Ch 5 Drugs


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Ch 5 Drugs

  1. 1. Developing Healthier Behaviors Chapter 5
  2. 2. Answer this question: <ul><li>Define the word “drug”. Then list some legal and illegal ways that people use drugs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Substance Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Substance abuse: continued use of a substance despite knowledge that it is dangerous or that it is linked to social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Substance dependence: dependence is shown by signs such as persistent use despite efforts to cut down, marked tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors in Substance Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Substance abuse and dependence usually begin with experimental use in adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug-use patterns established during adolescence foreshadow future substance abuse problems. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Factors in Substance Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Psychological Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. expectations about the effects of a substance are powerful predictors of its use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Parents might be modeling drug-usage to their children and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Usage of a drug many be reinforced by peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological Factors: Certain people may have a genetic predisposition toward developing substance dependence problems. </li></ul>
  6. 7. 3 types groups of substances: <ul><li>Depressants/sedatives </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul>
  7. 8. Depressants <ul><li>Depressant: A drug that decreases the rate of activity of the central nervous system. Common depressants include: </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Opioids </li></ul><ul><li>Sedatives </li></ul>
  8. 9. STIMULANTS <ul><li>A stimulant is a drug that increases the rate of activity of the central nervous system. Common stimulants include: </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Hallucinogens are drugs that induce sensory distortions and hallucinations. Common Hallucinogens include: </li></ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul>
  10. 11. Group Activity <ul><li>Count off into 7 groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group will be assigned a drug from one of the following 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulants: cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, ecstasy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens: cannabis and LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressants/sedatives: alcohol, opioids and barbituates </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Refer to these questions for your presentation: <ul><li>--Where does this drug come from? </li></ul><ul><li>--What does it do physiologically to the human body? </li></ul><ul><li>--What are some common medicinal uses of this drug, if any? </li></ul><ul><li>--How is this drug illegally or legally dispensed? </li></ul><ul><li>--What are some ways this drug is used non-medicinally? </li></ul><ul><li>--Are non-medicinal uses of this drug legal? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Depressants
  13. 14. Alcohol
  14. 15. Alcoholism, Gender and Ethnicity <ul><li>Alcoholism: A term used to describe alcohol dependence, characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired control over the use of alcohol and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of a physiological dependence on the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender: Men are much more likely than women to develop alcoholism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity: While some ethnicities have low alcoholism rates (Muslims, Jews and Asian groups), others have disproportionately high rates (Native Americans). </li></ul>
  15. 16. Effects of Alcohol <ul><li>The effects of alcohol vary with the dose and the duration of use. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor usage = mildly stimulating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher doses = relaxing or sedating effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological effects: Alcohol relaxes people, deadens minor pain, impairs cognitive functioning, slurs speech and reduces motor coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to increased inhibitions, drinkers may do things that they normally wouldn’t (such as engage in sexual activity on the first date). </li></ul>
  16. 17. Alcohol and Health <ul><li>Alcohol is responsible for more than 100,000 deaths in the United States each year (mostly due to motor vehicle accidents and liver disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive health impacts: light to moderate drinking is associated with a lower risk of heart attacks, and strokes, decrease the risk of alzheimer’s (small amounts of alcohol may help maintain a healthful flow of blood to the brain). </li></ul><ul><li>However, these benefits disappear when people drink heavily. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Treating Alcoholism <ul><li>Many treatment approaches are available to aid people who suffer from alcoholism. </li></ul><ul><li>The most widely used program is Alcoholics Anonymous which utilizes a 12-step program. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have been shown to be equally as effective as Alcoholics Anonymous. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is also investigating the use of medications in the treatment of alcoholism. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Opiods
