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This is an instructional PowerPoint on MLA formatting geared toward middle school students. I have also split this into two presentations and added narration. See MLA Documentation Parts 1 and 2.

This is an instructional PowerPoint on MLA formatting geared toward middle school students. I have also split this into two presentations and added narration. See MLA Documentation Parts 1 and 2.

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  • 1. When and How to Cite Your Sources Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS
  • 2. When you finish this presentation you will…
    • Understand the process of citing sources.
    • Be able to construct an in-text citation.
    • Understand the basics of creating a Works Cited page.
    • Know where to find more information on using MLA citation format.
  • 3. MLA…
    • Stands for Modern Language Association
    • Is a style or format, which is a set of rules determining how to set up your paper and how to document your research sources.
  • 4. We Research to…
    • learn more about a topic.
    • find information that will support our ideas, especially controversial or innovative ones.
    • Develop research skills that will help us throughout our lives.
  • 5. We Cite Sources to…
    • avoid plagiarism:
      • Quoting or copying text without telling whose it is or where we found it
      • Putting someone else’s ideas into our own words without telling where we learned about these ideas.
    • provide a map of our research for others.
  • 6. A Citation or Reference…
    • is publication information about a
    • resource you used. Can include:
      • Author
      • Title
      • Publisher and City
      • Date
      • Web address (URL)
    • Two Kinds: parenthetical and full
  • 7. In-text Citation
    • Also called Parenthetical or Internal Citation
    • Contains ONLY author’s last name and the page number where you found the information you’re discussing.
    • Located throughout body of paper.
    • Enclosed in parentheses.
    • Comes at the end of a sentence, before the period (Smith 265).
  • 8. Full Citation
    • Contains enough bibliographic information for your reader to locate your sources.
    • Contains elements such as author, title, date of publication, publisher (for a book), or volume and issue number (for a magazine).
  • 9. Works Cited
    • Similar to a bibliography, except that it only lists the resources you actually referred to in your paper.
    • This list of FULL CITATIONS is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name.
    • Last page of your paper.
    • Formatted with hanging indentations, like you see here.
  • 10. Citation Process
    • Use in-text citations to acknowledge ideas or facts that you discovered during the research process.
    • When you write a sentence with an idea that’s new to you, put the author’s name and page number where you found the information at the end of your sentence (Keys 22).
    • At the end of the paper, create a Works Cited page containing the full citations.
  • 11. Sample Works Cited
    • Callahan 6
    • Works Cited
    • Morell, Virginia. “Bioko Primates.” National Geographic Magazine . August 2008. Web. 7 February 2010.
    • Swindler, Daris R. Introduction to the Primates . Seattle: U of Washington P, 1998. Print. 
    • Tucker, Abigail. “Ethiopia’s Exotic Monkeys.” Smithsonian 40.9 (December 2009): 72-77. Print.
  • 12. When to Cite :
    • Cite the source of information each time you say something specific, especially if the statement involves a number or other fact.
    • Cite the first time you refer to source material in each paragraph.
    • Cite the source at the end of your sentence.
  • 13. What to Cite:
    • Information or ideas that are new to you, even if you paraphrase.
    • Direct Quotes (remember to use “ “).
    • Numerical figures: dates, statistics, percentages, etc.
    • Anything very specific or questionable.
    • When in doubt, cite the source.
  • 14. What Not to Cite:
    • Things that are common knowledge, such as
      • Freud is the father of psychoanalysis; colds are caused by viruses. Nobody disputes these claims and they are widely accepted.
      • Nigeria is located on the African continent. Facts like this are indisputable and should be well-known.
  • 15. “ When to Cite ” Discussion:
    • If you are using this PowerPoint in a classroom, right-click on the link below to visit Zayed University’s helpful scenarios on when to cite and not to cite: To Cite or Not to Cite
  • 16. Introducing MLA Citations
    • Paraphrase research and then cite source at end of sentence.
    • Introduce source with phrase like according to , and then paraphrase and cite.
    • Use introductory verbs such as discovered , proved , indicated , asserted , found , and noted .
  • 17. Paraphrase Example
    • Children who were never read to as babies have a more difficult time listening to stories as preschoolers than those who were read to at least 15 minutes per day, three days a week (Jones, Jakeman, & Marca, 2004).
  • 18. Introduce with a Phrase
    • According to Greenfield, Samurais also wrote poetry (25).
    • As Baguelle observes, “no Samurai traveled without writing implements” (16).
  • 19. Introduce with Verbs
    • Use verbs such as discovered , proved , indicated , asserted , found , and noted . Remember the page number!
    • McKenna found that teens now watch television online more than on their TV sets (102).
  • 20. MLA Paper Set-up
    • 1” margins.
    • Double-space entire paper.
    • No extra spaces between paragraphs.
    • No title page.
    • Indent at the beginning of each paragraph.
    • Works Cited page is double-spaced and arranged with hanging indentations.
  • 21. First Page—No Title Page
    • First Page: Heading in upper left corner of containing your name, teacher’s name, class/period, and date.
    • Title: centered below heading and above first paragraph on first page only.
    • Running Head: Your last name and page number go in upper right margin of each page, ½” from the top, using the header/footer function.
  • 22. Sample First Page
    • Callahan 1
    • Deana Callahan
    • Ms. Bean
    • Period 3 History
    • 13 March 2010
    • Code of the Samurai
    • In ancient Japan, a type of honorable soldier
    • known as the Samurai followed a very strict code of
    • honor. The Samurai sometimes had to face death to
    • avoid dishonor, and they had to fight to the death once
    • they engaged in a battle.
  • 23. Samples of Full Citations
    • Books
    • Articles
    • Web Sites
    • Online Magazines
  • 24. Books
    • Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title . City of publication: Publisher, Date. Format.
    • Sethi, Maneesh. Web Design for Teens . Boston: Thomson course Technology, 2005. Print.
  • 25. Articles
    • Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine or Journal Title Volume.issue (date): pages. Format.
    • Tucker, Abigail. “Ethiopia’s Exotic Monkeys.” Smithsonian 40.9 (December 2009): 72-77. Print.
  • 26. Web Sites
    • Author/creator/publisher (if stated). “Web page title.” Web site Title . Version number (if stated). Sponsor (if stated). Date listed on site or page. Web. Date you visited.
    • United States. “Diabetes & Me.” Centers for Disease Control . 3 December 2008. Web. 7 February 2010.
  • 27. Online Magazines
    • Author. “Article.” Name of Web site (Time). Publisher (CNN). Date of article listed on site. Medium Format. Date I visited site.
    • Fletcher, Dan. “Facebook Gifts Get Real.” Time. CNN. 15 February 2010. Web. 16 February 2010.
  • 28. MLA Sample Paper
    • http://dianahacker.com/pdfs/Hacker-Daly-MLA.pdf
  • 29. Help!
    • Diana Hacker’s Humanities: Documenting Sources: http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c08_o.html
    • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 7 th Ed. (2009). Available at libraries and book stores.
    • The Online Writing Lab at Purdue : MLA Formatting and Style Guide : http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
  • 30. Formatting Tools
    • Noodle Tools
    • A free service, but you’ll need to create an account .
    • Citation Machine Also free.
    • Double-check the results for accuracy.