Outline Situation in 1811 Objective Moscow Burning City of Doom The long Retreat Coda Reactionary “Congress” Soundtrack: “The 1812 Overture” by PytorTchaikovsky
Situation in 1811Napoleon “liberated Poland” from Austria Russia, Prussia with victories in 1805-06– “Grand Duchy of Warsaw”
Run Up to Invasion• Russians see GD Warsaw as a launching point forinvasion• Russian Tsar Alexander I Rejects the ContinentalSystem in 1810– Russia has raw materials, but little commercial base– Needs trade to prosper• This aggravates Napoleon, both sides preparefor war– Russian Church– Russian State
Napoleon Appeals to Allies Russia is Backward Reactionary People in Bondage Symbol of Old Europe
European Grand Armee Grand Armee in 1812 was about 600,000men, of which about half were French 100,000 Germans 100,000 Poles Over 25,000 of Austrian, Neapolitans, Italians Figures vary of how much of the armyinvaded Russia, but at least 400,000, withabout 200,000 in reserve in Poland
The Push Napoleon’sTroopsinvaded Russia in June,1812. Russians refuse to fight,trading space for time,fighting only at Borodino Scorched Earth Skirmishes Napoleon, frustrated,pushed toward Moscow,the ancient Capital ofRussia
Logistics• Russian Roads werepathetic byW. Europeanstandards• Slows men down• But Especially the supplytrain• Army outmarched itssupplies• Long undefended supplyline from Poland toArmee
Moscow Napoleon CapturesMoscow in September City is abandoned andburns to the ground’ Without a stable base,Napoleons Men haveto abandon the cityHead home
Oh the Humanity..Charles Joseph Minard’s Famous Diagram depicting the size of theGrand Armee during the Invasion and retreat
Defeat and Waterloo Napoleon’s forces are routed at the Battle ofNations in 1813, the Coalition forces captureParis in 1814, Has to Abdicate Exile to Elba 100 days: Returns, raises an Army, and isdefeated again at Waterloo by the Duke ofWellington St Helena
Congress of Vienna1814-1815 Meeting ofRepresenatives from allfive powers Russia –Tsar Alexander I Prussia – King FredrickWilliam III Austria – Klemens vonMetternich France -Talleyrand England - Castlereagh
Goals of the Powers Return France to Monarchy Stabilize Europe the “right” way Don’t overly embarrass France King Louis XVIII Do not want him to fail Set France’s borders to 1792 – France holds ontosome early gains After 100 days though, 1790 with occupation force Bourbon King restored to Spain (1823)
Anglo-Austrian Arrangement Attempt to prevent Prussianand Russian gains England argues for decreasedFrench Navy The Kingdom of theNetherlands established Flanders and Dutch Republic Austria gains power in Italy HRE = defunct; Now GermanConfederation headed byAustria and Prussia
Summary Main Goal of theCongress was toTurnback the clock on Enlightenment Revolution Republicanism Also spurs nationalism
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