  19. 20. OPIOIDS <ul><li>group of depressants derived from the opium poppy, </li></ul><ul><li>used to relieve pain but than can also provide a euphoric rush. </li></ul><ul><li>classified as a Narcotic. Narcotics have pain-relieving and sleep-inducing properties and strong addictive potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Opioids are Morphine and Heroin. </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction is often treated with a combination of Methadone and psychological treatment. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Barbiturates
  21. 22. Barbiturates <ul><li>used to relieve anxiety, induce sleep, pain relief, treatment of epilepsy. </li></ul><ul><li>lead to quick addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms include severe convulsions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is dangerous to mix alcohol with these depressants . </li></ul>
  22. 23. Stimulants
  23. 24. Nicotine
  24. 25. Nicotine <ul><li>Nicotine is a mild, but highly addictive stimulant drug found in tobacco. </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawal symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nervousness, drowsiness, headaches, irregular bowel movements, insomnia, dizziness, cramps, palpitations, tremors and sweating. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Perils of Smoking <ul><li>Smoking causes 430,000 deaths in the United States each year. This is the equivalent to two jumbo jets colliding in mid-air every day and all passengers dying. </li></ul><ul><li>While smoking has decreased from 40% of adults in the mid-1960s to 25% in recent years, it has increased amongst younger and lower socioeconomic classes in our society. </li></ul>
  26. 27. More Perils of Smoking <ul><li>Nicotine is not the most dangerous aspect of smoking. Carbon monoxide and tars are responsible for decreased oxygen in the blood and the development of lung cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking causes death due to heart disease, chronic lung and respiratory diseases, lung cancer and other problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women who smoke have a higher risk of miscarriage, preterm births, low-birthweight babies, and stillborn babies. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Smoking (inhaling smoke from another’s tobacco product) is also connected with respiratory illnesses, asthma, and other health problems. Prolonged exposure to second-hand smoke as child is a risk factor for lung cancer. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Amphetamines
  28. 29. Amphetamines <ul><li>increase states of alertness, induce pleasurable feelings, and provide euphoric rush. </li></ul><ul><li>first used during WWII to help soldiers remain alert at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called speed, uppers, bennies, and dexies. </li></ul><ul><li>regular use of methamphetamine can lead to physiological dependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy usage of methamphetamines can lead to cognitive and emotional problems, and possibly to neurological damage . </li></ul>
  29. 30. Cocaine
  30. 31. Cocaine <ul><li>Powerful stimulant that produces feelings of euphoria and can curb hunger and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of use: brewed from coca leaves as a tea, snorted in powder form, or injected in liquid form. </li></ul><ul><li>Snorting causes vasoconstriction and if repeated over time, can lead to deterioration of nasal cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine is highly addictive and withdrawal symptoms include intense cravings for the drug, depressed mode and failure to experience pleasure from ordinary activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cocaine is quite dangerous as it stimulates sudden rises in blood pressure, constricts the coronary arteries and thickens the blood. Overdoses may result in respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Hallucinogens
  32. 33. LSD
  33. 34. LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ) <ul><li>LSD produces vivid and colorful hallucinations known as “trips”. </li></ul><ul><li>Some LSD users experience flashbacks, that are distorted perceptions or hallucinations that mimic the LSD “trip” but occur days, weeks or longer after usage. </li></ul><ul><li>High doses may induce frightening hallucinations, impaired coordination, poor judgment, mood changes, and paranoid delusions. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Marijuana <ul><li>Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States with one in three US residents aged 12-50 reporting having used marijuana at least once in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana can induce feelings of relaxation, elevate mood, and produce mild hallucinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana may have some legitimate medical uses such as reducing eye pressure in glaucoma patients or curbing vomiting in chemotherapy patients. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Marijuana <ul><li>People can become psychologically addicted, and recent research suggests that regular users may experience signs of physiological dependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Research also suggests that marijuana may interfere with memory, impair learning ability and lead to smaller brains in males who began using marijuana before age 17. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Finding Healthful Alternatives <ul><li>At times, we all feel depressed, tense, or bored. Some feel inadequate to face the challenges of life while others see their future as bleak and unrewarding. </li></ul><ul><li>We all have these feelings every now and then. Do we turn to drugs to provide magical answers or do we seek healthy alternatives ? </li></ul>
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