifferences that approached or achieved significance on these measures were the difference in responses to the20 percent and 50 percent-off treatments.Since the information format treatment produced significant differences these responses were also exploredthrough construction of simultaneous confidence intervals. Mean response patterns for the three dependentmeasures are presented in Figure 2. Information treatments have been arranged on the X-axis so that responsesare generally increasing with movement along the axis. Also, since information treatments differed in non-quantitative aspects, their presentation on the X-axis represents categories of a factor rather than values of acontinuous variable. FIGURE 2 MEAN RESPONSES TO INFORMATION TREATMENTSThe difference between responses to information treatment one ("sales price" only) and three ("regular price andamount off") was accepted as significant for the perception of savings measure. As shown in Figure 2, treatmentcondition three accounted for a higher level of perceived savings. It also produced a nearly significantly greaterperception of offer acceptability than did treatment one, and it accounted for the second largest mean differenceon the perceived value for money measure. Further, the difference between mean responses to treatment four("regular price and percent off") and three ("regular price and amount off") approached significance for perceivedvalue for money with treatment three producing higher responses.It is also useful to examine the pattern of responses as the character of information changes while the number ofinputs in the advertisement remains constant. Figures 3 and 4 portray mean responses to two and threeinformational inputs respectively. As Figure 3 shows, the pattern of responses to two inputs is quite consistentacross the three dependent measures. The highest responses are under conditions of "regular price and amountoff" information. This was followed by responses to the "regular price and sales price" treatments while the"regular price and percent-off" treatment generated the lowest level of perceptions. FIGURE 3 MEAN RESPONSES TO TWO INFORMATION TREATMENTS FIGURE 4 MEAN RESPONSES TO THREE INFORMATION TREATMENTSFigure 4, where responses to three informational inputs are portrayed, again shows a quite consistent patternacross the dependent measures. However, this pattern is not consistent with responses shown in Figure 3 whereprovision of "amount off" information as the second input led to the highest level of mean responses. That is, forthree informational inputs the provisions of "amount off" information in conjunction with "regular price" and "salesprice" tended to depress responses below those obtained when "percent off" information was presented with"regular price" and "sales price" information. DISCUSSIONThis experiment was designed to investigate how individuals respond to comparative price advertisements undervarious conditions. The conditions involved different original price levels, discount magnitudes and formats forpresentation of price information. Response measures were perceived savings, value for the money at the saleprice and offer acceptability.Price level ($120 vs. $50) did not have a statistically significant effect on subjects perceptions. However, therewas a tendency to perceive more value for the money in the less expensive unit. This may suggest that the lower
priced-lined unit more clearly matched the perceived needs of subjects than the higher priced model whichcontained more sophisticated features.The magnitude of price discounts did produce significant differences in perceptions. Although all three dependentmeasures showed a very similar pattern of responses, the perceived savings variate accounted for most of thesignificant difference. This result closely resembles, and further confirms, the findings of Walton and Berkowitz(1980) regarding the effects of price discounts.It is interesting to examine the character of savings perceptions across levels of price discounts. Significantdifferences occurred between the 10% and 30-50% levels and between the 20% level and 50% level. However,response differences between the 30%, 40% and 50% levels were not significant. This result might beattributable to subjects being suspicious of the larger discount offers. However, a separate question askedsubjects to indicate the degree to which they suspected the truthfulness of the advertised prices. No significantdifferences in the perceived credibility of offers was detected across discount levels. Therefore, the argument thatsubjects suspicions accounted for different responses to discount levels is not strongly supported. Conversely, itis interesting to observe that the threshold of significant differences in perceived savings occurs in theneighborhood of the 15% price reduction that many retailers believe must be achieved to attract consumers to asale.The method of presenting sale price information produced significant differences in subjects perceptions.However, the nature of these differences appears to be complex, Presentation of only sales prices producedsignificantly lower perceptions of savings than did the presentation of regular price and dollar amount-offinformation. This result is consistent with Blair and Landons (1979) finding