Eight Stages of Genocide


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Eight Stages of Genocide

  1. 1. 1 The Eight Stages ofThe Eight Stages of GenocideGenocide Dr. Gregory StantonDr. Gregory Stanton Genocide WatchGenocide Watch © 2007 Gregory Stanton
  2. 2. The 8 Stages of GenocideThe 8 Stages of Genocide  Understanding the genocidal process is one ofUnderstanding the genocidal process is one of the most important steps in preventing futurethe most important steps in preventing future genocides.genocides.  The Eight Stages of Genocide were firstThe Eight Stages of Genocide were first outlined by Dr. Greg Stanton, Department ofoutlined by Dr. Greg Stanton, Department of State: 1996.State: 1996.  The first six stages are Early Warnings:The first six stages are Early Warnings:  ClassificationClassification  SymbolizationSymbolization  DehumanizationDehumanization  OrganizationOrganization  PolarizationPolarization  PreparationPreparation
  3. 3. Stage 1: ClassificationStage 1: Classification  ““Us versus them”Us versus them”  Distinguish by nationality, ethnicity, race, orDistinguish by nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion.religion.  Bipolar societies (Rwanda) most likely to haveBipolar societies (Rwanda) most likely to have genocide because no way for classifications togenocide because no way for classifications to fade away through inter-marriage.fade away through inter-marriage.  Classification is a primary method of dividingClassification is a primary method of dividing society and creating a power struggle betweensociety and creating a power struggle between groups.groups.
  4. 4. Classification (Rwanda)Classification (Rwanda) Belgian colonialists believed Tutsis were a naturally superior nobility, descended from the Israelite tribe of Ham. The Rwandan royalty was Tutsi. Belgians distinguished between Hutus and Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type. Another indicator to distinguish Hutu farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the number of cattle owned.
  5. 5. Prevention: ClassificationPrevention: Classification  Promote common identities (national,Promote common identities (national, religious, human.)religious, human.)  Use common languages (Swahili inUse common languages (Swahili in Tanzania, science, music.)Tanzania, science, music.)  Actively oppose racist and divisiveActively oppose racist and divisive politicians and parties.politicians and parties.
  6. 6. Stage 2: SymbolizationStage 2: Symbolization  Names: “Jew”, “German”, “Hutu”, “Tutsi”.  Languages.  Types of dress. Group uniforms: Nazi Swastika armbands Colors and religious symbols: •Yellow star for Jews •Blue checked scarf Eastern Zone in Cambodia
  7. 7. Stage 2: SymbolizationStage 2: Symbolization (Rwanda)(Rwanda)(Rwanda)(Rwanda) “Ethnicity” was first noted on cards by Belgian Colonial Authorities in 1933. Tutsis were given access to limited education programs and Catholic priesthood. Hutus were given less assistance by colonial authorities. At independence, these preferences were reversed. Hutus were favored. These ID cards were later used to distinguish Tutsis from Hutus in the 1994 massacres of Tutsis and moderate Hutus that resulted in 800,000+ deaths.
  8. 8. Symbolization (Nazi)Symbolization (Nazi) Germany)Germany)Jewish Passport: “Reisepäss” Required to be carried by all Jews by 1938. Preceded the yellow star.
  9. 9. Symbolization (NaziSymbolization (Nazi Germany)Germany) Nazis required the yellow Star of David emblem to be worn by nearly all Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe by 1941.
  10. 10. Symbolization (Nazi Germany)Symbolization (Nazi Germany)  Homosexuals = pink trianglesHomosexuals = pink triangles  Identified homosexuals to SS guards in theIdentified homosexuals to SS guards in the campscamps  Caused discrimination by fellow inmates whoCaused discrimination by fellow inmates who shunned homosexualsshunned homosexuals
  11. 11. Symbolization (Cambodia)Symbolization (Cambodia)  People in thePeople in the Eastern Zone, nearEastern Zone, near Vietnam, wereVietnam, were accused of havingaccused of having “Khmer bodies,“Khmer bodies, but Vietnamesebut Vietnamese heads.”heads.”  They wereThey were deported to otherdeported to other areas to be workedareas to be worked to death.to death.  They were markedThey were marked with a blue andwith a blue and white checkedwhite checked scarfscarf
  12. 12. Prevention: SymbolizationPrevention: Symbolization  Get ethnic, religious, racial, andGet ethnic, religious, racial, and national identities removed from IDnational identities removed from ID cards, passports.cards, passports.  Protest imposition of markingProtest imposition of marking symbols on targeted groups (yellowsymbols on targeted groups (yellow cloth on Hindus in Talibancloth on Hindus in Taliban Afghanistan).Afghanistan).  Protest negative or racist words forProtest negative or racist words for groups (“niggers, kaffirs,” etc.)groups (“niggers, kaffirs,” etc.) Work to make them culturallyWork to make them culturally unacceptable.unacceptable.
