Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Stress and Stress Management <br />PSYC 301 - Mariano<br />
  2. 2. What is Stress?<br />Class brainstorm<br />Stress can be defined as our mental,physical, emotional, and behavioral reactions to any perceived demands or threats.<br />
  3. 3. Fight or Flight<br />Physiological reaction (racing heartbeat, breathing rate increased, dilated pupils, tense muscles, and mind process information rapidly).<br />When presented with a threat =&gt; our bodies react quickly to supply protection by &quot;turning on the juices&quot; and preparing to take action. This physiological reaction is known as the &quot;fight or flight&quot; response.<br />Example : Caveman and tiger<br />
  4. 4. Example #2: Public Speaking In groups, draw/list some examples of signs of stress in these various areas:<br /> Physical Behavioral<br /> Cognitive Emotional <br />
  5. 5. Signs of stress<br />Physical<br />Increased heart rate<br />Clammy or sweaty hands<br />Physically shaking <br />Rapid and shallow breathing<br />Jaw tightens<br />Light-headed<br />Behavioral<br />Stuttering<br />Looking down a lot<br />Avoid eye contact with the audience<br />Absence on day of presentation<br />Rushing through presentation<br />
  6. 6. Signs of stress (cont’)<br />Cognitive<br />Your mind may go blank<br />Your thoughts might race wildly. <br />You might have thoughts about making a mistake or looking ridiculous in front of your peers.<br />Emotional<br />You might feel<br />Very anxious <br />Fearful<br />Resentful/Angry<br />Frustrated<br />
  7. 7. Now let’s determine what your stressors are…<br />Please fill out the handout “What Seems Stressful To You”.<br />What are the different situations in your life that are causing the most stress at this time?<br />One of the first steps to managing stress is to be able to identify what the stressors are in our lives.<br />
  8. 8. Remember:<br />Stress is a normal part of life!<br />It can help us:<br /><ul><li>Learn to protect ourselves
  9. 9. Adapt
  10. 10. React appropriately to (a) situation(s)
  11. 11. Helps us perform our best
  12. 12. Adds flavor to our lives</li></li></ul><li>Not All Stress is &quot;Bad”There are two types of stress:<br />Distressis a continuous feeling of being:<br />Overwhelmed, <br />Oppressed,<br />Behind in our responsibilities<br />Examples:<br />financial difficulties,<br />conflicts in relationships,<br />excessive obligations,<br />managing a chronic illnes<br />experiencing a trauma.<br />Eustress is a positive and beneficial form of stress. <br />May be challenging but sources of the stress are opportunities that are meaningful.<br />Helps provide us with energy and motivation to meet our responsibilities and achieve our goals. <br />Examples:<br />graduating from college, <br />getting married,<br />(+) Changes in our jobs<br />
  13. 13. What can lead to stress?<br />Stress generally comes from 4 main areas:<br /><ul><li>Environmental factors
  14. 14. Social Factors
  15. 15. Physiological Factors
  16. 16. Thoughts</li></li></ul><li>Four main sources of stress:<br />Environmental Factors<br />excessive noise,<br />bad weather or natural disasters, <br />traffic, <br />pollution, <br />problems with roommates or neighbors <br />Social Factors<br />deadlines,<br />financial problems,<br />group projects,<br />disagreements,<br />demands on time and attention, <br />dating, <br />balancing work and school, <br />loss of a loved one, <br />conflicts with family<br />
  17. 17. Four main sources of stress <br />Physiological<br />adolescence, <br />illness, <br />accidents, <br />lack of exercise, <br />poor nutrition, <br />alcohol or drug use/abuse, <br />sleep disturbances, <br />muscle tension, <br />headaches, <br />upset stomach<br />Thoughts<br />Our perception of events,<br />expecting too much from others,<br />making decisions, <br />having a pessimistic attitude,<br />expecting problem-free living,<br />worrying,<br />being perfectionistic, <br />being competitive, <br />being self-critical, <br />making assumptions<br />
  18. 18. How can too much “stress” affect us?<br />Affect our physical and mental well being. <br />Interfere with our normal daily activities. <br />Diminish our self-esteem. <br />Impair relationships.<br />Decrease work and academic effectiveness.<br />Can lead to self-blame, self-doubt, feeling burned out, or becoming clinically anxious or depressed. <br />
