Ch 4 Powerpoint Final


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This is the Ch 4 powerpoint based on the readings from "Psychology and the Challenge of Life" by Jeffrey Nevid and Spencer Rathus.

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  • Ch 4 Powerpoint Final

    1. 1. Psychology and Health Chapter 4
    2. 2. Health Psychology <ul><li>studies the relationships between psychological factors and the prevention and treatment of physical illness . </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Body’s Response to Stress <ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three-stage response to stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Alarm Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Exhaustion </li></ul>
    4. 5. Stage 1: Alarm Reaction <ul><li>The first stage of the GAS, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggered by the impact of a stressor and characterized by activity in the sympathetic division of the nervous system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic division : The division of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) that is most active during activities and emotional responses—such as anxiety and fear– that spend the body’s reserves of energy. </li></ul>
    5. 8. Stage 2: Resistance Stage <ul><li>The second stage of the GAS, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prolonged sympathetic nervous system activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restore lost energy and repair damage . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity is lower than alarm stage but still higher than normal. </li></ul>
    6. 9. Stage 3: Exhaustion Stage <ul><li>If the stressor is not dealt with properly, we may enter the exhaustion stage . </li></ul><ul><li>weakened resistance and possible deterioration. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued stress during the exhaustion stage can lead to “diseases of adaptation” (hives, allergies and coronary heart disease). </li></ul>
    7. 10. Stress and Emotions <ul><li>While positive emotions such as love and desire fill our days with purpose, negative emotions can fill us with dread and make each day a chore to navigate. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can lead to anxiety, anger and depression. </li></ul><ul><li>If you feel that you are getting to this level seek out services that can help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. Therapy/counseling, stress management techniques, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 11. Stress and Cognition <ul><li>Under stress, people may have difficulty thinking clearly or remaining focused on the task at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of bodily arousal that characterize the alarm reaction stage can impair memory functioning and problem solving ability (example: test anxiety). </li></ul>
    9. 12. Immune System <ul><li>The system of the body that recognizes and destroys foreign agents (antigens) that invade the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can weaken the immune system, and consequently make us more vulnerable to disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, during stress the body increases the production of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids suppress the functioning of the immune system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Social Support has been shown to buffer the effects of stress and enhance the immune system. </li></ul>
    10. 13. Multifactorial Model <ul><li>The belief that health and illness are a function of multiple factors involving biological , psychological , and cultural domains , and their interactions. </li></ul>
    11. 15. Sociocultural Factors <ul><li>Ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status all impact health. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity: The life expectancy of African Americans is seven years shorter than that of European Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Men are more likely than women to have Coronary Heart Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic Status: Individuals from lower socioeconomic class are more likely to smoke and suffer from obesity. </li></ul>
    12. 16. 3 health problems related to stress <ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul>
    13. 17. Headaches <ul><li>Headaches are among the most common stress-related physical ailments. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most common types are muscle-tension and migraine. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle-Tension: The single most frequent type of headache. Persistent stress can lead to constant contraction of shoulder, neck forehead and scalp muscles. Catastrophizing negative events can also bring on muscle tension headaches. </li></ul>
    14. 18. Headaches <ul><li>Migraine: Throbbing headaches caused by wavelike firing of neurons on the brain, which creates ripples of neural activity that reach pain centers in the brain stem. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes are still unknown but linked to changes in blood flow to the brain and subsequent imbalances of serotonin. </li></ul>
    15. 19. Treatment of Headaches <ul><li>Aspirin, acetaminophen, and prescription drugs are used to fight headache pain. Newer drugs combat migraines by balancing serotonin levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation Training </li></ul><ul><li>Important to identify triggers for attacks such as chocolate, MSG, red wine, fluorescent lights, etc. </li></ul>
    16. 20. Coronary Heart Disease <ul><li>Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the common risk factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Family History </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Type A behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility and Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Job Strain </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Inactivity </li></ul>
    17. 21. Reducing Risk of CHD <ul><li>Stopping Smoking, controlling weight, and following a healthful diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering cholesterol level. </li></ul><ul><li>Modifying Type A behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising. </li></ul>
    18. 22. Cancer <ul><li>Cancer is the number one cause of death of women in the United States and the number two cause of death of men. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is a disease characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development of abnormal, or mutant cells that may take root anywhere in the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cancer cells are normally destroyed by our immune system, but people who have an impaired immune system (as a result of physical or psychological factors) are more likely to develop tumors. </li></ul>
    19. 23. Cancer Risk Factors <ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>High fat intake </li></ul><ul><li>Diets low in fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
    20. 24. Cancer Prevention <ul><li>Limit exposure to behavioral risk factors (such as smoking) </li></ul><ul><li>Modify diet by reducing fat and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage appear to be helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Have regular medical checkups </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate exposure to stress </li></ul><ul><li>If living with cancer, maintain hope and a fighting spirit. </li></ul>
    21. 25. Resources on Campus: <ul><li>Psychological Services </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>PE courses </li></ul><ul><li>Health center </li></ul><ul><li>Brochures/Informational materials </li></ul><ul><li>Support systems to manage stress of school (Learning Center, tutoring, etc) </li></ul>
    22. 26. Copyright <ul><li>Copyright 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner. </li></ul>