  13. 13. Stage 3: DehumanizationStage 3: Dehumanization  One group denies the humanity of another group, andOne group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the victim group seem subhuman.makes the victim group seem subhuman.  Dehumanization overcomes the normal humanDehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.revulsion against murder. .Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda: “The Solution for Tutsi Cockroaches” Der Stürmer Nazi Newspaper: “The Blood Flows; The Jew Grins”
  14. 14. DehumanizationDehumanization Caption: Does the same soul dwell in these bodies? From a Nazi SS Propaganda Pamphlet:
  15. 15. DehumanizationDehumanization  HateHate propaganda in speeches, print and on hate radiospropaganda in speeches, print and on hate radios vilify the victim group.vilify the victim group.  Members of the victim group are described asMembers of the victim group are described as animals,animals, vermin,vermin, andand diseasesdiseases.. Hate radio, Radio Télévision Libre desHate radio, Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, broadcastMille Collines, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, broadcast anti-Tutsi messages like “kill theanti-Tutsi messages like “kill the cockroachescockroaches” and “If this” and “If this diseasedisease is not treated immediately, it will destroy all the Hutu.”is not treated immediately, it will destroy all the Hutu.”  Dehumanization invokesDehumanization invokes superioritysuperiority of one group andof one group and inferiorityinferiority of the “other.”of the “other.”  Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it “Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it “ethnicethnic cleansingcleansing,” or “,” or “purificationpurification.” Such.” Such euphemismseuphemisms hidehide the horror of mass murder.the horror of mass murder.
  16. 16. Prevention:Prevention: DehumanizationDehumanization Vigorously protest use ofVigorously protest use of dehumanizing words that refer todehumanizing words that refer to people as “filth,” “vermin,” animalspeople as “filth,” “vermin,” animals or diseases. Deny people using suchor diseases. Deny people using such words visas and freeze their foreignwords visas and freeze their foreign assets and contributions.assets and contributions.  Prosecute hate crimes andProsecute hate crimes and incitements to commit genocide.incitements to commit genocide.  Jam or shut down hate radio andJam or shut down hate radio and television stations where there istelevision stations where there is danger of genocide.danger of genocide.
  17. 17. Prevention:Prevention: DehumanizationDehumanization  Provide programs for tolerance toProvide programs for tolerance to radio, TV, and newspapers.radio, TV, and newspapers.  Enlist religious and political leadersEnlist religious and political leaders to speak out and educate forto speak out and educate for tolerance.tolerance.  Organize inter-ethnic, interfaith,Organize inter-ethnic, interfaith, and inter-racial groups to workand inter-racial groups to work against hate and genocide.against hate and genocide.
  18. 18. Stage 4: OrganizationStage 4: Organization  Genocide is aGenocide is a groupgroup crime, so must becrime, so must be organizedorganized..  The state usually organizes, arms and financially supportsThe state usually organizes, arms and financially supports the groups that conduct the genocidal massacres. (Statethe groups that conduct the genocidal massacres. (State organization is not a legal requirement.)organization is not a legal requirement.)  Plans are made by elites for a “final solution” of genocidalPlans are made by elites for a “final solution” of genocidal killings.killings.
  19. 19. Organization (Rwanda)Organization (Rwanda)  ““Hutu Power” elitesHutu Power” elites armed youth militiasarmed youth militias calledcalled InterahamweInterahamwe ("Those Who Stand("Those Who Stand Together”).Together”).  The government andThe government and Hutu PowerHutu Power businessmen providedbusinessmen provided the militias with overthe militias with over 500,000 machetes500,000 machetes and other arms andand other arms and set up camps to trainset up camps to train them to “protectthem to “protect their villages” bytheir villages” by exterminating everyexterminating every Tutsi.Tutsi.