that presenting only sale price led tosignificantly lower perceived savings than presenting reference price information with the sales price. It is alsointeresting to note that the average perceived savings response to all conditions employing reference priceinformation (4.56) exceeded the average response to presenting sales price only (3.94). This shows furtherconsistency with Blair and Landons findings. Additionally, although the difference was not significant, format sixthat presented regular price, sale price and relative price reduction information led to greater perceptions ofsavings than when only sales price was presented. This mirrored Keiser and Krums (1976) findings for theseinformation presentation conditions.Although price information formats did not significantly influence perceptions of offer acceptability and perceivedvalue, the pattern of these responses closely reflected the perceived savings responses just described. Again,results are consistent with Barnes (1975) findings where presentations using regular and sales prices producedsignificantly higher perceptions of value than expressions involving only sales price (with semantic phrase) orsales price with relative price reduction information.When examining the effect of various price presentation formats while controlling for the amount of informationalinputs, no significant differences occurred, although a rather inconsistent trend of responses was observed. Fortwo informational inputs, presenting regular price and price reduction information in absolute terms yielded thehighest response levels across all three variates, followed by presentation of regular and sales prices. Presentingregular prices and the discount expressed in percentage terms yielded the lowest response levels. However, forpresentations involving three inputs the regular price, sale price, per-cent-off format generally yielded the highestresponse levels, while the regular price, percent-off, amount-off format was only marginally higher than theregular price, sale price, amount-off format. No clear response pattern emerges from this analysis especiallywhen comparisons between two and three informational inputs are attempted. Therefore, results suggest thatwhile a variety of presentations involving more information than just current sales price may favorably influenceconsumers perceptions of savings, offer acceptability and value for money, the relative effectiveness of theseinputs is presently unclear. Further research is needed across additional subject pools, product categories andprice presentation formats. REFERENCESBarnes, James G. (1975), "Factors Influencing Consumer Reaction to Retail Newspaper Sale Advertising," inEdward Mazze (ed.) 1975 Combined Proceedings, Chicago: American Marketing Association, 471-477.
Blair, Edward A. and Landon, E. Laird, Jr. (1979), "The Effects of Reference Prices in Retail Advertisements,"Working Paper, University of Houston.Document Information:Title: Store choice behaviour in an evolving marketAuthor(s): Piyush Kumar Sinha, (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India), Arindam Banerjee, (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India)Citation: Piyush Kumar Sinha, Arindam Banerjee, (2004) "Store choice behaviour in an evolving market", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 32 Iss: 10, pp.482 - 494Keywords: Consumer behaviour, India, Retail marketing, Shopping, Stores and supermarketsArticle type: General reviewDOI: 10.1108/09590550410558626 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAbstract: The objective of this study is to identify, at a macro level, the drivers of store choice in various product categories, in the context of the evolving retail industry in India. The paper attempts to correlate the distinct store features as perceived by respondents with the true motivations of various consumers in patronising various stores. In the process it provides insight as to whether the average Indian consumer values the new store dimensions offered by retailers as a part of the new formats emerging in the market place. The framework evolved for evaluating effectiveness of newer store formats is necessary since it has a major impact on the overall profitability of the retailing business. Suggests that customers in a developing market such as India do not require the service paraphernalia offered by many of the new store formats emerging in the market and notes that this may cast a serious doubt over the retail revolution, which has taken shape in the Indian markets lately. Some hypotheses about the evolution of the retailing business in India, which requires further investigation, are suggested.13
