1812, waterloo, and the congress of


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1812, waterloo, and the congress of

  1. 1. Outline Situation in 1811 Objective Moscow Burning City of Doom The long Retreat Coda Reactionary “Congress” Soundtrack: “The 1812 Overture” by PytorTchaikovsky
  2. 2. Situation in 1811Napoleon “liberated Poland” from Austria Russia, Prussia with victories in 1805-06– “Grand Duchy of Warsaw”
  3. 3. Run Up to Invasion• Russians see GD Warsaw as a launching point forinvasion• Russian Tsar Alexander I Rejects the ContinentalSystem in 1810– Russia has raw materials, but little commercial base– Needs trade to prosper• This aggravates Napoleon, both sides preparefor war– Russian Church– Russian State
  4. 4. Napoleon Appeals to Allies Russia is Backward Reactionary People in Bondage Symbol of Old Europe
  5. 5. European Grand Armee Grand Armee in 1812 was about 600,000men, of which about half were French 100,000 Germans 100,000 Poles Over 25,000 of Austrian, Neapolitans, Italians Figures vary of how much of the armyinvaded Russia, but at least 400,000, withabout 200,000 in reserve in Poland
  6. 6. The Push Napoleon’sTroopsinvaded Russia in June,1812. Russians refuse to fight,trading space for time,fighting only at Borodino Scorched Earth Skirmishes Napoleon, frustrated,pushed toward Moscow,the ancient Capital ofRussia
  7. 7. Logistics• Russian Roads werepathetic byW. Europeanstandards• Slows men down• But Especially the supplytrain• Army outmarched itssupplies• Long undefended supplyline from Poland toArmee
  8. 8. Moscow Napoleon CapturesMoscow in September City is abandoned andburns to the ground’ Without a stable base,Napoleons Men haveto abandon the cityHead home
  9. 9. The Long March Home…
  10. 10. Oh the Humanity..Charles Joseph Minard’s Famous Diagram depicting the size of theGrand Armee during the Invasion and retreat
  11. 11. Defeat and Waterloo Napoleon’s forces are routed at the Battle ofNations in 1813, the Coalition forces captureParis in 1814, Has to Abdicate Exile to Elba 100 days: Returns, raises an Army, and isdefeated again at Waterloo by the Duke ofWellington St Helena
  12. 12. “Das Lied Vom Ende”
  13. 13. Congress of Vienna1814-1815 Meeting ofRepresenatives from allfive powers Russia –Tsar Alexander I Prussia – King FredrickWilliam III Austria – Klemens vonMetternich France -Talleyrand England - Castlereagh
  14. 14. Goals of the Powers Return France to Monarchy Stabilize Europe the “right” way Don’t overly embarrass France King Louis XVIII Do not want him to fail Set France’s borders to 1792 – France holds ontosome early gains After 100 days though, 1790 with occupation force Bourbon King restored to Spain (1823)
  15. 15. Anglo-Austrian Arrangement Attempt to prevent Prussianand Russian gains England argues for decreasedFrench Navy The Kingdom of theNetherlands established Flanders and Dutch Republic Austria gains power in Italy HRE = defunct; Now GermanConfederation headed byAustria and Prussia
  16. 16. Summary Main Goal of theCongress was toTurnback the clock on Enlightenment Revolution Republicanism Also spurs nationalism