  19. 19. Some important facts about stress:<br />43% of adults experienced adverse health effects from stress<br />75-90% of visits to a physician&apos;s office are for stress-related conditions and complaints<br />Stress has been linked to the 6 leading causes of death: heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide<br />In the workplace, stress may be related to lost hours due to absenteeism, reduced productivity, and worker&apos;s compensation benefits. This costs the American industry more than $300 billion annually.<br />
  20. 20. How vulnerable are you to stress?<br />Fill out ‘Vulnerability to Stress Worksheet”<br />
  21. 21. Why do we “stress out”?<br />We stress out for 2 main reasons:<br />1) We perceive a situation as dangerous, difficult, or painful.<br />2) We don&apos;t believe we have the resources to cope.<br />
  22. 22. Perception and stress<br />how we perceive an event + the meaning we give to it = level that we feel stressed or not stressed about it. (Example: reaction to test results)<br />Irrational beliefs that we have about ourselves also impact how well we can handle stressful events in our life. <br />Ellis’s A B  C<br />A – Activating Event<br />B – Beliefs<br />C – Consequences (ability to cope)<br />Ex. Losing a job<br />
  23. 23. Irrational Beliefs<br />Do any of these sound familiar to beliefs you may have of yourself or messages you have heard in your life?<br />
  24. 24. How to address irrational beliefs?<br />Remember this will require some work and won’t happen over night.<br />First, develop awareness of the thoughts that seem to be making you unhappy/miserable<br />Next, evaluate the accuracy of the thoughts.<br />Then, prepare thoughts that are incompatible with the irrational thoughts and practice saying them firmly to yourself.<br />Finally, reward yourself with a mental pat on the back for making effective changes in your beliefs and thought patterns<br />
  25. 25. Now…<br />Let’s try to address some of our irrational beliefs…<br />
  26. 26. Identifying Irrational Beliefs that blow stressors out of proportion.<br />First let’s look at some examples (refer to the handout). <br />Do any of these sound familiar to you?<br />Now, turn the paper over and fold it in half (vertically).<br />Keep the paper folded.<br />On one side write down some irrational beliefs you feel you may have or critical messages you may tell yourself.<br />On the other side, how are some new ways (rational alternatives) of looking at the situation that keep things in perspective? <br />
  27. 27. Some stress warning signals<br />Important to be aware of external and internal warning signs.<br />What are your stress symptoms when you feel stressed out?<br />Fill out the “Stress Warning Signals Worksheet”<br />
  28. 28. 12 Suggestions for Reducing Stress<br />Find a support system.<br />Change your attitude. <br />“Life is 10% what happens to us and 90% how we react to it”.<br /> Be realistic.<br />
  29. 29. 12 Suggestions for Reducing Stress (continued)<br />Get organized and take charge!<br />Take breaks, give yourself “me” time.<br />Take good care of yourself.<br />
  30. 30. 12 Suggestions for Reducing Stress (continued)<br />Learn to say “no”.<br />Get regular exercise.<br />Get a hobby, do something different.<br />
  31. 31. 12 Suggestions for Reducing Stress (continued)<br />Slow down.<br />Laugh, use humor.<br />Learn to relax.<br />
  32. 32. 2 Types of Relaxation Exercises<br />Deep Breathing<br />When we are stressed our breathing becomes shallow and our frequency of breaths increase.<br />Allows us to take fuller, slower breaths that reflect a true relaxed state.<br />Visualization<br />Giving our minds and bodies a “mini vacation”.<br />Using imagery to fully immerse ourselves in a pleasant scene, noticing the sights, sounds, smells, and tactile sensations<br />
  33. 33. Guided Visualization Exercise<br />An example to relaxation exercises. <br />
  34. 34. Break in to pairs and discuss the following questions:<br />Where did your visualization take you? <br />Do you feel more calm/relaxed after going through this exercise? <br />What did you see, hear, feel, smell during your visualization/did anything in particular stand out? <br />What was it like throwing your burdens into the water? <br />How does it feel to be back in the classroom? <br />Is this technique/exercise something you might do in the future to clam down, relax and reduce your stress?<br />
  35. 35. I’d like to leave you all with a song…Avenue Q’s– “For Now”<br />PRINCETON:
Why does everything have to be so hard?