  20. 20. Prevention: OrganizationPrevention: Organization  Treat genocidal groups as the organizedTreat genocidal groups as the organized crime groups they are. Make membershipcrime groups they are. Make membership in them illegal and demand that theirin them illegal and demand that their leaders be arrested.leaders be arrested.  Deny visas to leaders of hate groups andDeny visas to leaders of hate groups and freeze their foreign assets.freeze their foreign assets.  Impose arms embargoes on hate groupsImpose arms embargoes on hate groups and governments supporting ethnic orand governments supporting ethnic or religious hatred.religious hatred.  Create UN commissions to enforce suchCreate UN commissions to enforce such arms embargoes and call on UN membersarms embargoes and call on UN members to arrest arms merchants who violateto arrest arms merchants who violate them.them.
  21. 21. Stage 5: PolarizationStage 5: Polarization  Extremists drive the groups apart.Extremists drive the groups apart.  Hate groups broadcast and print polarizing propaganda.Hate groups broadcast and print polarizing propaganda.  Laws are passed that forbid intermarriage or socialLaws are passed that forbid intermarriage or social interaction.interaction.  Political moderates are silenced, threatened andPolitical moderates are silenced, threatened and intimidated, and killed.intimidated, and killed. •Public demonstrations were organized against Jewish merchants. • Moderate German dissenters were the first to be arrested and sent to concentration camps.
  22. 22. PolarizationPolarization  Attacks areAttacks are staged andstaged and blamed onblamed on targeted groups.targeted groups. In Germany, the ReichstagIn Germany, the Reichstag fire was blamed on Jewishfire was blamed on Jewish Communists in 1933.Communists in 1933.  Cultural centersCultural centers of targetedof targeted groups aregroups are attacked.attacked. On Kristalnacht in 1938,On Kristalnacht in 1938, hundreds of synagogueshundreds of synagogues were burned.were burned.
  23. 23. Prevention: PolarizationPrevention: Polarization  Vigorously protest laws or policies thatVigorously protest laws or policies that segregate or marginalize groups, or thatsegregate or marginalize groups, or that deprive whole groups of citizenship rights.deprive whole groups of citizenship rights.  Physically protect moderate leaders, byPhysically protect moderate leaders, by use of armed guards and armoreduse of armed guards and armored vehicles.vehicles.  Demand the release of moderate leadersDemand the release of moderate leaders if they are arrested. Demand and conductif they are arrested. Demand and conduct investigations if they are murdered.investigations if they are murdered.  Oppose coups d’état (gov’t overthrow) byOppose coups d’état (gov’t overthrow) by extremists.extremists.
  24. 24. Stage 6: PreparationStage 6: Preparation  Members of victimMembers of victim groups are forced togroups are forced to wearwear identifyingidentifying symbolssymbols..  Death listsDeath lists areare made.made.  Victims areVictims are separatedseparated becausebecause of their ethnic orof their ethnic or religious identity.religious identity.
  25. 25. PreparationPreparation  SegregationSegregation intointo ghettoesghettoes is imposed,is imposed, victims are forced intovictims are forced into concentrationconcentration camps.camps.  Victims are alsoVictims are also deported to famine-deported to famine- struck regions forstruck regions for starvationstarvation.. Forced Resettlement into Ghettos – Poland 1939 - 1942
  26. 26. PreparationPreparation  WeaponsWeapons for killingfor killing are stock-piled.are stock-piled.  ExterminationExtermination campscamps are evenare even built. This build- upbuilt. This build- up of killing capacity is aof killing capacity is a major step towardsmajor step towards actual genocide.actual genocide.
  27. 27. Prevention: PreparationPrevention: Preparation  With evidence of death lists, armsWith evidence of death lists, arms shipments, militia training, and trialshipments, militia training, and trial massacres, a Genocide Alert should bemassacres, a Genocide Alert should be declared.declared.  UN Security Council should warn it willUN Security Council should warn it will act (but only if it reallyact (but only if it really willwill act.)act.) Diplomats must warn potentialDiplomats must warn potential perpetrators.perpetrators.  Humanitarian relief should be prepared.Humanitarian relief should be prepared.  Military intervention forces should beMilitary intervention forces should be organized, including logistics andorganized, including logistics and financing.financing.