Document Information:Title: Buying behaviour of consumers for food products in an emerging economyAuthor(s): Jabir Ali, (Centre for Food and Agribusiness Management, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India), Sanjeev Kapoor, (Centre for Food and Agribusiness Management, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India), Janakiraman Moorthy, (Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkota, India)Citation: Jabir Ali, Sanjeev Kapoor, Janakiraman Moorthy, (2010) "Buying behaviour of consumers for food products in an emerging economy", British Food Journal, Vol. 112 Iss: 2, pp.109 - 124Keywords: Consumer behaviour, Food products, India, RetailingArticle type: Research paperDOI: 10.1108/00070701011018806 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAcknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Director, State Agricultural Marketing Board, Government of Uttar Pradesh for funding the project “Feasibility study of Apna Bazaar in Gomti Nagar, Lucknow”. The authors are also grateful to the editor and two anonymous referees for their valuable inputs and comments for improving this paper.Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a marketing strategy for a modern food/grocery market based on consumer preferences and behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 101 households having sufficient purchasing power were personally surveyed with a structured questionnaire. These households are spread across the well-developed Gomtinagar area of Lucknow city. Simple statistical analysis such as descriptive statistical analysis, frequency distribution, cross tabulation, analysis of variance, and factor analysis to assess the consumers preferences for food and grocery products and market attributes were carried out. Findings – The preferences of the consumers clearly indicate their priority for cleanliness/freshness of food products followed by price, quality, variety, packaging, and non-seasonal availability. The consumers preference of marketplace largely depends on the convenience in purchasing at the marketplace along with the availability of additional services, attraction for children, basic amenities and affordability. Results suggest that most of the food and grocery items are purchased in loose form from the nearby outlets. Fruits and vegetables are mostly purchased daily or twice a week due to their perishable nature, whereas grocery items are less frequently purchased. Research limitations/implications – This paper analyses the buying behaviour of the consumers under survey with respect to food and grocery items. These consumers are in a relatively advantageous position in terms of purchasing power and awareness of health and nutrition.
Practical implications – The results may help the food processors and outlet owners to understand a diversified set of preferences for products and market attributes, so that they can make better decisions in the emerging organized food and grocery retail environment. Originality/value – The topic is relatively less researched in emerging markets especially where organized retail is still in its early stages14Document Information:Title: Country of Origin Effect on U.S. Consumers’ Brand Personality Perception of Automobiles from China and IndiaAuthor(s): Marc Fetscherin, (Assistant Professor of International Business and Marketing at the Crummer Graduate School of Business (Rollins College)), Mark Toncar, (Youngstown State University, Marketing Department, Williamson College of Business Administration, Youngstown, OH, United States,)Citation: Marc Fetscherin, Mark Toncar, (2009) "Country of Origin Effect on U.S. Consumers’ Brand Personality Perception of Automobiles from China and India", Multinational Business Review, Vol. 17 Iss: 2, pp.111 - 128Keywords: Automobile, Brand personality, China, Country of origin, Emerging markets,IndiaArticle type: General reviewDOI: 10.1108/1525383X200900012 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAbstract: Chinese and Indian car manufacturers are entering developed markets. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumers from those countries. Using the multi-dimensional brand personality scale, this paper provides an explorative study of the country of origin effect on U.S. consumers’ brand perception of automobiles from China and India. Our multivariate analysis of variance shows differences in terms of brand excitement, brand competence, brand sophistication, and brand ruggedness. Our results indicate that the Chinese car is perceived to be more daring, up- to-date, and outdoorsy than the Indian and U.S. car; more intelligent, successful, and upper-class than the Indian car; and more charming than the U.S. car. The U.S. car is perceived as more successful than the Indian car.14The changing roles of pharmacists incommunity pharmacies: perceptionof reality in IndiaSubal C. Basak,J. W. Foppe van Mil,Dondeti Sathyanarayana
Look Inside Get AccessAbstractAim of the review To summarise the state of community pharmacy in India including: the provision ofpatient care, pharmacy education, the pharmaceutical market, healthcare delivery, communitypharmacy services, the professional role of community pharmacists, and futuredevelopments.Method Medline, Scirus, and Google Scholar databases and the journals “IndianJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences” and “Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy” were searched up tothe end of December 2008. In addition to these, other available sources were used to identify relevantarticles.Results India has a fast growing pharmaceutical industry sector and a need for well educatedpharmacists. Domestic sale of medicines is estimated to be $5 billion during 2006 and increasing. Thesupply of medicines to the population is undertaken by privately owned community pharmacies andsometimes also by hospital pharmacies. Community pharmacists