Case Study Wind Turbine

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The approach on study and verify the effect of Wind Farm against Radar

The approach on study and verify the effect of Wind Farm against Radar

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  • 1. Ingegneria Dei Sistemi Marcello Davide Mannino US/CANADA/EMEA/JAPAN KOREA Area Manager Via Flaminia, 1068 - 00189 Rome Italy Phone: +39 06 33217 452 Fax: +39 06 33217 431 E-mail: [email_address] WindFarms and EM Analysis Workflow: Case Study Caraffa di Catanzaro SSR Radar
  • 2. The Past History
    • Wind farms as disturbances to Radars:
      • This activity started on 2003 with an engineering support activity for a wind-farm installer (SARAS). In this case the M.te Codi (SE Sardinia, Italy) site was selected: in this area is installed an important ATC primary and secondary radar
      • After this first experience other wind-parks analysis have been executed
  • 3. WF as Disturbances to Radars
  • 4. WF as Disturbances to Radars (Cont …) Antenna pattern modification due to multipath
  • 5. WF as Disturbances to VORs
    • In 2003 IDS granted a contract from EUROCONTROL for the assessment of the potential impact of seven additional wind-turbines in the Kehmen wind park close to Diekirch DVOR/DME (DIK VOR)
    • This work was carried out by means of the electromagnetic analysis functions of the AIRNAS/EMACS SW tool, which enabled the IDS analysts to compute the VOR/DME signal in space taking into account that the:
      • VOR equipment operates in the VHF band (114.4 MHz in the DIK case);
      • Environment around the Diekirch site which is characterized by complex and wide elements such as the terrain and the pylon.
  • 6. WF as Disturbances to VORs (Cont …)
  • 7. WF as Disturbances to VORs (Cont …)
  • 8. WF as Disturbances to VORs (Cont …) Flight measurements vs. computed data comparison of the VOR Bearing error along a 8 NM orbit @ 4000 ft ( without the additional turbines)
  • 9. WF as Disturbances to VORs
  • 10. SSR WF Module
  • 11. EUROCONTROL Guidelines
    • SSR Recommended Ranges
    EUROCONTROL Guidelines on How to Assess the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Surveillance Sensors Edition 1.0 Edition date: May 2010 Reference nr: EUROCONTROL-GUID-0130
  • 12.
    • The most important impacts of WF on SSR are the following ones:
    • Signal Loss due to Shadowing: Shadowing losses are of less importance to the operation of SSR wrt PSR. No identified operational impacts of shadowing on SSR have been found.
    • Signal Corruption: Although signal corruption can in principle affect SSR, no documented operational evidence has been found of the impact.
    • Error Bearing: Bearing errors will occur when the SSR antenna is pointing within a few degrees of a wind turbine. The magnitude of the bearing errors is typically:
      • a few tenths of a degree for turbines at distances of a few kilometres or greater;
      • up to 2 degrees for closer turbines.
      • Bearing Error evaluation may be done using The EMACS Radar Module (OBA Error
      • Analysis)
    • False Targets: False Targets are the most common and noticeable impact on SSR systems.
    EUROCONTROL Guidelines Wind farm impact assessment techniques and mitigation measures Document Identifier: Eurocontrol Doc ID Edition: 0.3 Edition Date: 09-02-2007
  • 13. SSR WF Module
    • SSR WF Module is able to assess False Targets’ impact on an SSR:
    • Assuming air traffic distributed on a planar area at different altitudes
    • Assuming air traffic distributed on the actual radar tracks (EUROCONTROL SASS/C Format)
    • Selecting the WTs you want to take into account in the evaluation
    • Using the ISLS, IISLS, RSLS technique s
    • Evaluating and using the STC Map
    • Taking into account the SLS Time and the Recovery Time
    • Taking into account the actual WTs’ RCS (Accurate Analysis)
    • Taking into account the worst case WTs’ RCS (Fast Analysis)
    • Taking into account the actual WTs orientation due to the wind direction (Accurate Only)
  • 14. SSR WF Module (Cont …)
    • The SSR WF Module is composed by the following components.
    • Equipment positioning:
        • to place on CAD both SSR and WTs
        • to create a WT model
    • Configuration manager:
    • to create an hybrid configuration (SSR + WTs)
    • Radio Coverage:
    • to execute a characterization analysis on the hybrid configuration
    • SSR WF PP:
    • to evaluate the impact of a WF on the SSR
  • 15. Place WTs on CAD WTs WTs SSR
  • 16. Create WT Models
    • A WT model is characterised by:
      • A WT POPTD mesh model
      • A WT wind response
  • 17. Create WT Models
  • 18. Create WT Models (Cont …)
  • 19. Create Hybrid Configuration
  • 20. Execute Hyb Config Characterization
  • 21. SSR WF PP
    • In order to evaluate the WF impact on the SSR station, you may execute two
    • possible analysis:
    • ANALYSIS FAST:
