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  1. 1. Chapter 2:Personality<br />
  2. 2. On a piece of paper, write down what you think is happening in this picture.<br />
  3. 3. Quick Pair activity<br />Break up into pairs and share what you wrote down.<br />Were there any similarities in your stories/perception?<br />Were there any differences?<br />Can you see the other person’s perception/perspective of the the story/situation if it differed from yours?<br />
  4. 4. Different views on what equates personalities:<br />It is our most striking traits.<br />Shaped by learning or biological influences.<br />Underlying mental structures battling outside our awareness (unconscious).<br />Ways people express personal choices that give meaning and personal direction to their lives.<br />Need to consider: culture and race and ethnicity when looking at personality.<br />
  5. 5. But first let us look at what the word “Personality” means:<br />Psychologists define personality as reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another.<br />
  6. 6. We will be over-viewing the following personality theories:<br />Psychodynamic theories<br />Learning theories<br />Behaviorism<br />Social-Cognitive Theory<br />Humanistic Theory<br />Self-Actualization<br />Trait theories<br />Socialcultural theory<br />
  7. 7. Psychodynamic Theory<br />Originated from Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)<br />Common Features: <br />Personality is characterized by a dynamic struggle between different elements within the personality (ex. Id, Ego, Superego). <br />Our inner struggles impact our behavior, thoughts and emotions. <br />Let’s take a closer at Freud’s theory of personality.<br />
  8. 8. Freud: Geography of the Mind<br />Mind = human iceberg<br />We are only aware of small portion of the mind (conscious).<br />A great portion of the mind – our deepest images, thoughts, fears, urges-remain beneath the surface (preconscious and unconscious).<br />Preconscious-can be accessed by just focusing on them.<br />Unconscious-mystery; biologically based instincts (sexual and aggressive) that give rise to unacceptable urges or impulses that are kept out of awareness.<br />
  9. 9. The 3 Psychic Structures: the clashing forces w/in personality - Freud<br />ID (present at birth): <br />Instinctual drives (sex and aggression)<br />Is PURELY in unconscious<br />Guided by the pleasure principle – wants INSTANT gratification without consideration of laws, social custom, or the needs of others.<br />
  10. 10. The 3 Psychic Structures: the clashing forces w/in personality (continued)<br />EGO (first year of life):<br />Stands for reason and good sense<br />Rational ways of coping with frustration<br />Curves appetites of the id.<br />Person’s conscious sense of self<br />Guided by the reality principle- takes into accounts what is practical and urged by the id.<br />When the ego is threatened by unconscious impulses, it will employ defense mechanisms to protect the conscious self.<br />
  11. 11. Defense Mechanisms<br />
  12. 12. Defense mechanisms<br />Defenses may hide any of a variety of thoughts or feelings: <br />anger,<br />fear, <br />sadness/depression, <br />greed, <br />envy/admiration, <br />competitiveness, <br />love/passion, criticalness, <br />dependency, <br />selfishness, <br />grandiosity, <br />helplessness. <br />What defense mechanisms do think you use?<br />
  13. 13. Group Activity<br />Your Group&apos;s Role play:<br />Break up into 11 groups (there will be groups of 3 or 4)<br />In your small group, develop a role play that you can perform in front of the class. In it set up the scene then demonstrate the defense mechanism you were assigned. Try to give everyone in the group a part to play. <br />The whole role play should last about 1-3 minutes. <br />After you finish the scene, the class will try to guess which defense mechanism you were demonstrating.<br />
  14. 14. Defense Mechanisms (recap)<br />Defense mechanisms protect us from being consciously aware of a thought or feeling which we cannot tolerate.<br />The defense only allows the unconscious thought or feeling to be expressed indirectly in a disguised form.<br />Defenses may hide any of a variety of thoughts or feelings: anger, fear, sadness, depression, greed, envy, competitiveness, love, passion, admiration, criticalness, dependency, selfishness, grandiosity, helplessness.<br />
  15. 15. The 3 Psychic Structures: the clashing forces w/in personality (continued)<br />SUPEREGO (early childhood) <br />Moral standards and values of parents and important others in their lives through identification.<br />“Ideal self” = conscience/moral guardian<br />Monitors intention of ego<br />Hands out judgments of right and wrong.<br />Floods ego with feelings of guilt and shame.<br />Healthy Personality = gratify most of id’s demands without seriously offending the superego.<br />
  16. 16. Stages of Psychosexual Development - Freud<br />Main idea: Sexual motivation plays important role in personality development.<br />Libido – the sexual instinct that is expressed through erotic or sexual feelings in different parts of the body (erogenous zones) in a child’s development.<br />Insufficient or excessive gratification in any stage could lead to fixation in that stage and development of traits that are characteristic of that stage. <br />