are involved only in dispensingmedicines. Community pharmacists have an opportunity to improve healthcare of the population,particularly of the disadvantaged section of the society that does not have the resources to visit clinics(both the poor and rural population). However, important barriers to the provision of pharmaceuticalcare exists, including lack of proper education and training of pharmacists, weak implementation ofexisting laws, and lack of recognition of the pharmacy as a profession by the other healthcareprofessionals. Conclusion The healthcare services in community pharmacies, currently insignificant,must undergo reforms to meet the changing needs of modern medicines users. The pharmacist’s rolein patient care is expected to grow as professional and educational standards develop. Althoughpharmacists’ contributions to health care are not yet recognized, there is every reason to be optimistictoward making patient care in community pharmacy setting a success. For this, the educationalsystem for pharmacists has to be adapted.1513Original ArticleJournal of Retail & Leisure Property (2010) 9, 75–87. doi:10.1057/rlp.2009.27Customer expectations of store attributes: A study oforganized retail outlets in IndiaPiyali Ghosh1, Vibhuti Tripathi2 and Anil Kumar3Correspondence: Piyali Ghosh, School of Management Studies, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology,(Deemed University), Allahabad, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org is a lecturer with School of Management Studies, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India. Shehas earned her PhD from Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad and MBA from University ofAllahabad. She has been teaching courses on Human Resource Management, Business Ethics and Economics. Herresearch interest lies in Human Resource and Entrepreneurship. She has co-authored a book on ManagerialEconomics, besides 15 research papers published in national and international journals and 10 research papers invarious conferences.2 is a lecturer with School of Management Studies, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad. She hasearned her PhD from Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad and MBA degree from Devi AhilyaVishwvidyalaya, Indore. Her research interest is in Brand Management, Retail Management and Consumer Behavior.She has over 5 years of industrial experience in Sales and Retail Operations, 3 years of core research and 3 years ofteaching. She has 15 research papers to her credit, published in national and international journals.
3 is a lecturer with DIT School of Engineering, Greater Noida, India. He has earned his MBA degree from Motilal NehruNational Institute of Technology, Allahabad, and MSc in Computer Science from Jiwaji University, Gwalior. He isteaching courses on Marketing Management, Marketing of Services and Strategic Management. His research interestlies in Retail Management and Consumer Behavior.Received 5 November 2009; Revised 5 November 2009.Topof pageAbstractThe phenomenal growth of retail in India is reflected in the rapid increase innumber of supermarkets, departmental stores and hypermarkets in thecountry. However, this unprecented growth trend has been challenged by theshadow of the current economic slowdown, which has raised a fear of dip inconsumption and slowdown of growth for Indian organized retailers. At a timewhen consumer spending is on decline, success will lie with those retailers thatcan drive customer loyalty by responding to the demands of the discerningconsumer. This study is an attempt to address issues related to store attributesand their relevance in the store selection process. Eleven variables (storeattributes) have been identified in this article based on theory and judgment.Factor analysis has yielded three factors: Convenience & Merchandise Mix,Store Atmospherics and Services. The factors identified and recommendationsmade in the article would be of use to retailers in designing their outlets withstore attributes that would meet the expectations of shoppers and thusmotivate them towards store patronage decisions.Keywords:organized retail, store attributes, store selection, purchase patterns, store atmospherics11Buying behaviour of consumers for food products in anemerging economyDocument Information:Title: Buying behaviour of consumers for food products in an emerging economyAuthor(s): Jabir Ali, (Centre for Food and Agribusiness Management, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India), Sanjeev Kapoor, (Centre for Food and Agribusiness Management, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India), Janakiraman Moorthy, (Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkota, India)Citation: Jabir Ali, Sanjeev Kapoor, Janakiraman Moorthy, (2010) "Buying behaviour of consumers for food products in an emerging economy", British Food Journal, Vol. 112 Iss: 2, pp.109 - 124Keywords: Consumer behaviour, Food products, India, Retailing