    • In this case in the SSR Wind farm Post Processing are considered only the WT parameters shown in “Technical Specification”. This means that for each WT will be evaluated a worst case RCS. This is a conservative analysis which is more faster than the accurate one. If the Fast Analysis states a Total False Target Probability lower than 0.2 % (which means that the WF will have no effect of the SSR equipment) than the Accurate analysis will certainly confirm this result and so isn’t strictly necessary. If the Fast analysis states that the WF may have effect of the SSR equipment, an Accurate analysis is required to confirm this result
  • 22. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • ANALYSIS ACCURATE:
    • In the SSR Wind farm Post Processing it is considered the WT SRF model. This means that the RCS model for each WT will be evaluated in the accurate way
  • 23. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • The SSR WF PP output parameters are the following ones:
    • False Target Percentage of occurrences :
    • T his parameter represents the joint probability that a false target occurs and the aircraft is in the generic position defined by the range and azimuth coordinate
    • False Target Probability :
    • T his parameter represents the probability that a false target occur in a generic position defined by the range and azimuth coordinate
    • False Target Total Probability :
    • It is the probability to have a false target when the airplane moves in the analysis domain
    • NOTE : ICAO states that this probability has to be lower than 0.2%
  • 24. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • Air Traffic Statistics :
    • T his parameter represents the probability that an aircraft is in the generic position defined by the range and azimuth coordinate. This parameter is evaluated from the radar tracks
    • STC Map :
    • This parameter represents the radar sensitivity polar map which have to be used in order to mitigate the false targets
    • Wind turbines in visibility :
    • It’s the list of the WTs which are in visibility respect to the SSR
  • 25. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • SSR WF PP implemets the following tecniques in order to minimase false
    • targets:
    • ISLS ( Interrogator Side Lobe Suppression )
    • It is a technique used to suppress the transponder replays from the SSR side lobe interrogation. ISLS uses a beam with approximately circular radiation pattern in the horizontal plane (control pattern) in order to transmit the P2 pulse. The pulse P1 is transmitted by a beam with directional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane (sum pattern) in order to transmit the P1 pulse. The transponder replays only if the amplitude of the received P1 pulse is greater then the amplitude of the received P2 pulse.
  • 26. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • IISLS ( Improved Interrogator Side Lobe Suppression )
    • IISLS technique is an improvement of the ISLS one. ISLS works only if the amplitude of the P1 pulse transmitted by the side lobes of the SSR sum antenna pattern has an amplitude sufficient to be detected by the SSR transponder. If this condition is not satisfied, the transponder can’t recognise the P1-P2 suppression pair.
    • IISLS is used in order to guarantee that the P1 pulse is recognised from the transponder. In IISLS pulse P1 is radiated from the control pattern as well as from the sum pattern. In this way the transponder can receive a P1 pulse of sufficient strength in order to recognise the P1-P2 pair and suppress the reply to side lobe interrogation. The main disadvantage of this technique is that all aircraft which are within the range of the control beam but outside the sum beam, have their SSR transponder in the suppression state and this can be inacceptable in environment where there are more than one SSR interrogator.
  • 27. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
    • RSLS ( Receiver Side Lobe Suppression )
    • A method, using two (or more) receivers to suppress aircraft replies which have been received via side lobes of the main beam of the antenna.
  • 28. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 29. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 30. SSR WF PP ENAV S.p.A. - AIP Italia
  • 31. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 32. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 33. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 34. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 35. SSR WF PP (Cont …)
  • 36. Regulation EUR DOC 015
  • 37. Regulation: EUR DOC 015
  • 38. Regulation: EUR DOC 015
  • 39. Regulation: EUR DOC 015
  • 40.
    • ILS  Static Effects in the DDM calculation (wind farm at the moment considered as static objects  no Doppler effect)
    • VOR  Post-processor will be developed for the end of 2010 taking into account Doppler effects too.
    • DME  Evaluation of the Wind Farm (as static objects) effects on Distance measurement.
    What we are doing for the other equipments …