  17. 17. Oral Stage<br />Birth to 1st year <br />sucking/biting<br />Fixations that can occur: Dependency, gullibility, excessive optimism/pessimism, exaggerated desires for “oral activities” (ex. Smoking, sucking thumb, etc). <br />
  18. 18. Anal Stage<br />2nd year<br />Focus: contraction/relaxation of muscles that control elimination of waste<br />Two outcomes Freud focused on:<br />Anal-retentive<br />Anal expulsive<br />
  19. 19. Phallic Stage<br />3-5/6 y.o.<br />libidinal energy is shifted to phallic region<br />sexual attachment to parent of other gender.<br />Oedipus complex<br />Electra complex<br />
  20. 20. Latency Stage and Genital Stage<br />Latency: (5/6-puberty)<br />sexual feelings remain unconscious.<br />Prefer playmates of own gender.<br />Genital:(puberty)<br />sexual urges displaced to other adults or teens.<br />
  21. 21. Other Psychodynamic Theorists<br />Carl Jung (1875-1961) – analytical psychology<br />Focus on present<br />“Self” and strive to achieve wholeness<br />Look at both conscious and unconscious process<br />Personal unconscious and collective unconscious (archetypes – history of our species).<br />Alfred Adler (1870-1937) – individual psychology<br />People motivated by inferiority complex<br />Self-awareness and personality development<br />Birth order<br />
  22. 22. Other Psychodynamic Theorists<br />Karen Horney (1885-1952) - feminist perspective<br />Took issue with the way psychoanalytic theory portrayed women.<br />Penis envy = social power/authority that men hold in society<br />Interpersonal relationships are key<br />Erik Erikson (1902-1994) - Psychosocial development <br />8 stages (next slide)<br />each stage can have one of 2 outcomes<br />Ego identity – the goal of adolescence; who we see ourselves and what we stand for.<br />Social relationships are main determinants of personality.<br />We have choices and are conscious architects of our own personalities.<br />
  23. 23. Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages – Stage 1<br />Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 12 to 18 months)<br />Feeding and providing basic needs.<br />Trust - Trust is developed when infants needs are met.<br />Mistrust - If not securely attached will be less cooperative and more aggressive with mothers/fathers. Less competent and sympathetic with peers when get older.<br />
  24. 24. Stage 2:<br />Autonomy vs. Doubt (1 to 2 years old)<br />Toilet training is the most important event. <br />A parent&apos;s level of protectiveness will influence the child&apos;s ability to achieve autonomy.<br />Autonomy - A child must take more responsibility with being more autonomous.Parents must be reassuring yet avoid overprotection.<br />Doubt - If parents do not positively reinforce autonomy = shame and doubt in their abilities. <br />
  25. 25. Stage 3<br />Initiative vs. Guilt (2 to 6 years old)<br />Independence. The child continues to be assertive and to take the initiative. <br />Important for adults to confirm that the child&apos;s initiative is accepted no matter how small it may be.<br />Initiative - The child must learn to accept without guilt, that there are certain things not allowed.<br />Guilt - If not allowed to do things on their own = a sense of guilt may develop and they may believe that what they want to do is always wrong. <br />
  26. 26. Stage 4<br />Latency vs. Inferiority (6 to 12 years old)<br />School <br />Need to be productive and do work on their own and interact well with peers.<br />Latency - Child needs to discover pleasure in being productive and the need to succeed.<br />Inferiority - Difficulty transitioning from home to school and relating to peers can lead to feeling inferior. <br />
  27. 27. Stage 5<br />Identity vs. Role confusion (12 to 18 years old)<br />In search for identity – “Who am I?”<br />Need to overcome earlier conflicts in order to search for identity.<br />If the adolescent cannot make deliberate decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and life in general, role confusion becomes a threat.<br />
  28. 28. Stage 6<br />Intimacy vs. Isolation (19 to 40 years old)<br />Love relationships are key.<br />Intimacy – is one&apos;s ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. <br />must develop intimate relationships with others or may feel isolated or<br />Isolation - May isolate if sense of identity is not developed and may fear a committed relationship. <br />
  29. 29. Stage 7<br />Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 years)<br />Generativity - the adult&apos;s ability to care for another person.<br />Each adult must have some way to satisfy and support the next generation.<br />Stagnation – Later in life this will occur if if individual is not able to deal with issues they are concerned with.<br />
  30. 30. Stage 8<br />Integrity vs. Despair (65 years to death)<br />Accept one&apos;s whole life and reflecting on that life in a positive manner.<br />Integrity - fully accepting oneself and coming to terms with the death.<br />Despair - unable to obtain a feeling of fulfillment and completeness will despair and fear death. <br />
  31. 31. “Student Shock”<br />is a name given to the effects of an often overwhelming number of choices for a major field, severe stress, pressure to choose the right career (and major), and pressure to perform on today&apos;s college students.<br />Have any of you felt these pressures? <br />