Article type: Research paperDOI: 10.1108/00070701011018806 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAcknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Director, State Agricultural Marketing Board, Government of Uttar Pradesh for funding the project “Feasibility study of Apna Bazaar in Gomti Nagar, Lucknow”. The authors are also grateful to the editor and two anonymous referees for their valuable inputs and comments for improving this paper.Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a marketing strategy for a modern food/grocery market based on consumer preferences and behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 101 households having sufficient purchasing power were personally surveyed with a structured questionnaire. These households are spread across the well-developed Gomtinagar area of Lucknow city. Simple statistical analysis such as descriptive statistical analysis, frequency distribution, cross tabulation, analysis of variance, and factor analysis to assess the consumers preferences for food and grocery products and market attributes were carried out. Findings – The preferences of the consumers clearly indicate their priority for cleanliness/freshness of food products followed by price, quality, variety, packaging, and non- seasonal availability. The consumers preference of marketplace largely depends on the convenience in purchasing at the marketplace along with the availability of additional services, attraction for children, basic amenities and affordability. Results suggest that most of the food and grocery items are purchased in loose form from the nearby outlets. Fruits and vegetables are mostly purchased daily or twice a week due to their perishable nature, whereas grocery items are less frequently purchased. Research limitations/implications – This paper analyses the buying behaviour of the consumers under survey with respect to food and grocery items. These consumers are in a relatively advantageous position in terms of purchasing power and awareness of health and nutrition. Practical implications – The results may help the food processors and outlet owners to understand a diversified set of preferences for products and market attributes, so that they can make better decisions in the emerging organized food and
grocery retail environment. Originality/value – The topic is relatively less researched in emerging markets especially where organized retail is still in its early stages.11To Localize or to Standardize on the Web: Empirical Evidencefrom Italy, India, Netherlands, Spain, and SwitzerlandDocument Information:Title: To Localize or to Standardize on the Web: Empirical Evidence from Italy, India, Netherlands, Spain, and SwitzerlandAuthor(s): Nitish Singh, (California State University Chico), Olivier Furrer, (University of Nijmegen), Massimiliano Ostinelli, (Politecnico di Milano)Citation: Nitish Singh, Olivier Furrer, Massimiliano Ostinelli, (2004) "To Localize or to Standardize on the Web: Empirical Evidence from Italy, India, Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland", Multinational Business Review, Vol. 12 Iss: 1, pp.69 - 88Keywords: E-commerce, Globalisation, Online consumersArticle type: General reviewDOI: 10.1108/1525383X200400004 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAbstract: With the growth of worldwide e-commerce, companies are increasingly targeting foreign online consumers. However, there is a dearth of evidence as to whether global consumers prefer to browse and buy from standardized global web sites or web sites adapted to their local cultures. This study provides evidence from five different countries as to whether global consumers prefer local web content or standardized web content. The study also measures how the degree of cultural adaptation on the web affects consumer perception of site effectiveness.11INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY ON CUSTOMERSATISFACTION: APPLICATION OF SERVQUAL MODELRavichandran Krishnamurthy, Dr, Tamil Mani b, Mr. Arun Kumar SivaKumar, Dr. PrabhakaranSellamuthu
situations. Design/methodology/approach – Survey method for data collection was used. Data were collected from a sample of 1,207 retail customers in Indias unorganized retail sector across five product categories in Varanasi, India. Findings – Results showed that six of the independent variables considered, namely, shopping attitude of respondent, store loyalty (SL), perceived store prices, store distance, shopping frequency, and brand loyalty (in order of importance of impact) significantly influenced consumers attitude towards retail store in out-of-stock. Research limitations/implications – Data were collected only for five product categories and for unorganized retail setting because of which results and findings are not generalizeable to beyond these boundaries. Practical implications – Implications of this for retailers and future research are discussed. Originality/value – Since attitudes towards retail outlets are very important in determining future SL and subsequent profitability, understanding of consumer store attitudes in negative events like stockout is importantly for retailers. The paper provides crucial insights to retailers by identifying independent variables that must be considered while designing their operations.11Journal Article Customers perception and attitude Add to marked towards service quality in multinational items banks in India Journal International Journal of Prices/Add Services and Operations to Shopping Management Cart Add to Publisher Inderscience Publishers saved items ISSN 1744-2370 (Print) Recommend 1744-2389 (Online) this article Subject Materials and Manufacturingand Operational Management, Marketing and Services