GARYCOLEMAN:
Maybe you&apos;ll never find your purpose.

CHRISTMASEVE:
Lots of people don&apos;t.

PRINCETON:
But then- I don&apos;t know why I&apos;m even alive!

KATEMONSTER:
Well, who does, really?
Everyone&apos;s a little bit unsatisfied.

BRIAN:
Everyone goes &apos;round a little empty inside.

GARYCOLEMAN:
Take a breath,
Look around,


 <br />
  36. 36. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br />BRIAN:
Swallow your pride,

KATEMONSTER:
ornow...

BRIAN, KATE, GARY, CHRISTMAS EVE:
For now...

NICKY:
Nothinglasts,

ROD:
Life goes on,

NICKY:
Full of surprises.

ROD: 
You&apos;ll be faced with problems of all shapes and sizes.

 <br />
  37. 37. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br />CHRISTMAS EVE:
You&apos;re going to have to make a few compromises...
For now...

TREKKIE MONSTER:
For now...

ALL:
But only for now! (For now)
Only for now! (For now)
Only for now! (For now)
Only for now!

LUCY:
For now we&apos;re healthy.

BRIAN:
For now we&apos;re employed.<br />

 

 <br />
  38. 38. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br /> BAD IDEA BEARS:
For now we&apos;re happy...

KATE MONSTER:
If not overjoyed.

PRINCETON:
And we&apos;ll accept the things we cannot avoid, for now...

GARY COLEMAN:
For now...

TREKKIE MONSTER:
For now...

KATE MONSTER:
For now...

 <br />
  39. 39. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br />ALL:
But only for now! (For now)
Only for now! (For now)
Only for now! (For now)
Only for now!

Only for now!
(For now there&apos;s life!)
Only for now!
(For now there&apos;s love!)
Only for now!
(For now there&apos;s work!)
For now there&apos;s happiness!
But only for now!
(For now discomfort!)
Only for now!
(For now there&apos;s friendship!)
Only for now (For now!)
Only for now!

Only for now! (Sex!)
Is only for now! (Your hair!)
Is only for now! (George Bush!)
Is only for now!

 <br />
  40. 40. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br /> Don&apos;t stress,
Relax,
Let life roll off your backs
Except for death and paying taxes,
Everything in life is only for now!

NICKY:
Each time you smile...

ALL:
...Only for now

KATEMONSTER:
It&apos;ll only last a while.

ALL:
...Only for now

PRINCETON:
Life may be scary...

<br />
  41. 41. Avenue Q – “For Now”<br />ALL:
...Only for now
But it&apos;s only temporary<br />Ba-dumba-dum
Ba-dumba-dum
Badumba-dum
Ba-dadadada
ba-dada-dadada-da
Ba-dumba-da, ba-dumba-da
ohhhh-

PRINCETON:
Everything in life is only for now.<br />
  42. 42. Homework<br />Use the self-assessment and time management worksheet as a guide to fill out the study skills worksheet.<br />Study skills worksheet will be due onWednesday, September30.<br />Reminder: Quiz is on Sept. 30<br />We will be reviewing on Monday. <br />You will also receive Part I of quiz on Monday - “Reading Focus Questions”. <br />

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