  32. 32. Activity<br />Break up into pairs and explore these questions with each other.<br />How has “student shock” affected you? <br />Do you feel you have been pushed to grow up or take on too much responsibility too fast?<br />What are your biggest fears about the future?<br />How have you, or your classmates, attempted to cope with student shock and what suggestions might you have for others coping with this phenomenon.<br />How might such heavy demands to cope keep you, eventually, from growing? <br />
  33. 33. Learning Theories<br />Learning theories focus upon our ability to learn and adapt to the environments in which we find ourselves.<br />Two prominent theories are Behaviorism and Social-Cognitive Theory. <br />
  34. 34. Behaviorism<br />Believed that psychology should be limited to the study of observable behavior.<br />“mind” could not be directly observed.<br />View on personality: it is nothing more than the range of a person’s behaviors, which are developed on the basis of environmental influences (rewards and punishments).<br />Personality is what a person does, not what a person is.<br />
  35. 35. Classical Conditioning<br />Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)<br />“Learning by association” through repeatedly pairing a unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to elicit a unconditioned response. <br />Unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) – stimulus that elicits a response from an organism without learning (ex. Meat)<br />Unconditioned response (UR or UCR) – an unlearned response (ex. Salivation). <br />
  36. 36. Classical Conditioning (continued)<br />Conditioned stimulus (CS) – a neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response due to being paired with an UCS (ex. Bell)<br />Conditioned response (CR) – Response to a conditioned stimulus (ex. Salivation when bell is rung).<br />Can you identify classical conditioning in your own life?<br />
  37. 37. Operant conditioning<br />BF Skinner (1904-1990). <br />form of learning in which the frequency of behavior is increased (by means of reinforcement) or decreased (by means of punishment).<br />Positive Reinforcers – increase the frequency of particular behaviors when they occur following the behaviors (ex. Money, social approval). <br />Negative Reinforcers – increase the frequency of behaviors, but they do so when they are removed following the particular behaviors. Removal of unpleasant stimuli (ex. Skinner box, traffic, pain, anxiety, etc.).<br />
  38. 38. Operant Conditioning (continued)<br />Punishment is an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses behavior. (Ex. Punishing children, time out, etc).<br />Punishment is often used because it can quickly suppress behavior. However, psychologists suggest utilizing reinforcement due to the inherent weaknesses of punishment.<br />Example: Rearing children. Only good for emergencies. Only tends to suppress undesired behavior only under circumstances in which delivery is guaranteed. <br />
  39. 39. Let’s look at an example of positive reinforcement.<br />Positive reinforcement has shown to be the most effective behavioral approach in child rearing in order to increase desired behavior. (Yelling at a child for not doing homework vs. candle/sticker reward).<br />Let’s look at the m&m experiment example.<br /><br />
  40. 40. Recap on reinforcement vs. punishment<br />
  41. 41. Social-Cognitive Theory<br />Albert Bandura (1925-present)<br />Key terms:<br />Agree with principles of reinforcement and punishment from behaviorism<br />Addition: Cognitive processes (expectations, perception, etc) influence behavior.<br />People learn by watching others<br />modeling– acquiring knowledge by observing others<br />Example of modeling:<br />
  42. 42. Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive theory<br />Assumption 1: People can learn by watching others <br />Example:   Children tend to copy behaviors they see their parents do.<br />Assumption 2: Learning is an internal process that may or may not change behavior (based on moral values).      <br />Example: We often learn things in media(tvand movies) that do not affect our behaviors in any way.<br />Assumption 3:  Behavior is directed toward particular goals.    <br />Example:   Why are you taking this course?  What goals will it help you attain?<br />
  43. 43. Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory (Continued)<br />Assumption 4:  Behavior eventually becomes self-regulated <br />Comparison with Behaviorism:    <br />Behaviorists =&gt; things happen and are controlled by external stimuli and standards.<br />Social Cognitive Theorists =&gt; people set their own goals and standards and can learn to control their learning and behavior.<br />Assumption 5:  Reinforcement and punishment have indirect effects as well as direct ones.     <br />Example: Expectations formed on the basis of prior experience where reinforcement may influence behavior more than current reinforcers.     <br />Explanation:  People’s beliefs influence the effects of reinforcers as well.<br />Youtube:<br />
  44. 44. Recap of Learning Theories<br />To understand your present behavior, we need to consider individual history or rewards and punishments.<br />We also need to look at cognitive factors, such as expectancies and observational learning.<br />Challenges with this theory:<br />Does not address unconscious influences<br />Does not look at influence of heredity<br />Does not address self-awareness<br />