Issue Volume 10, Number 2/2011 Pages 199-215 DOI 10.1504/IJSOM.2011.042517 Subject Group Management and Business Online Date Thursday, September 15, 2011PDF (219.0 KB)HTMLAuthors 1Arpita Khare1 Department of Management, LDC Institute of Technical Studies, 9, J.L. Nehru Road, George Town, Allahabad,IndiaAbstractThe research attempts to understand the Indian customers perceptions towards the service quality ofmultinational banks. There have been several studies to understand the service quality in the banking sector.With liberalisation policies initiated by the Indian Government, the multinational banks have been makinginvestments in the country. To be successful in the country, they would have to understand the expectations ofthe Indian customers. The study tries to extend the existing SERVQUAL dimensions used by previousresearches and adopts it in Indian context. The SERVQUAL model was adopted and modified for the research.Through a survey administered on Indian customers (n = 198), and their perceptions about service quality wasidentified. ANOVA, post-hoc analysis and, multiple regression tests were used to analyse the data. The resultsshow that Indian customers quality perceptions differ between the two genders and across age categories. Themultinational banks can use the results for planning their expansion and marketing strategies in Indiansubcontinent.Keywordsservice quality, multinational banks, service expectation, personal interaction, customer perceptions, India, bankquality, banking industry, bank services, customer attitudes, liberalisation, perceived quality11Consumer receptiveness to international retail market entryDocument Information:Title: Consumer receptiveness to international retail market entryAuthor(s): Nicholas Alexander, (School of Management and Business, Centre for Research in Marketing, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK), Anne Marie Doherty, (Glamorgan Business School, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK), Jason M. Carpenter, (Department of Retailing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina,
USA), Marguerite Moore, (College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA)Citation: Nicholas Alexander, Anne Marie Doherty, Jason M. Carpenter, Marguerite Moore, (2010) "Consumer receptiveness to international retail market entry", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 38 Iss: 3, pp.160 – 172Keywords: Competitive strategy, Consumer behaviour, Country of origin, International trade,Retail tradeArticle type: Conceptual paperDOI: 10.1108/09590551011027104 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAbstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggested framework for improving the understanding of consumer receptiveness to incoming international retailers. The consumer perception of country of origin against consumer receptiveness index (CRI) is proposed as a method to explore the receptiveness of consumers in the host market to incoming international retailers. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews the international retailing literature, highlighting the need for specific knowledge regarding consumer receptiveness to incoming international retailers. A method is proposed to explore how consumers in the host market respond to incoming international retail firms. Findings – The literature review indicates that the majority of the extant work investigates the process from the perspective of the internationalising retailer, while consumer receptiveness to the international retailer has not been fully considered. Research limitations/implications – This paper does not present an empirical study. The consumer perception of country of origin against CRI is presented as a means to suggest and guide future research in the area. Practical implications – The paper makes a practical contribution by suggesting a method to explore how consumers in the host country receive incoming international retailers. Originality/value – This paper is unique because previous research has provided limited knowledge of consumer receptiveness to international retailers.11Measuring perceived quality of health care services in India
Document Information:Title: Measuring perceived quality of health care services in IndiaAuthor(s): Ritu Narang, (Department of Business Administration, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India)Citation: Ritu Narang, (2010) "Measuring perceived quality of health care services in India", International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 23 Iss: 2, pp.171 – 186Keywords: Community health centres, Customer services quality, India, PatientsArticle type: Research paperDOI: 10.1108/09526861011017094 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAcknowledgements: The author duly acknowledges the partial support provided by the funds made available under UGC- Major Research Project, “Identifying business opportunities in rural health care system” during 10th Plan for preparation of this paper.Abstract: Purpose – The objective of this paper is to understand the perception of patients towards health care services in Lucknow based on the 20-item scale