  28. 28. Stage 7: ExterminationStage 7: Extermination (Genocide)(Genocide)  ExterminationExtermination begins, andbegins, and becomes thebecomes the mass killingmass killing legally calledlegally called ""genocidegenocide."." Most genocide isMost genocide is committed bycommitted by governments.governments. Einsatzgrupen: Nazi Killing Squads
  29. 29. Extermination (Genocide)Extermination (Genocide) Government organized extermination of Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994
  30. 30. Extermination (Genocide)Extermination (Genocide) Roma (Gypsies) in a Nazi death camp •The killing is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe the victims are fully human. They are “cleansing” the society of impurities, disease, animals, vermin, “cockroaches,” or enemies.
  31. 31. Extermination (Genocide)Extermination (Genocide)  Although most genocideAlthough most genocide is sponsored andis sponsored and financed by the state, thefinanced by the state, the armed forces often workarmed forces often work with local militias.with local militias. Rwandan militia killing squads Nazi killing squad working with local militia
  32. 32. Extermination: StoppingExtermination: Stopping GenocideGenocide  Regional organizations, nationalRegional organizations, national governments, and the UN Securitygovernments, and the UN Security Council should impose targeted sanctionsCouncil should impose targeted sanctions to undermine the economic viability of theto undermine the economic viability of the perpetrator regime.perpetrator regime.  Sales of oil and imports of gasoline shouldSales of oil and imports of gasoline should be stopped by blockade of ports and landbe stopped by blockade of ports and land routes.routes.  Perpetrators should be indicted by thePerpetrators should be indicted by the International Criminal Court.International Criminal Court.
  33. 33. Extermination: StoppingExtermination: Stopping GenocideGenocide  The UN Security Council should authorizeThe UN Security Council should authorize armed intervention by regional militaryarmed intervention by regional military forces or by a UN force under Chapterforces or by a UN force under Chapter Seven of the UN Charter.Seven of the UN Charter.  The Mandate must include protection ofThe Mandate must include protection of civilians and humanitarian workers and a Nocivilians and humanitarian workers and a No Fly Zone.Fly Zone.  The Rules of Engagement must be robust andThe Rules of Engagement must be robust and include aggressive prevention of killing.include aggressive prevention of killing.  The major military powers must provideThe major military powers must provide leadership, logistics, airlift, communications,leadership, logistics, airlift, communications, and financing.and financing.  If the state where the genocide is underwayIf the state where the genocide is underway will not permit entry, its UN membershipwill not permit entry, its UN membership
  34. 34. Stage 8: DenialStage 8: Denial  Denial is always found in genocide, bothDenial is always found in genocide, both during it and after it.during it and after it.  Continuing denial is among the surestContinuing denial is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres.indicators of further genocidal massacres.  Denial extends the crime of genocide toDenial extends the crime of genocide to future generations of the victims. It is afuture generations of the victims. It is a continuation of the intent to destroy thecontinuation of the intent to destroy the group.group.  The tactics of denial are predictable.The tactics of denial are predictable.
  35. 35. Denial: Deny the Evidence.Denial: Deny the Evidence.  Deny that there was any massDeny that there was any mass killing at all.killing at all.  Question and minimize theQuestion and minimize the statistics.statistics.  Block access to archives andBlock access to archives and witnesses.witnesses.
  36. 36. Denial: Deny the EvidenceDenial: Deny the Evidence  Destroy the evidence. (Burn theDestroy the evidence. (Burn the bodies and the archives, dig up andbodies and the archives, dig up and burn the mass graves, throw bodiesburn the mass graves, throw bodies in rivers or seas.)in rivers or seas.) Holocaust Death-Camp Crematoria
  37. 37. Denial: Attack the truth-Denial: Attack the truth- tellers.tellers.  Attack the motives of the truth-Attack the motives of the truth- tellers. Say they are opposed to thetellers. Say they are opposed to the religion, ethnicity, or nationality ofreligion, ethnicity, or nationality of the deniers (“Conspiracythe deniers (“Conspiracy theorists”)theorists”)  Point out atrocities committed byPoint out atrocities committed by people from the truth-tellers’people from the truth-tellers’ group. Imply they are morallygroup. Imply they are morally disqualified to accuse thedisqualified to accuse the perpetrators.perpetrators.
