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Late 19 century views thWhite Man’s BurdenCivilizing MissionAmerican Take
“Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism”Written by Russian Marxist V. I. LeninFinance capital, Labor, Production – British in Malaya and India – British in Grenada – Belgians and Germans in Africa
From 19th Century: Questions on Colonial Identity Exploiting tribal/Ethnic tension Invention of ethnic groups – Assumption that rest of the World is similar to Europe Colonial Dress – Turbans vs hats – Walking Stick
Aftermath of WWII• European Weakness and arrogance• Growing consciousness in the colonies• Decolonization – achieving independence for nations up until a certain point controlled by European powers
Problems• European administrative boundaries do not work with out the Europeans, but managed to destroy pre-colonial systems (based upon language, religion and ethnicity)• Rivalry and discord among the de-colonized• The two new “empires”
Two Different Paths, Part Duex• British: India, Malaya, Northern Colonies in Africa• French: Indochina, Algeria• Dutch: East Indies
India• Religious rivalries• English irresponsibility
East Asia• Maoist Revolution: pros and cons• Korea• Indochina• Is imperialism really over?
African Mess• European nations hold on to Africa as long as possible• Problem with Map lines• Ethnic empowerment turns deadly – Congo – Rwanda• Portugal: first to have African Colonies, last to leave Timeline for African Decolonization; note Namibia received independence from – Mozambique South Africa, not Europe
Success?• United Nations appears to function – UN document: can it work?• Are the countries really free?