Design/methodology/approach – The 20-item scale was administered to 500 users of health care centres comprising a tertiary health centre, a state medical university and two missionary hospitals in Lucknow, India. Findings – The scale was found to be reliable to a great extent with an overall Cronbach alpha value of 0.74. “Health personnel and practices” and “health care delivery” were found to be statistically significant in impacting the perception. Respondents were relatively less positive on items related to “access to services” and “adequacy of doctors for women”. The tertiary health centre was rated poorer than the medical university and missionary hospitals. Research limitations/implications – This tool may be applied for qualitative assessment of the services of health care programmes as well as health care centres of India. Practical implications – The paper draws the attention of health policy makers in considering the requirements and opinions of patients to effect substantial change and significant improvement in the quality of the health care
services for better and increased utilization of the services. Originality/value – The paper fulfils the need of measuring perceived quality of health care services and points out that the improvement in health care services requires immediate and urgent attention from policy makers.11Store choice behaviour in an evolving marketDocument Information:Title: Store choice behaviour in an evolving marketAuthor(s): Piyush Kumar Sinha, (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India), Arindam Banerjee, (Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India)Citation: Piyush Kumar Sinha, Arindam Banerjee, (2004) "Store choice behaviour in an evolving market", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 32 Iss: 10, pp.482 – 494Keywords: Consumer behaviour, India, Retail marketing, Shopping, Stores and supermarketsArticle type: General reviewDOI: 10.1108/09590550410558626 (Permanent URL)Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing LimitedAbstract: The objective of this study is to identify, at a macro level, the drivers of store choice in various product categories, in the context of the evolving retail industry in India. The paper attempts to correlate the distinct store features as perceived by respondents with the true motivations of various consumers in patronising various stores. In the process it provides insight as to whether the average Indian consumer values the new store dimensions offered by retailers as a part of the new formats emerging in the market place. The framework evolved for evaluating effectiveness of newer store formats is necessary since it has a major impact on the overall profitability of the retailing business. Suggests that customers in a developing market such as India do not require the service paraphernalia offered by many of the new store formats emerging in the market and notes that this may cast a serious doubt over the retail revolution, which has taken shape in the Indian markets lately. Some hypotheses about the evolution of the retailing business in India, which requires further investigation, are
suggested.11Journal Article Consumer reactions to retail out-of-stock: Add to marked replication into new contexts items Journal International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management Prices/Add to Publisher Inderscience Publishers Shopping Cart ISSN 1753-0806 (Print) 1753-0814 (Online) Add to saved items Subject Accounting and Finance, Arts and Recommen Culture, Business d this Administration, Economics,Entrepreneurs article hip, Innovation and SMEs, Information Systems and Technology,Operational Management, Marketing and Services,Policy and Organisational Management and Public Policy and Public Services Issue Volume 1, Number 3/2008 Pages 319-334 DOI 10.1504/IJICBM.2008.017788 Subject Group Computing and Mathematics Online Date Tuesday, April 15, 2008PDF (114.9 KB)HTMLAuthors 1Leela Rani
1 Management Group, Faculty Division 1, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, 1201-R, Pilani 333031,Rajasthan, IndiaAbstractThis study empirically examines the impact of situational, consumer, store and product characteristic variables onconsumers behavioural reactions in out-of-stock situations in retail. A survey method for data collection was usedwith a sample of 1,207 retail customers in Indias unorganised retail sector across five product categories inVaranasi, India. Results showed that 11 out of 13 independent variables had a significant impact on at least oneof the three behavioural responses considered. As the data was collected only for five product categories and forunorganised retail setting, findings are not generalisable beyond these limitations. Empirical research like thishelps to develop an understanding about the consumer behaviour which differs widely across settings. It is one ofthe first studies in an unorganised retail in India. Study provides crucial insights to the retailers by identifyingindependent variables that must be considered while designing their operations and strategies to fight out-of-stock. Implications for the retailers and the future research are discussed.Keywordsconsumer behaviour, consumer reactions, India, out-of-stock, replication study, retail stores, unorganised retail