  38. 38. Denial: Deny GenocidalDenial: Deny Genocidal Intent.Intent.  Claim that the deaths wereClaim that the deaths were inadvertent (due to famine,inadvertent (due to famine, migration, or disease).migration, or disease).  Blame “out of control” forces forBlame “out of control” forces for the killings.the killings.  Blame the deaths on ancient ethnicBlame the deaths on ancient ethnic conflicts.conflicts.
  39. 39. Denial: Blame the Victims.Denial: Blame the Victims.  Emphasize the strangeness of theEmphasize the strangeness of the victims. They are not like us.victims. They are not like us. (savages, infidels)(savages, infidels)  Claim they were disloyal insurgentsClaim they were disloyal insurgents in a war.in a war.  Call it a “civil war,” not genocide.Call it a “civil war,” not genocide.  Claim that the deniers’ group alsoClaim that the deniers’ group also suffered huge losses in the “war.”suffered huge losses in the “war.” The killings were in self-defense.The killings were in self-defense.
  40. 40. Denial: Deny facts fit legal definitionDenial: Deny facts fit legal definition genocide.genocide. They’re crimes against humanity, notThey’re crimes against humanity, not genocide.genocide.  They’re “ethnic cleansing”, notThey’re “ethnic cleansing”, not genocide.genocide.  There’s not enough proof of specificThere’s not enough proof of specific intent to destroy a group, “as such.”intent to destroy a group, “as such.” (“Many survived!”-(“Many survived!”- UN Commission of Inquiry on Darfur.)UN Commission of Inquiry on Darfur.)  Claim the only “real” genocides are likeClaim the only “real” genocides are like the Holocaust: “in whole.”the Holocaust: “in whole.” (Ignore the “in part” in the Genocide(Ignore the “in part” in the Genocide Convention.)Convention.)  Claim declaring genocide would legallyClaim declaring genocide would legally obligate us to intervene. (We don’t wantobligate us to intervene. (We don’t want
  41. 41. Why has the UN not stoppedWhy has the UN not stopped genocide ?genocide ?  Genocide succeeds when stateGenocide succeeds when state sovereignty blocks internationalsovereignty blocks international responsibility to protect.responsibility to protect.  The UN represents states, notThe UN represents states, not peoples.peoples.  Since founding of UN:Since founding of UN: Over 45 genocides and politicidesOver 45 genocides and politicides Over 70 million deadOver 70 million dead  Genocide prevention ≠ conflictGenocide prevention ≠ conflict
  42. 42. Prevention requires:Prevention requires: 1.Early warning 2. Rapid response 3. Courts for accountability
  43. 43. Genocide continues due to: •Lack of authoritative international institutions to predict it •Lack of ready rapid response forces to stop it UNAMIR peacekeeper in Rwanda, April 1994
  44. 44. Genocide continues due to: •Lack of political will to peacefully prevent it and to forcefully intervene to stop it UN Security Council votes to withdraw UNAMIR troops from Rwanda, April 1994
  45. 45. Prevention: Political WillPrevention: Political Will  Build an international massBuild an international mass movement tomovement to end genocide in thisend genocide in this centurycentury..  Organize civil society and human rightsOrganize civil society and human rights groups.groups.  Mobilize religious leaders of churches,Mobilize religious leaders of churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples.mosques, synagogues, and temples.  Put genocide education in curricula ofPut genocide education in curricula of every secondary school and university inevery secondary school and university in the world.the world.  Hold political leaders accountable. IfHold political leaders accountable. If they fail to act to stop genocide, votethey fail to act to stop genocide, vote them out of office.them out of office.
  46. 46. Never Again? Or Again andNever Again? Or Again and Again?Again?  How can we use the 8How can we use the 8 Stages of Genocide toStages of Genocide to develop more effectivedevelop more effective ways to prevent genocideways to prevent genocide in the future?in the future?  Even with early warning,Even with early warning, how can we achievehow can we achieve effective early response toeffective early response to prevent and stopprevent and stop genocide?genocide?