  45. 45. Humanistic Theory<br />Believed that we humans are fundamentally free, even “painfully” free in making decisions about what we do with our lives.<br />We are free to choose how we lead our lives, or live inauthentically by allowing others to determine who we are and what we should do.<br />Main point: “Free choice is the essence of what it means to be human.”<br />
  46. 46. Self-actualization<br />Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)<br />Self-actualization – to become all that they can be and that people see the world as it is.<br />People are unique thus each path is different<br />Main threat to individual personality development is control by other people. <br />
  47. 47. The Hierarchy of Needs<br />1) Biological needs – water, food, rest, sexual release, etc.<br />2) Safety needs – Protection from physical and social environment by means of clothing, housing, and security.<br />3) Love and belongingness needs – love and acceptance through intimate relationships, social groups, and friends<br />4) Esteem needs – achievement, competence, approval, recognition, status.<br />5). Self-actualization – personal growth; development of our unique potentials.<br />
  48. 48. Carl Roger’s Self Theory<br />Self – the ongoing sense of who and what you are.<br />Frames of reference – our unique way of looking at ourselves and the world; impacts our self-concept.<br />Children develop self-esteem when given unconditional positive regard – parents accept them as having intrinsic merit regardless of behavior.<br />Conditional positive regard – when parents accept them only when they behave in a desired manner. Results in:<br />Conditions of worth – have worth only when behave as their parents wish them to behave; think of themselves as unworthy for failing to meet parental standards (“not good enough”). <br />
  49. 49. Art activity<br />With all the pressures of life both externally and internally, we all wear different masks that we show at different times to protect ourselves. <br />I will be passing out blank faces. <br />On the front side of the blank face, decorate it according to the the “self”/mask you show the world.<br />On the back side of the blank face, decorate it according to who you feel your “true self” is without all the masks you wear. <br />
  50. 50. Humanistic theorists view on personality:<br />People who are well adjusted are “true” to themselves.<br />Qualities of healthy personalities:<br />Experience life in the hear and now<br />Are open to new experience<br />Express their true feelings and beliefs<br />Seek meaningful activities.<br />Being capable of making major changes in their lives.<br />Becoming their own persons<br />Strength and weakness: recognize importance of conscious, subjective experience, but this is also a weakness because its is private and subjective – no way to test it since consciousness is only available to one person, you. <br />
  51. 51. Trait Theories<br />People tend to describe themselves through traits (ex. Bright, sophisticated, optimistic, etc.)<br />What traits do you think best describe you?<br />Traits – Consistent behavior in diverse situations.<br />Weakness:<br />Label behavior rather than explain<br />Doesn’t account for variability with different situations. <br />
  52. 52. The Sociocultural Theory<br />Our sense of ourselves and our adjustment are influenced by social and cultural factors such as:<br />Ethnicity<br />Gender<br />Culture<br />Discrimination<br />Socioeconomic status<br />
  53. 53. Individualism vs. Collectivism<br />Individualists<br />Emphasize individual achievement<br />Value self-sufficiency<br />Define self through personal identities<br />Give priority to personal goals and aspirations<br />Collectivists<br />Define selves through groups they belong to<br />Give priority to group’s goals<br />Connect identity to social roles and obligations<br />Emphasize communal values<br />Where do you fit in?<br />
  54. 54. Key ideas of Sociocultural Theory<br />Human mind has the ability to think both individualistically and collectivistically depending on the particular circumstance.<br />Healthy personality: <br />understand who we are in a collective sense<br />Balance social and individual parts of self<br />Plus: focus on external factors that shape our personalities.<br />Challenge: Need to include our unique individual experiences, genetic heritage, and subjective experiences of ourselves <br />
  55. 55. Culture clash and Acculturation<br />Definition: process by which immigrants become acclimated to the customs and behavior patterns of their new host culture.<br />Different ways immigrants acculturate:<br />Adopting language, style of dress, and customs of host country – complete acculturation <br />Retain language and customs of their country of origin and never acclimate <br />Bicultural – preserving their traditional customs, preferences for types of music, food, and dress as well as adopting the new customs and language proficiencies of the host culture.<br />Maintaining strong ethnic identification is linked to better psychological health among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. <br />
  56. 56. Homework<br />Should be done with reading Chapter 2.<br />Journal entry for Chapter 2.<br />Choose one topic out of the 3 provided.<br />Due Wednesday, September 23. <br />